|This year's main topic is Blood Cell Biology. Each group should discuss with group members the specific sub-topic that will be covered by their project.
Here is a list of some of the cell types (Structure and Function)
Cell Type (PuMed citations)
|Group Assessment Criteria|
Group Assessment Criteria
|Individual Lab Assessments|
- 1 My Student Page
- 2 Attendance
- 3 Lab 1 Assessment
- 4 Lab 2 Assessment
- 5 Lab 3 Assessment
- 6 Lab 4 Assessment
- 7 Lab 5 Assessment
- 8 Lab 8 Assessment: Peer Reviews
- 9 References
My Student Page
I was here on the 21st April but forgot to add my attendance
Lab 1 Assessment
<pubmed>26756351</pubmed> BioMed Central
How to make an in-text citation
Bacterial division protein FtsZ
What I have learned this lab session
- I have learned how to create my own wiki page, in particular how to edit and format the page appropriately so that all links created or information I have added is neat, clear and concise (e.g. subheadings, one word phrases or word links to other sites etc)
- I also have a greater insight into research articles, the range of databases available as well as determining whether the information is reliable and can be used based on copyright notices. With this, I also understand the importance of referencing other works
- I have sufficient knowledge of all the resources available to me to search for my information, including links to textbook chapters, links to research journals, lectures and the library website
Assemblage of AlpC into filaments within the bacteria C. glutamicum upon CGP3 prophage induction
Lab 2 Assessment
Grobe et al sought to determine the mechanistic details underlying Bax‐induced mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilization, during apoptosis (intrinsic pathway). They explored this in vitro by inducing apoptosis in human U2OS cells as well as other human cell lines . Bax is pro-apoptotic member of the Bcl-2 protein family, following cellular stress and damage, it translocates from the cytosol and accumulates on the mitochondria. It then undergoes a conformational change, oligomerizes and becomes integrated into the outer mitochondrial membrane. Large clusters of Bax consequently form and begin to compromise the outer membrane. This ultimately leads to the release of pro-apoptotic proteins such as cytochrome c from the intermembrane space the cytosol .
Grobe et al used STED super‐resolution microscopy to visualise this process in finer detail. It was revealed that the Bax clusters are not completely inserted into the outer membrane, they are bound to the mitochondrial surface with only a small portion extending into the outer membrane. Furthermore, Bax was also shown to assemble into ring‐like structures (elongated and arc‐shaped arrangements) and demarcate portions of the outer mitochondrial membrane. It was noted that the interior of these structures lacked mitochondrial membrane proteins. This was a significant finding as it suggests the ring structures remodel the outer membrane and surround an opening. Grobe et al thus concluded that Bax rings must create large pores in order to carry out permeabilization of the outer mitochondrial membrane .
Lab 3 Assessment
Eosinophilic Inflammation in Allergic Asthma
This paper broadly explores the molecular events that lead to eosinophil recruitment in allergic asthma and their participation in airway hyper responsiveness and remodelling. It also provides a good overview of the immune response (and pathogenesis) upon allergen challenge, hence would be a suitable source of information for the sub-section concerning the role of eosinophils in disease .
Evidence suggests that Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) regulates the adhesion, distribution and morphologic changes in eosinophils. Whilst certain Leukotrienes (e.g. leukotriene B4 (LTB4)) promote the trafficking and recruitment of eosinophils to inflamed tissues and ensure their survival once there. According to the research, inhaled allergens activate mast cells and Th2 CD4+ lymphocytes to produce cytokines IL-13, IL-4, IL-5 and TNF-α. These stimulate epithelial cells, smooth muscle cells and fibroblasts to produce eotaxin. IL-5 regulates migration of eosinophils out of bone marrow, eotaxin directs their movement to lung tissue through blood vessels (via CC chemokine receptors CCR3) . Eosinophils then release granule proteins (e.g. eosinophil cationic protein and major basic protein) as well as other molecules such as leukotrienes and metalloproteinases. These are cytotoxic and induce further immune responses that lead to airway hyper-responsiveness and remodelling .
Research has also demonstrated that some leukotrienes are bronchoconstrictors and have been known to prolong the migration of eosinophils to the airways in allergic asthma . It has further been revealed that eosinophil recruitment occurs in the lung parenchyma as well. Lastly, whilst eosinophils play a major role in the pathogenesis of asthma, research shows they also play a crucial role in lung defence, through the direct regulation of T-cell activities .
