- 1 Lab Attendance
- 2 Lab 1
- 3 Individual Assessments
- 4 Lab 1 Individual Assessment
- 5 Lab 2 Individual Assessment
- 6 Lab 3 Paraformaldehyde
- 7 Lab 3 Individual Assessment
- 8 Lab 5 Individual Assessment
- 9 Lab 6 Individual Assessment
- 10 Lab 9 Assessment
- 11 Lab 10 Peer Review Assessment
- 12 Lab 12 Assessment
Lab 1-- See "Lab 1"
Note: Lab was attended on 30 April 2015 however, attendance was not lodged.
Lab 1 Individual Assessment
Compartmentation differences in Prokaryotes and Eukaryote
This is an open-access article subject to a non-exclusive license between the authors and Frontiers Media SA, which permits use, distribution and reproduction in other forums, provided the original authors and source are credited and other Frontiers conditions are complied with
Lab 2 Individual Assessment
A microfluidic platform for correlative live-cell and super-resolution microscopy
In this article the researchers looked at many avenues to reach high resolution images that produce little or no diffraction. One of the subdivisions of super resolution microscopy they looked at was stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy (STORM), this form of microscopy enabled subcellular structures to be seen beyond what previous models of the microscope were only able to offer- fixed cells that were captured on slow time scales with and images were diffused. STORM imaging overcomes this with nanoscale spatial resolution and single molecule localization, a photoswitchable fluorphore, which acts as a marker to highlight an area of interest. When multiple flurophores are activated the accumulation of different images at different sites such as proteins and cell organelles are able to be seen at spatial resolutions of up to 20nm such as with the mitochondria they were able to achieve.
Much of this research concentrated on correlative imaging of the powerhouse of cells- mitochondria in terms of their dynamics, size, and distribution by adding a microfluidic platform in the STORM mechanism. This in turn increased the resolution to an unprecedented resolution through by an injecting a fluid into the microfluidic platform, into the device and delivering a specific amount of fluid at a specific time. This resulted in live-cell time-lapse imaging in superior resolution. The fact that this technique allows for live-cell time lapse imaging allows less time to be consumed by the researcher as it is less labour intensive, the technicalities of conducting experiments using STORM are less challenging as there are not as many steps required and less human input is needed by this system.
Lab 3 Paraformaldehyde
Lab 3 Individual Assessment
Changes in the structure-function relationship of elastin and its impact on the proximal pulmonary arterial mechanics of hypertensive calves 
Elastin is commonly found in the arteries due to the high pressure of blood coming from the heart, and its function to supply oxygenated blood to all organs, its elasticity is important due to enormous pressure it needs to withstand. Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) causes stiffness in these arteries affecting the ability for these arteries to stretch and maintain a relatively constant pressure with high blood flow. This article looks at the structure and function of this relationship in PAH and the mechanobiological adaptations that are undergone by elastic arteries in response to PAH.
Comparison between human fetal and adult skin 
Elastin is important in adults for restoring backing the normal tissue architecture example pinching of skin. According to this research, extracellular components such as elastin are important in the scarless healing process that takes places in on early fetal gestation. The role that elastin or another name, tropoelastin is investigated. Elastin is not found in fetal skin up till week 22. Although it is not a primary extracellular component for scarless healing in fetal wounds, it is still plays a role in skin regeneration. A comparison between fetal skin and adult skin is looked at.
Spatial Distribution and Mechanical Function of Elastin in Resistance Arteries A Role in Bearing Longitudinal Stress 
Arteries within the human consists of three layers and are most evident closest to the heart due to the properties that make them withhold the enormous pressure the heart pumps. The walls of the arteries exist in three layers where the outermost layer, called the tunica adventitia providing tensile strength, the hypothesis this research grouped investigated was whether the elastin fibres are subject to longitudinal stretch.
