--Z3465159 (talk) 15:20, 6 June 2013 (EST) --Z3465159 (talk) 15:32, 30 May 2013 (EST) --Z3465159 (talk) 16:23, 23 May 2013 (EST) --Z3465159 (talk) 15:18, 16 May 2013 (EST) - Forgot to sign in on 9th of May, but I was here :) --Z3465159 (talk) 15:28, 18 April 2013 (EST) --Z3465159 (talk) 15:07, 11 April 2013 (EST) --Z3465159 (talk) 15:27, 28 March 2013 (EST) --Z3465159 (talk) 15:40, 21 March 2013 (EST) --Z3465159 (talk) 15:54, 14 March 2013 (EST)
Images of chromosome in nuclei derived from embryonic and adult fibroblasts, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and lymphocytes
Citation: 1 Laboratory of Genomic and Nuclear Health, Centre for Cell and Chromosome Biology, Division of Biosciences, School of Health Sciences and Social Care, Brunel University, Uxbridge,, West London UB8 3PH
2 School of Biosciences, University of Kent, Kent, CT2 7NJ, Canterbury
Copyright: © 2012 Foster et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.
This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Super resolution microscopy is a form of light microscopy. It allows capture of images with a higher resolution then the diffraction limit. It is useful particularly when investigating small and complicated microorganisms such as viruses. In one of the studies, that was carried in Medical School of Geneva in Switzerland, revealed the interaction of Tethrin by this microscopy technique. Tethrin is a cellular restriction factor that inhibits the release of several enveloped viruses. Human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1) accumulates and interacts with cellular proteins at the plasma membrane of infected cells. In this study they analyzed individual HIV-1 virions, viral assembly sites and the mechanism of tetherin by multicolour super-resolution microscopy. They used fully functional fluorescently labeled tetherin and viral proteins. Viral proteins within virions were visualized with nanometer resolution yielding new insight into the structure of the HIV-1. Then by super resolution analyses, it was recognized that tetherin was localized in clusters and were found at HIV-1 assembly sites. Overall, super-resolution microscopy technique contributed to this article’s findings such as analysis of authentic virions, virus budding sites and HIV-1 interactions with the anti-viral factor tetherin.
--Mark Hill (talk) 19:26, 2 May 2013 (EST) This description is fine, but there is no associated reference identified or cited here? This does not allow me to check whether your summary matches the paper findings and also impacts on the mark I can give you for this assessment item. See online tutorial Project Referencing.
 <pubmed>22046431</pubmed> Some of the regulators in cell division are mitogen, growth factors, cyclins and cyclins dependent kinases. Mitogen is a substance that stimulates cell division. The first mitogen-activated protein kinase to be discovered was ERK1 (MAPK3) in mammals in 1980s. After identification of the first member of MAPK family, six different MAPK cascades were then categorised in mammals such as ERK1/2, ERK3/ERK4, ERK5, ERK7/8, JNK and P38. A further study was carried by Meng Li, Jun Liu and Chiyu Zhang at Jiangsu University in China to investigate the evolutionary History of the vertebrate mitogen activated protein kinases’ family. Their experiment explains MAPK role in eukaryotic cellular regulation and shows a comparison between vertebrate MAPK family members and invertebrate MAPK family members. Interestingly according to their study the vertebrates had substantially more MAPK family members than invertebrates. This study is relevant to the history of regulation of cell division because it illustrates where the MAPK families were originated from particularly in vertebrates and how well they are conserved.