The early history of the eosinophil
<pubmed>25544991</pubmed> This paper is particularly useful for the subsection on the history of the eosinophil as it presents a comprehensive timeline and findings regarding morphology, formation, function and fate of the eosinophil as well as important events that contributed to these discoveries. According Kay 2015 eosinophils where first identified and named by Paul Ehrlich during the 1870s due to the development of specific staining techniques for blood films. The most significant stain utilised was Eosin, a synthetic red dye discovered by Heinrich Caro, 1874. Eosin stains basic proteins due to its acidic properties and eosinophil granules possess a particularly high affinity for it. Kay 2015 stated that Ehrlich was able to describe the features of eosinophils in great detail as a result of this essential stain, for example alpha granules appeared spherical or as short rods with round ends. He also observed beta-granules in eosinophils derived from the bone marrow, most likely immature alpha granules. He further identified inconsistencies in the number of nuclear lobes and granules from one cell to another.
Ehrlich documented the distribution of eosinophils in tissues and their formation in bone marrow. According Kay 2015, Ehrlich accurately recognised that granules possessed secretory components and that eosinophils were somewhat responsible for the reactions seen in asthma, helminth infections and certain skin diseases. Kay 2015 highlights that there were many others that observed this cell before Ehrlich, Thomas Wharton Jones first noted granulated cells in human and animal blood specimens in 1846. Julius Vogel observed eosinophils in inflammatory exudates, whilst Max Johann Sigismund Schultze first observed the movements and phagocytic nature of these cells.
Eosinophil granules function extracellularly as receptor-mediated secretory organelles
<pubmed>19017810</pubmed> This paper is appropriate for the subsection on eosinophil function, it highlights a rather specific function of their intracellular components as opposed to the generalized function of the cell as a whole. The article particularly focuses on eosinophil granules and granule protein release extracellularly and further provides a perspective on the mechanisms that drive this protein release and how this process may contribute to the severity of an inflammatory response (during eosinophil associated disease).
Neves et al. observed that granules of eosinophils express receptors for cytokines and G protein coupled receptors (CCR3) for chemokines. They found that these receptors are located on the surface membranes of granules, and respond to external cytokines and chemokines by activating a signal-transduction pathway within granules. They also highlight that IFN-γ (cytokine) and eotaxin (chemokine) are responsible for stimulating the secretion of cationic proteins, enzymes and cytokines originating from granules.
Neves et al. suggest that this extracellular secretion process is regulated by the ability of granules to function as individual secretory vessels outside of eosinophils (in diseased tissue sites). This is how they may contribute to inflammation mediated by eosinophils and immunoregulation/immunomodulation.
IgE, Mast Cells, Basophils, and Eosinophils
<pubmed>20176269</pubmed> This article is relevant for the subsection on structure, the information in this article was derived from a broad range of investigations. It provides an overview of the major morphological features specific to eosinophils, with particular focus on granules, cytoplasmic components and surface markers. Stone et al. state that eosinophils possess a large bi-lobed nucleus, containing highly condensed chromatin within. Another specific feature that Stone et al. highlights are granules, there are two major types. Specific granules contain cationic proteins such as major basic protein, eosinophil peroxidase, eosinophil cationic protein and eosinophil-derived neurotoxin. These proteins give eosinophils their distinct staining property. Primary granules on the other hand, possess Charcot-Leyden crystal proteins . Stone et al. also draw attention to lipid bodies that reside in the cytoplasm (not membrane bound) which contain eicosanoid synthetic enzymes and from rapidly after eosinophil activation.
Stone et al. specifies many of the cell surface markers present on eosinophils, some of these include cytokine receptors (IL-3R, IL-5R, GM-CSF) which promote their development, Immunoglobulin receptors (IgA, IgG); complement receptors (CR3, CD88) as well as receptors for chemokines (CCR1 and CCR3) and many other receptor molecules .
Lab 4 Assessment
Lab 5 Assessment
- Type of group blood cell protein: Eosinophil Peroxidase
- Type of antibody: Monoclonal
- Species raised in: Mouse
- Species reacts against: Human
- Types of application uses: ELISA (EIA), Flow Cytometry (FC/FACS), Immunofluorescence (IF), Immunohistology (IH)
Lab 8 Assessment: Peer Reviews
Group 1: Megakaryocytes
- Each section clearly set out with appropriate subsection headings that cover a good range of topics
- Logical flow, easy to read and understand, little grammatical/spelling errors
- Good use of images however they could be a little bigger on page and more images are needed especially for the section on structure (cartoon or drawn). Apart from the histological images, a better image of a megakaryocyte is needed as well as one for platelets. This will also help break up the blocks of information.