Tropoelastin - a versatile, bioactive assembly module 
The monomer for elastin is tropoelastin. Thus when many Tropoelastin molecules are bonded together (covalent bonds )with cross links such as lysal oxidase  they bind together to form the protein elastin. There is only one gene for that codes for tropoelastin and thus only one protein. The research stems on the facts that tropoelastin is compatible with synthetic and natural co-polymers. As a result of this, it enables these researches to expand upon the applications of its potential use in next-generation tailored bioactive materials such as when responding to injury. this is because large quantities of the monomer have only become accessible recently. Isolation of tropoelastin was previously intricate and inefficient due to its rate of cross linking incorporated into growing the elastic fiber in the living. However by synthesizing the elastin gene, this has allowed for a recombinant tropoelastin that is identical to the naturally secreted human form giving that compatibility that allows scientist and research to work with in a versatile way.
Insights into the role of elastin in vocal fold health and disease 
Elastin can be defined as a an extracellular matrix protein that is responsible for tissue elastic recoil. Therefore, because of its function it can then be assumed that it is found in different parts of the human body that require tissue recoiling. For example, lungs(30%)- expansion when inhaling and exhaling air, large arteries (70%)-to be able to recoil back to their shape consistently as blood is bumped through them, skin (2-4%)- to be able to withstand stretches and sustain its original shape. Elastin can also be found in the vocal fold of the lamina propria, making up 9% of the total protein. Thus, the lamina propria experiences greater amounts of mechanical strain relative to skin but less when compared to lungs and arteries.
Lab 5 Individual Assessment
Lab 6 Individual Assessment
1. Identify an antibody that can been used in your group's extracellular matrix project.
Group Project Topic: Elastin. Antibody: Anti-Elastin antibody [BA-4]
2.Identify the species deriving the antibody.
3. Identify the working concentration for the antibody.
Use a concentration of 5 μg/ml. Detects a band of approximately 70 kDa (predicted molecular weight: 68 kDa).
4.Identify a secondary antibody that could be used with this antibody.
Goat Anti-Mouse IgG H&L (HRP) preadsorbed (ab97040) at 1/5000 dilution developed using the ECL technique (Example found in research)
5.Identify a paper that has used this antibody. 
Lab 9 Assessment
Tissue cultures available from one of the two main suppliers worldwide of cell lines, ATCC and ECACC:
Human cell line:
Media: ATCC-formulated Dulbecco's Modified Eagle's Medium, Catalog No. 30-2002. To make the complete growth medium, add the following components to the base medium: fetal bovine serum to a final concentration of 10%.
Dulbecco′s Modified Eagle′s Medium (DMEM) is a modification of Basal Medium Eagle (BME) that contains four-fold concentrations of the amino acids and vitamins.
Mouse cell line:
Human cell line:
Media: RPMI-1640 + 2mM Glutamine + 10% FCS
RPMI is a general purpose media with a broad range of applications for mammalian cells, especially hematopoietic cells.
Mouse cell line:
Penicillin---> Treat antibiotic infections
Streptomyocin---> used to treat tuberculosis and other bacteria and mycobacteria.
Lab 10 Peer Review Assessment
The group project page begins with an inviting image that is visually appealing. Your introduction to the topic is succinct and perhaps requires more elaboration for it to be teaching at a peer level. I commend you on your choice of headings and subheadings where information is subsequently and clearly presented, particularly in the "History" section. It is evident a great amount of research has been invested into your group project, the structure and function of proteoglycans in biological systems is explained really well.
The images you have chosen a show different thing which is commendable. For example, graphs, pictures of patients, tables, drawings, and legends. You have also included hand drawn images that are included in a table, so well done for presenting that kind of information in that way. Some of the images on the group project page just need to be reformatted just to change the size so it suits the page better as it is appearing too large at the moment. You can do this just by changing the #px next to the file name in edit mode to 300.[File:Proteoglycan diagram 001.png|centre|600px]. Some of the images on your project page do not contain the "student template" which is essential. So don't forget to include that when our pages can be edited again.
The content on your page gives a well-rounded summary of your research and efforts into the group page and is clearly evident by your extensive reference list. I'm sure that towards the final date of your project, you will create one big reference list so that the references do not lie under each heading.
Overall, great work guys! Well done
Great work, it looks like your group has a clear mindset and direction to where your group project is going, even if it is not completely finished yet. It is clear that an extensive amount of work has been made by this group and is reflected in amount of information/content. There are a good number of images already on you group project page, however, under the headings for the role of integrin and function of integrin there is not as many images. Perhaps try including more images that will balance the text with the visual information. Well done for already including a hand drawn image on your page.