Maximum likelihood (ML) phylogenetic tree of the vertebrate MAPK family. The ML tree was constructed based on the protein sequences of the MAPK family using PHYML v2.4 with 100 bootstrap replications. The tree is unrooted and only the bootstrap values >70% are shown at interior nodes. The MAPK protein sequences from mammals, amphibians/reptiles and teleosts are marked in blue, green and red, respectively. The scale bar indicates the branch length that corresponds to 0.2 substitutions per site. The species and accession numbers are listed in Table S1. The corresponding amino acid sequence alignment is provided in Figure S2. The abbreviations used are as follows: Hsa, Homo sapiens; Mamu, Macaca mulatta; Ptr, Pan troglodytes; Mumu, Mus musculus; Rno, Rattus norvegicus; Oan, Ornithorhynchus anatinus; Mdo, Monodelphis domestica; Bta, Bos taurus; Clu, Canis lupus familiaris; Eca, Equus caballus; Oar, Ovis aries; Ssc, Sus scrofa; Dre, Danio rerio; Gga, Gallus gallus; Tgu, Taeniopygia guttata; Gac, Gasterosteus aculeatus; Orl, Oryzias latipes; Tru, Takifugu rubripes; Tni, Tetraodon nigroviridis; Aca, Anolis carolinensis; Xtr, Xenopus tropicalis; Ttr, Tursiops truncatus; Cin, Ciona intestinalis; Csa, Ciona savignyi; Spu, Strongylocentrotus purpuratus.
Copyright Li et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
- Note - This image was originally uploaded as part of a student project and may contain inaccuracies in either description or acknowledgements. Please contact the site coordinator if the uploaded content does not meet the original copyright permission or requirements, for immediate removal.
 <pubmed>11734586</pubmed> Cyclins are from the family of proteins that are involved in regulation of cell division. They control the progression of cells through the cell cycle by activating cyclin dependent kinases enzymes. It is evident in one of the articles written by Ken Garber that cyclins were discovered by Timothy Hunt in 1983. Timothy Hunt was studying the fertilization of sea urchin eggs and while he was measuring the level of proteins in newly fertilized eggs, he found one protein that shortly disappeared at the end of cell division and then gradually appeared again as eggs began the next round of division. He named this protein as “cyclin” and concluded that this protein was driving the cell cycle. Also it was proven further by Hunt and other scientists that making and destroying cyclin were essential for cell division. Thus, this article outlines the historical research of the cell cycle and its regulators such as cyclin, therefore it is relevant to the topic “regulation of cell division” because it explains how they were discovered and why they are still an important factor in the subject of cell cycle.
 <pubmed>3306916</pubmed> At the beginning of 1950s, the discovery of growth factors were established. Nerve growth factors were one of the first growth-regulating signal substances that was discovered by Rita Levi-Montalcini. The article named “The Nerve Growth Factor 35 Years Later” shows evidence about the work of Rita Levi-Montalcini. In 1952 Rita showed when tumors from mice were transplanted into chick embryos, they induced strong growth of the chick embryo nervous system. This outgrowth did not require direct contact between the tumor and the chick embryo. Therefore she concluded that the tumor released a nerve growth- promoting factor which had a specific action on certain types of nerves. This article supports and proves that growth factors are naturally occurring substances that can effect cell division by binding to the receptors of the target cell. It also give information about the first founder of growth factors and the time of the discovery.
 <pubmed>16551699</pubmed> In 2001 Leland Hartwell, Timothy Hunt and Paul Nurse won the Nobel Prize in Physiology and medicine for their discovery of 2 classes of regulatory molecules cyclins and cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs). CDKs are constitutively expressed in cells, whereas cyclins are synthesized at specific stages of cell cycle. CDK inhibitory proteins prevent the development of cell cycle because they include genes such as P21 that stops cell cycle. One of the studies that has been carried in this field is the research on “Spatiotemporal dynamics of p21CDKN1A protein recruitment to DNA-damage sites and interaction with proliferating cell nuclear antigen”. This article explains specifically the role of P21 protein inhibitor as well as the other historical aspects of the protein inhibitor P21 with other scientists and how they performed experiments to investigate its role in cellular pathways.
Identify an antibody against an adhesion junction protein that is commercially available.
