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Lab 1 questions
1) What are the key cell biology journals?
- Journal of cell biology
- Nature of cell biology
- Trends in cell biology
- Public library of science
2) Which journals allow you to reuse their published content
- Journal of cell biology
- BMC cell biology
Here is some bold text
Here is some italic text
Lab 2 questions
--Mark Hill 08:00, 24 March 2011 (EST) Hi. WHere are your lab 2 answers?
- Which chromosomes contribute to the nucleolus?
Chromosomes 13 14 15 21 22 contribute to the nucleolus which is the site for ribosomal RNA transcription.
- Identify and add a link to your page of a recent cell biology article using confocal microscopy from the Pubmed database.
- "Confocal imaging from deep brain tissue"  |
- "cell nucleus" Molecular Biology of the Cell |
Lab 3 questions
1) "Safety data sheet for chloroform" http://msds.chem.ox.ac.uk/CH/chloroform.html%7C
Has been noted as cancer causing in laboratory animals and is also a carcinogen in humans. Exposure through inhaling or ingestion is toxic and can be fatal. Dermatitis can be caused by exposure to the skin.
Lab 4 Questions
1. Identify a commercial supplier of an antibody that relates to your group project topic.
Abcam is a supplier of antibodies relating to synaptic junctions. They produce Piccolo antibody-A synaptic marker. 
2. In mitochondria, where is the gene located that encode Cytochrome C and what keeps this protein trapped within the mitochondria?
The gene that encode Cytochrome C is located in the nucleus of the cell. This protein is a part of the electron transport chain location in the inner membrane of the mitochondria. This protein is soluble in water and is contained by the outer membrane of the mitochondria.
Lab 6 questions
[Cell bio graph.jpeg]
1 a) What are the changes in phenotypes that you observe between group A and B?
Group A contains Tm4 and Group B is the control.
-Phenotype A shows no Tm4. -Phenotype B and C are similar in ratio with less Tm4 compared to the control. -Phenotype D and F shows a significant increase in Tm4 compared to the control. -Phenotype E shows a slightly higher amount of Tm4 than the control.
Group A there is a generally pink appearance with yellow edges and blue nuclei. Prolonged phenotype and cells are likely to be close together.
Group B they are red with purple nuclei and fanned phenotype. The cells are bound together.
b) How does Tm 4 mediate these changes Tm4 is an actin-binding protein and is a stabilizer in the cytoskeleton of non muscle cells. It has mediated the differences in the two groups as it has caused a prolonged phenotype in the cells in A whereas there is a more fan like appearance in B. This is because the Tm4 has stabilized the actin filaments in the cells in Group A hence the prolonged phenotype.
Parkinson's disease is one of the most common movement disorders, mostly effecting people over 60. Historically a person suffering from Parkinson's generally has a hunched posture due to 'tremors' that slowly worsen and cause mobility degeneration. James Parkinson studied the disease over the late 1800's, noticing the debilitating effects over time. This particular disease effects the production of the neurotransmitter Dopamine in the substantia nigra for reasons still unclear. Skilled movement in distal muscles is hindered as the synapse function is disstorted by an imbalance of Dopomine and Acetylcholine. pic
• Epidemiology: Is the most common movement related dissorder in the world (effects 1% of adults over 60).
Global burden of Parkinson's disease, measured in disability adjusted life years per 100,000 inhabitants in 2004 pic
no data < 5 5–12.5 12.5–20 20–27.5 27.5–35 35–42.5 42.5–50 50–57.5 57.5–65 65–72.5 72.5–80 > 80
• Etiology: Dopomine is produced in the Substantia nigra in the brain (rostral midbrain, Superior Colliculus) by specialised cells. These cells are destroyed in a Parkinson’s patient by reasons which are still unclear, theories of the cause of Parkinson’s include:
o Genetic disorder
o Free radicals
o External toxins
• Pathogenisis: Without the appropriate amounts of Dopomine being produced, the synaptic junctions begin to deterioate in function. In addition MAO-B is a chemical in the synapse that breaks down dopamine to maintain a balance with acetylcholine. Due to this imbalance the synapse cannot function properly, especially in fine or smooth movement of muscles. 
• Morphology : Macroscopically there is distinct atrophy of the substantia nigra. Microscopically the neuropil shows a loss of pigmentation and lewy bodies are present. As seen in the histological section below, the brown lewy body is present In the substantia nigra
• Clinical : There are three major sighns of Parkinson’s:
o Resting tremor: Common to occur in hands and worsens over time.
o Rigidity : During movement there is increased resistance on the joint.
o Bradykinesia: Inability to perform fine movement tasks like writing or tieing shoe laces.
o Other signs include a loss of balance and increasingly poor posture. A retropulsion test can be be carried out to test balance by pulling the patient backwards and noting if they correct themselves properly.
• Treatment: This varies with every patient and also to what extent the disease has destroyed the dopamine producing cells in the substantia nigra.
1) In its early stages, exercise and physical therapy is recommended to maintain mobility and deal with tremors that result from Parkinson’s.
2) When this fails, medication can be sought. Non-dopomine drugs are used first including Amantidine which increases mobility and ability to exercise.
3) Ropinirole is a dopomine agnostic that helps stop tremors and stiffness and is used if the condition worsens.
4) The most effective treatment is the drug Levodopa which is a dopomine replacement and dramatically increases motor function. However this may have long-term effects from its use including drug-induce dyskinesia causing erratic involuntary movements. Motor movement complications were found in 1/3 of patients after only a 2 year use of the drug making this a last resort. 
As of yet there is no cure for Parkinson’s disease.
- Ondo W, Jankovic J, Shwartz K, Almaguer M, Simpson RK. Unilateral thalamic deep brain stimulation for refractory essential tremor and Parkinson's disease tremor. Neurology 1998; 51: 1063-1069. http://biomed.brown.edu/Courses/BI108/BI108_1999_Groups/Neuroelectrodes_Team/background.html
- Kumar, Cotran, Robbins. Basic Pathology 7th edition. 2003; 844.
- Levodopa in the treatment of Parkinson’s disease: an old drug still going strong Werner Poewe1 Angelo Antonini2 Jan CM Zijlmans3 Pierre R Burkhard4 François vingerhoets5, Department of Neurology, Medical University of Innsbruck, Austria;