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this is awesome

This is about prokaryote. [1]

This is also about prokaryotes. [2]

<pubmed limit=2>mitochondria</pubmed>


Ecoli [3]


Lab 2 Individual Assessment

Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy for Detection of Schistosoma mansoni Eggs in the Gut of Mice[5]

PLoS One

Schistosoma mansoni Eggs in the Gut of Mice[6]


Protein in the nucleus and cytoplasm of S. mansoni cells[7]

As the name of the journal entails, confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) is used and compared to other imaging techniques. The aim is to detect Schistosoma mansoni eggs in the gut of mice and conclude whether CLSM is a viable and more effective and efficient method than other imagine techniques.

Schistosoma mansion eggs are direct indicators of schistosomiasis. schistosomiasis infects the urinary tract or intestines. Symptoms may include: abdominal pains, diarrhea, bloody stool, or blood in the urine. For long term sufferers and late diagnosis the effects can be liver damage, kidney failure, infertility, or bladder cancer.

The current and best way to detect schistosomiasis is detecting eggs which possess a characteristic spine from urine, stool, or rectal and bladder biopsy specimens. As sound as the current methods are, urine and stool samples do not always test positively to indicate schistosomiasis due to the viability of eggs. The dissected specimen undergoes various staining methods which can reveal different levels of egg maturity.

The results showed CLSM had a much better detection rate of all different egg maturities and thus, can be used as a more effective method of detecting schistosomiasis.

Lab 3 Individual Assessment

Mechanism of axonal transport: a proposed role for calcium ions[8]


A good article as to the introduction of the mechanisms for axonal transport. Macromolecules and organelles are transported in a systems known as axonal or dendritic transport. This study looked at transport of protein in a calcium free medium to conclude that calcium plays a role in the initiation of axonal transport.

Relation of somal lipid synthesis to the fast axonal transport of protein and lipid[9]

Science Direct

This study inhibited phospholipid synthesis in dorsal root ganglia to show a decreased proportional effect on amount of protein undergoing fast axonal transport. Exposing an unmyelinated nerve trunk to a certain cation had no effect on protein translocation. This helps conclude that phospholipid synthesis is not required to maintain ongoing transport in the axon. Inhibiting cholesterol synthesis in the ganglia also resulted in depression of protein transport. So both phospholipid and cholesterol are required at the level of the ganglion. Drawing from these results they suggested that the initiation of fast axonal transport of protein is dependent on the assembly of lipoprotein structures in the soma.

Axonal transport of microtubules: the long and short of it[10]


Specific to the transport of microtubules. The study proposes a model as to how microtubules are transported within the axon, which they term 'cut and run'. Longer microtubules are mobilized by enzymes that sever them into shorter mobile polymers. Previous studies have already shown that microtubules are transported down the axon in the form of these short polymers. The shorter microtubules are transported via cytoplasmic dynein by generating forces against the actin cytoskeleton. This was one mechanism thought to be transporting shorter microtubules after they were 'cut'. The study then talks about what mechanisms organise the longer microtubules to be then cut and transported.

Hippocampal neurons are differentiated and present distinct morphology for both the axon and dendrites[11]

Molecular motors and mechanisms of directional transport in neurons[12]


This article studies the role of motor proteins in directional axonal and dendritic transport and the mechanisms associated with them. As a basis, motors proteins seem to recognise cargoes of mRNAs and large protein–RNA complexes through adaptor complexes or scaffolding proteins. Motors can intrinsically distinguish between axons and dendrites, perhaps as a result of cues from microtubules.

Lab 4 Individual Assessment

1. Identify an antibody against an adhesion junction protein that is commercially available.

2. Add a link to the original data sheet page and identify the type of adhesion junction.

3. Include the following information: type of antibody (polyclonal, monoclonal), species raised in, species reacts against, types of application uses, and if available any reference using that antibody.

Lab 4 Assessment

Identify an antibody that can been used in your group's transport project.

Identify the species deriving the antibody.

Identify the working concentration for the antibody.

Identify a secondary antibody that could be used with this antibody.

Identify a paper that has used this antibody.


  1. <pubmed>24603758</pubmed>
  2. <pubmed>24601599</pubmed>
  3. <pubmed>24603758</pubmed>
  4. <pubmed>24637574</pubmed>
  5. <pubmed>21533168</pubmed>
  6. <pubmed>21533168</pubmed>
  7. <pubmed>21887276</pubmed>
  8. <pubmed>47182</pubmed>
  9. <pubmed>6155973</pubmed>
  10. <pubmed>16643272</pubmed>
  11. <pubmed>23894274</pubmed>
  12. <pubmed>15711600</pubmed>