Anti-K Cadherin antibody (ab64917)
Add a link to the original data sheet page and identify the type of adhesion junction.
Cadherin is a class of type-1 transmembrane protein. Its role in cell adhesion is to ensure cells within the tissues are connected together. It is dependent on calcium ions to function, therefore it is named for “calcium-dependent adhesion”. Cadherin can be classified into, classical, desmosomal, protocadherins, and unconventional groups. K-Cadherin is from unconventional group. It is a protein that is encoded by the CDH6 gene in humans. Its encoded membrane protein is composed of five extracellular cadherin repeats, a transmembrane region and a highly conserved cytoplasmic tail. Expression of this gene has been detected in hepatocellular and renal carcinoma cell lines, suggesting a possible role in metastasis and invasion.
Include the following information: type of antibody (polyclonal, monoclonal), species raised in, species reacts against, types of application uses, and if available any reference using that antibody.
Type of antibody: Polyclonal
Species raised in: Rabbit
Species reacts against: Human
Types of application uses: Western Blotting, ELISA
Reference using that antibody: has not yet been referenced specifically in any publications
Critical peer assessment of the six other group projects (excluding Group 1).
Introduction describes clearly what cytokinesis is about. The picture is very eye catching! Which makes the reader to continue and read what it is all about. History table is referenced correctly and contains list of events but need to mention few more key events. The Assembly of the central Spindle section is very detail and gives enough information. Linking the terms was a great idea. It is suggested to include more diagrams, since there are presents of detail information for each process and subheadings. Current/future research was presented clearly with the relevant journal articles. Image section should not be left empty. And the glossary seems really helpful for understanding some of the complex terms.
Introduction stated the purpose of the project evidently. The information for “structure” was concise. The copyright information is missing for the picture of Golgi apparatus. Reading the “function” section was interesting and well written, especially with decent use of references. It is preferred to place the history table after the introduction. If a diagram or an image is included in “Models of Division” would more helpful. The rest of information on the page was detailed and well written, except there is a need to explain further the first point in the “limitation of current models” and may be include some of the unfamiliar terms in the glossary. Also few images not referenced correctly (the first image in morphology section and the image for current model for behavior).
Well written introduction, but may be to include citations is not a bad idea. History table and structure section is really detailed and great use of pictures. Mechanism of formation and current research are also structured well and had relevant images. May be to include one image at least underneath the “function” subheading. But overall this project seems that the members have put a lot of effort in to it, and so far this has been my favorite wikie page.
Group 5 The introduction gives a detail overview of the topic "nuclear envelope during cell division". May be if it is possible to fill the gap between 1967 and 1989 in the timeline. The content in this topic is represented well and in detail, however it looks like there are more texts but not enough diagrams to support it. For example a picture of the inner or outer nuclear membrane would be helpful to include. Some of the subheadings are quite long to read, how about turning some of them into question style? And may be finishing of the glossary. other than that, Referencing is all done well, group discussion and communication seems obvious in this project. Overall, great work guys!
Introduction has specific information, however if it clearly states what this project/page will cover would be better for the readers. Anaphase in mitosis and mioesis really breaks up and clears alot of concept!, so it is a good idea. Adding more events in the history table would show the development and roles of certain molecules or processes. I also don't understand what the image with "further history" heading supposed to mean?. As a reader I really liked how "current research" is formatted in a timeline, seems very organised. It would be useful to divide all text and research equally with subheadings. Further comments: absence of index at the start of the page makes it a bit complicated for the reader on where to find any specific information.
Introduction seems ok. May be replace the discovery table beneath the introduction. "Structure and function" of mitochandria is presented well in depth with relevent pictures however there is a need to reference in some parts such as "the citric acid cycle". If some or even one image is included in the section "during cell division" would make it more appealing for the reader.
Further comments: providing a short brief description under each image would help the reader as well as the student in understanding of this topic. Overall this project has suffieceint information and easy to comprehend.