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<pubmed limit=5>Sodium sulfate</pubmed>
Copyright: © 2011 Dempwolff et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
Image of Nuclear membranes
© 2009 Garnier-Lhomme et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
Super-Resolution Microscopy Strategies in Cell Biology Using a Spinning Disk Microscope
Hosny N.A. et al. (2013) present a comparative study of super-resolution microscopy strategies using two methods of super-resolution microscopy; Photoactivation Light-Microscopy (PALM) and Stochastic Optical Reconstruction Microscopy (STORM), in conjunction with Spinning disk super-resolution imaging (SDSI) or Structured Illumination microscopy (SIM) and differing image analysis algorithms (RainSTORM, QuickPALM, GLRT, SOFI, 3B, Deconvolution-STORM (DeconSTORM), and Faster-STORM). Standard confocal microscopy has a resolution limit of 200nm, which has prevented further research into small molecular structures e.g. nuclear ultrastructure. Super-resolution microscopy has bypassed this resolution limit (described by Abbe's Law) and allowed for observation of structures as small as 30nm in size.
The study suggests that; 1) Multi-spectral SDSI can collect super-resolution images with good signal-to-noise (S/N), resolved in any selected axial plane within a cell. 2) PALM and STORM can both be used separately or in conjunction to produce super-resolution data. 3) SOFI has the best retention of image intensity information and provides the most accurate data reconstruction, in terms of spatially assigning all of the emission data found in the original images. 4) SIM was more appropriate for imaging 3D structures. 5) PALM/STORM SDSI could generate higher resolved data than SIM for single plane imaging dependent on the image processing algorithm used
Research on trans-endocytosis; Trans-endocytosis is a process whereby material created in one cell is incorporated into another cell through endocytosis.
Trans-endocytosis of CD47 and SHPS-1 and its role in regulation of the CD47–SHPS-1 system
<pubmed>18349073</pubmed> This article looks at trans-endocytosis of transmembrane proteins CD47 and SHPS-1. The study suggests that CD47 and SHPS-1 interaction initiates the transfer of CD47 from CD47-expressing cells to neighboring SHPS-1-expressing cells followed by the internalization of the ligand-receptor complex into the SHPS-1-expressing cells. SHPS-1 was found to undergo trans-endocytosis from SHPS-1-expressing cells to neighboring CD47-expressing cells, suggesting that trans-endocytosis of CD47 and SHPS-1 occurs bidirectionally. The study suggests that CD47 trans-endocytosis is implicated in the regulation of the CD47–SHPS-1 system.
This article is relevant to the sub-topic of trans-endocytosis as it describes the mechanism and physiological roles of endocytosis and gives a specific example of trans membrane protein trans-endocytosis.
Trans-Endocytosis of CD80 and CD86: A Molecular Basis for the Cell-Extrinsic Function of CTLA-4
Qureshi et al. (2011) investigate the cell-extrinsic mechanisms of Cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen 4 (CTLA-4). CTLA-4 is thought to be an important factor in the prevention of autoimmune disease. Trans-endocytosis of CD80 and CD86 (ligands shared by both CLTA-4 and CD28, a stimulatory receptor) inhibits co-stimulation of CD28. The study suggests trans-endocytosis as a possible cell-extrinsic model of CLTA-4 function whereby co-stimulatory ligands are removed from antigen presenting cells (APCs).
This study is relevant as it outlines a mechanism whereby trans-endocytosis is used to inhibit co-stimulation of another cell. The study also shows that trans-endocytosis can play a regulatory role in autoimmune diseases.
β-Arrestin1 Mediates the Endocytosis and Functions of Macrophage Migration Inhibitory Factor
Xie et al. (2011) investigate the effects of Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) and β-Arrestin on MIF endocytosis. The study suggests that MIF utilises β-arrestin1 as a molecular scaffold to maintain integrity and specificity of signalling.
This study relates endocytosis to cytokines and chemical mediators involved regulating inflammatory and immune responses.