- A table that sets out the different surface markers present on megakaryocytes could be included, although some signalling pathways have been mentioned, this would be a good summary.
- Introduction, good overview of what megakaryocytes are and what they do
- History probably a bit too detailed, some points are not as important as others, focus more on the major discoveries.
- Great use of video for pathology, however could probably written on the page itself (brief overview of pathogenesis for each disorder)
- Development/ maturation and function are well explained
- The inclusion of current research and glossary are clever
Group 2: Red Blood Cells
- Headings are appropriate and cover important topics
- Overall interesting but too many blocks of writing, needs to be broken up with more images as well as tables to summarise the information. I don’t think everything needs to be mentioned in such great detail as it becomes tedious to read.
- Images important for sections on structure, function and disease, these really need to be visualised. Histology images and cartoon images could be used for structure and diagrams could be drawn for RBC function and processes in disease
- Some inappropriate choices of words (e.g. “global ramifications within the body”) and in certain paragraphs, sentences can be too wordy, making it difficult to understand and follow on with the information (e.g. section on function).
- The introduction is good however too much repetition of the same information in latter sections e.g. lack of nuclei, this is mentioned several times in structure as well as other characteristics of RBCs. There is also no need to go into too much detail about disorders
- History good coverage of discoveries that are significant to the topic
- Synthesis and regulation, clear and well ordered, good diagram as well
Group 3: B Lymphocytes
- Order of the topics is well thought out, each topic flows well with the next
- History is too short, perhaps include some more recent discoveries
- A lot of detail for development but great explanation
- Location and activation: needs visuals of the lymph nodes, to show where B cells reside, could include a short video for B cell activation and interaction with T cells
- Type of b cells: well written and easy to follow
- Structure: too much information, dot points are better especially for the overview
- Function: offers a good, simple explanation however section on antibody isotypes could be placed into a table for aesthetic purposes. An image of a labelled antibody would also be appropriate in this section as well as diagram depicting how they are produced
- Disease: what is there is good, could offer a couple more examples of specific diseases
- Referencing: I noticed large paragraphs where references weren’t provided and the reference list was quite short considering all the information ono the page.
- Applications- can include more recent developments/current research avenues
- It would be good to include a glossary, some terms I had never come across e.g. anergic, opsonisation etc.
Group 4: Natural Killer Cells
- Minor spelling errors throughout however a problem with wording in some parts and sentence structure
- Good introduction
- History could include more recent discoveries
- Perhaps add a separate section on development to give more background information and complete the whole story, this can be added before structure
- Include approximate size of NK cells, other morphological characteristics, set out surface molecules in a table and summarise their function. Also need better image of a NK cell
- Whilst the information is there and I can see where it is going, it doesn’t read well, revise some of the paragraphs
- Function, specifically explain the three main functions listed (cytokinesis, cytotoxicity etc.). They were mentioned but they could be elaborated on, in saying this the rest of the information under function is explained well and in sufficient detail
- Great information on diseases, good use of examples and summary table
- RA could be simplified further however the rest of the information is clear and concise
- More images wherever a process is explained e.g. apoptosis of target cells due to perforin
Group 5: Mast Cells
- Good layout and balance between text and visuals, good idea to include links to other useful information sources
- Very few spelling/grammar errors, well set out paragraphs
- Used an array of sources to derive information
- Great information on morphology however function is generalised and I think further elaboration is needed, possibly use more subheadings under function. Origin could also be cut down ads there was some repetition of information.
- Images used in this section are appropriate and explain differentiation from haematopoietic stem cells as well as locations in tissues
- Could go into information such as signalling pathways and surface molecules/receptors, these were mentioned briefly but would be good to add
- Great explanation for pathology and overview of diseases, good to focus on one major disease associated with mast cells (providing treatment, signs, symptoms etc.) and then briefly explain some other disorders
Group 6: T lymphocytes
- Good use of subheadings, coverage of topics and very thorough information however I found it very hard to get through at times, too many blocks of text and not enough tables, images or flow charts to cut through it. Some sections need to be summarised further into dot points, need to be careful as less can be more.
- It is also difficult to understand the style of writing at times
- Some sections are overly complicated (development, recombination events) think of the target audience
- Great range of sources and use of videos to explain and simplify difficult concepts
- The focus on current research and links to research groups was an excellent idea
- <pubmed> 21458670</pubmed>
- <pubmed> PMC3627984</pubmed>
- <pubmed> 14561170</pubmed>