- 1 My student page
- 2 homework from coordinator
- 2.1 Week 4 - Super-resolution microscopy
- 2.2 Week 5 - 4 mast cell related studies summarised with pictures
- 2.3 Attendance
- 2.4 Lab one assessment
- 2.5 Addition of prokaryote image
- 2.6 What have i learnt today? (10/4/16)
My student page
homework from coordinator
|This year's main topic is Blood Cell Biology. Each group should discuss with group members the specific sub-topic that will be covered by their project.
Here is a list of some of the cell types (Structure and Function)
Cell Type (PuMed citations)
|Group Assessment Criteria|
Group Assessment Criteria
|Individual Lab Assessments|
Week 4 - Super-resolution microscopy
SUMMARY: T-cells are highly mobile and have to travel relatively long distances within and outside the circulatory system whilst forming thousands of transient reactions with antigen presenting cells. Actin rearrangement is significant in the motility and extravasation of T cells. When T-cells bind to MHC to form an immunological synapse the spatio-temporal behaviour of the proteins change. For example, in the formation of micro and nano clusters.
Micro and nano clusters of proteins allow for dynamic control centers in the cell membrane. An example of these are the T cell receptors. However until now most of the information we have about these micro clusters have come from biochemical techniques but now with the advancements in super resolution microscopy, we can "see" beyond the previous diffraction limit to a resolution of 200nm.
The use of the super-resolution microscopy, in particular the single molecular localization microscope techniques, allowed researchers to get high quality data and to elucidate the 3 dimensional structures and even functions of the nano clusters, such as the TCRs and observe their behaviours temporally.
Summary: People who suffer from systemic mastocytosis have clinical manifestations that are characteristic of mast cell mediator release. A similar disorder called monoclonal mast cell activation sydrome (MCAS) has an unclarified clinical manifestation. Unlike mastocytosis the patient doesn’t have abnormally high levels of mast cells (MCs), rather, the MCs they have express chemical mediators excessively. The aim of the study was to determine the clinical manifestations of MCAS and to compare it against the recently proposed diagnostic criteria. The authors of the paper ruled out clonal MC disease and found lab data indicative of MC activation. Further, the patients responded to anti-MC therapy. This was part of the classification used in this experiment to include patients as MCAS sufferers (this criteria was pre-established by previous research). The clinical manifestations and diagnostic criteria were consistent with one another. Almost all patients had abdominal pain, dermatographism or flushing. The research suggested that MCAS should have a more significant clinical profile due to its excellent response to anti-MC mediators. There were, however, some limitations such as: it was a nonblind study and there is no consensus as to a reference standard for number of mucosal mast cells in GIT.
Summary: Poly-unsaturated fatty acids, such as some mast cell mediators, are involved in inflammation. Bronchial hyper-responsiveness (BHR) is a state of heightened sensitivity to bronchospasm that can occur as a result of mast cell mediator release in asthma and COPD. This study aimed to investigate whether dietary omega-3 PUFAs could inhibit mannitol-induced BHR. Mannitol induction of BHR mimics mast cell activation. The study was a randomize, double-blind, placebo controlled and crossover trial design. Patients suffered from asthma, did not smoke, and took omega-3s for 3 weeks. The omega 3 supplementation did not change the levels of mast cell pro-inflammatory mediator release. It is likely that it is more difficult to change the metabolic profile of mast cells than just by dietary intervention as the mast cell probably still has a significant reserve of pro-inflammatory lipids.
'Rapamycin-insensitive companion of mammalian target of rapamycin' (RICTOR) is a protein that regulates cell growth as a result of the presence nutrients and growth factors. This study showed that RICTOR can function as a negative regulator in igE induced mast cell degranulation, independent of other regulatory proteins like mTOR or mTOR2. They further showed at what stages in the molecular pathways the regulation took place. By analysing Ca2+ mobilisation and cytoskeletal rearrangement with confocal microscopy they were able to hypothesise that there was phosphorylation of certain proteins (LAT and PLCy1). They compared their results with a RICTOR knock-down model and found a decrease in igE induced degranulation
Summary: Estrogen seems to have protective effect on heart cells. It likely interacts via the receptor GPR30 which is expressed in the heart. Estrogen may even regulate components of hormone systems associated with the heart like the renin-angiotensin pathway. This study aimed to investigate whether the cardioprotective effects observed as a result of estrogen occur via GPR30. GPR30 has important regulatory roles in cardiac mast cell activity and proliferation. This experiment will be looking at the latter. The findings suggested that the effects of estrogen on cardiac mast cells/chymase/Ang II occur specifically through activation of GPR30 to decrease cardiac mast cell number. However, further investigations are needed for the exact mechanisms by which GPR30 affects cardiac mast cell number in vivo. Investigation in the mast cell GPR30/chymase/angII pathway could have therapeutic uses in postmenopausal women at risk of cardiovascular disease
Week 6 homework: cytoskeleton
notes: non-primary neurons used in lab. Use neuroblastoma line that have been immortalized. Primary neurons come directly from neuronal tissue of organism.
| | | | | | |
1.Anti-Mast cell antibody [MCG35]
3. i)monoclonal ii) mouse iii)reacts with humans iv)useful for mast cell identification in immunological reactions and hypersensitivity diseases. The antigen is found in granule components of mast cells.
references used: Rimmer EF & Horton MA Origin of human mast cells studied by dual immunofluorescence. Clin Exp Immunol 68:712-8 (1987). Read more (PubMed: 3308221) Rimmer EF et al. Human mast cells detected by monoclonal antibodies. J Clin Pathol 37:1249-55 (1984). Read more (PubMed: 6389604)
Z3463953 (talk) 11:55, 10 March 2016 (AEDT) Z3463953 (talk) 11:07, 17 March 2016 (AEDT) Z3463953 (talk) 11:20, 24 March 2016 (AEDT) Z3463953 (talk) Z3463953 (talk) 11:10, 14 April 2016 (AEST) was present lab on 7 th april as evident by my groups assessible CRISPR work Z3463953 (talk) 11:42, 21 April 2016 (AEST) Z3463953 (talk) 11:11, 28 April 2016 (AEST) Z3463953 (talk) 12:07, 5 May 2016 (AEST)
Lab one assessment
How to make an in-text citation
bacterial division protein FtsZ.
Addition of prokaryote image
Detection of Prokaryotic Genes in the Amphimedon queenslandica Genome
What have i learnt today? (10/4/16)
This beautiful morning i have spent the past hour enjoying the tasty luxury of learning about the programming involved in the creation of wikipages. It is quite an auspicious opportunity to spend such precious time among such rich company. Attendances, links and even subheadings have been mastered in this lab.