There also appears to a number of links that have been inserted randomly. You probably want those there as they are relevant to the subsequent headings just don't forget to take them out or include them in your reference list as most of them are from PubMed anyway, so just copy the ID number.
There appears to be some comments from other group members on the group project page, whilst I understand that this is still a work in progress, just don't forget to remove these things before final submission and also make sure you have the copy right allowance to reuse their images.
- please make sure that your pictures from nature are actually FREE for using - at least one of your images are from nature, and you don't have the rights to use it. Please apply through the copyright centre, make an account and apply for copyright rights.
Overall, great job guys, all the best!
Your group projects page contains lots of information with appropriate headings and subheadings relevant to Fibronectin. A great amount of research and effort has been invested into your group project page and is reflected by the quality of your work, so well done guys! There are approximately 60 references in your reference list which is fantastic; some articles are repeated a couple of times but this is just a minor thing.
From first glance of your group project page it is clear that there isn’t a lots of images on your page but it is clear that all of your energy has been directed towards the content. Just don’t forget to upload images for your project before the final submission. Your images seem to have the correct copyright declaration information but don’t include the “student template”.
The page has separate sections divided by bolded titles, perhaps consider if it is worth changing these to bigger titles? E.g ==Title== and have your subheadings bolded. However, this is just a suggestion to help make it more visual appealing.
Your group project page contains an enormous amount of information which is clearly reflective of the amount of work that has been put towards your project so well done. There is a good amount of images on your page but perhaps to keep it in balance with the amount of text on your group page consider uploading more visuals. Some of the images could be reduced in their size as some of them take up most of the space on the screen.
Your references are in a couple of places at the moment, under each heading. I think it would be neater if you compiled each reference list and placed it at the bottom.
Underneath some of your images is the copyright information shown on the group project page, I think that information is already on the image summary and you do not need to include there.
Overall, your group project page is really good, well done guys!
Group 6, your group project page is shaping up well. In particular, the sections on structure and function of Collagen are explained in great detail. You also have extra added information on antibodies which is great and demonstrates the extent of your research. Your addition of a glossary is fantastic as I have not seen this done on many of the other group project pages. You might want to make the words that you define in bolded text to separate them from their actual definitions. Your current understandings and research is well developed but may need another one or two images. As for your section on “Abnormalities” it doesn’t have any images. I particularly liked your headings under the Introduction “What cells make Collagen Type II?” and “At what stage is Collagen Type II made?” even though the information for these titles is not there yet, I think that this type of information would be useful to other peers researching type two collagen. Well done for including a hand drawn image and using the computer to do so. It is clear, relevant, concise and easy to understand. The first image on your group project page does not contain the references and copy right information. I particularly liked that your group project page just focuses on Type 2 collagen rather than all the types so that you are able to focus on this in greater detail.
Group 7, your group project page is shaping up well, well done! You have a table showing the significant historical finding leading up to our current understanding of the basement membrane is great idea to display such information. It is evident that this is still a work in progress but thumbs up for selecting to present the history in that way.
There is currently no information under the history section. Although there are a great number of articles already listed, information about the current research just needs to be inputted. I found the title “Formation, plasticity and regeneration” particularly useful and relevant to your topic
I particularly liked reading the abnormalities section and the use of collapsible tables I thought was very clever, allowing the reader the choice to read further if they are seeking more information or able to find what they are looking for with ease.
Your reference list is extensive, however, the same article is used approximately 10 times (from reference 3-12) perhaps it would be a good idea to find other research papers that have similar information to you.
Overall, a really good job guys, well done!
Lab 12 Assessment
In this research study, retinol is found to enhance dermal collagen production whilst also enhancing elastin fibre formation. Through the use of quantitative real-time polymerase chain reactions (qPCR) and immunostaining techniques , retinol increased mRNA and protein levels of tropoelastin (elastin's bioassembly molecule) and of fibrillin-1 (an accessory protein). Luna staining was another technique involved used to detect the increased elastic fibre network in skin samples treated with retinol as oppose to untreated controls. Their conclusions demonstrate that retinol exerts anti-ageing benefits in the increase of elastin production and assembly.