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lab Attendance

--Maqdad Al Saif 10:42, 17 March 2011 (EST) I accidentally deleted the previous attendance which is supposed to be (10th). I have already spoken to Dr.Mark Hill.

Maqdad Al Saif 10:42, 17 March 2011 (EST)

Maqdad Al Saif 9:00, 24 March 2011 (EST)

--Maqdad Al Saif 10:22, 31 March 2011 (EST)

--z3284061 09:38, 7 April 2011 (EST)

--z3284061 09:06, 14 April 2011 (EST)

--z3284061 09:16, 21 April 2011 (EST)

--z3284061 09:29, 5 May 2011 (EST)

Individual Assessments

Lab 1

1. What are the key cell biology journals?

A. The Journal of Cell Biology

B. Public Library of Science

C. Nature Cell Biology

D. Trends in Cell Biology

E. Cell

2. Which Journals allow reuse of their published content?

A. BMC Cell Biology

B. The Journal of Cell Biology

C. Public Library of Science

Lab 2

1. Which chromosomes contribute to the nucleolus?

There are several functions carried out by the nucleolus including; ribosome assembly, processing of ribosomal (rRNA), and trascription. The nucleolus contains clumps of chromatin which include chromosomes containing nuclear organizer regions. In Human cells these chromosomes are mainly; 13, 14, 15, 21 and 22.

Source The nucleolus

2. Identify and add a link to your page of a recent cell biology article using confocal microscopy from the Pubmed database?

Reflectance Confocal Microscopy as an aid to Dermoscopy to improve Diagnosis on Equivocal Lesions: Evaluation of Three Bluish Nodules

Lab 3

1. Find the SDS information for chloroform and identify the hazards associated with this chemical.

Health hazard information of Chloroform

1. Harmful if Swallowed.

2.Causes Skin Irritation.

3.Causes Eye Irritation.

4.Suspected of causing cancer.

5.Suspected of Damaging the unborn child.

6.May Cause Drowsiness or Dizziness.

7.May Cause Damage to Liver and Kidneys Through Prolonged or Repeated Exposure.

For more details regarding the SDS information, please click on the link. SAFETY DATA SHEET CHLOROFORM

2. You will need to upload an image and add it to your page, with the reference and copyright information with the image.

Comparison of micrograph and microCT scans in spiders.jpg[1]

Lab 4

# Identify a commercial supplier of an antibody that relates to your group project topic.

Synapsin I antibody is supplied by Abcam antibodies in Cambridge,UK. It is a member of the synapsin family. Synapsins are neuronal phosphoproteins which associate with the cytoplasmic surface of synaptic vesicles.Family members are characterized by common protein domains, and they are implicated in synaptogenesis and the modulation of neurotransmitter release, suggesting a potential role in several neuropsychiatric diseases. This member of the synapsin family plays a role in regulation of axonogenesis and synaptogenesis. The protein serves as a substrate for several different protein kinases and phosphorylation may function in the regulation of this protein in the nerve terminal. Mutations of the Synapsin I gene may be associated with X linked disorders with primary neuronal degeneration such as Rett syndrome.

For further reference:

Synapsin I Antibody

# In mitochondria, where is the gene located that encode Cytochrome C and what keeps this protein trapped within the mitochondria?

Cytochrome c is Electron carrier protein, exclusively localized in the mitochondria. Cytochrome c gene is located on chromosome Number 7. It is the only water soluble and trapped inside the mitochondria by Alpha membrane of mitochondria.

The oxidized form of the cytochrome c heme group can accept an electron from the heme group of the cytochrome c1 subunit of cytochrome reductase. Cytochrome c then transfers this electron to the cytochrome oxidase complex, the final protein carrier in the mitochondrial electron-transport chain.

Plays a role in apoptosis. Suppression of the anti-apoptotic members or activation of the pro-apoptotic members of the Bcl-2 family leads to altered mitochondrial membrane permeability resulting in release of cytochrome c into the cytosol. Binding of cytochrome c to Apaf-1 triggers the activation of caspase-9, which then accelerates apoptosis by activating other caspases.

Lab 6

Graph of Phenotypes.JPG

Write a summary of the Table!

This table illustrates the difference in Phenotype percentage between Group A and B

Q1: What are the changes in phenotypes that you observe between Group A and Group B in your graph?

Write a summary of the Graph

Tm4= group A, Control= Group B Phenotype A: There was no observable presence of Tm4 cells in group A, whereas more than 10% of Group B.

Phenotype B: Group A (Tm4) is less than Group B by more than 10%.

Phenotype C: There is approximately 10% difference between the 2 groups.

Phenotype D: There’s a big difference (>20%) between Group A(Tm4) and group B(control)

Phenotype E: Tm4 is about 5% more than group B.

Phenotype F: The % of Group B has decreased dramatically.

2. What are the changes in phenotypes that you observe between group A and group B in the pictures?

Group A ( Tm4) Group B (Control)
Generally Pink in appearance Red in appearance
Yellow in the edges No observable yellow in the edges.
Blue-pink nuclei Purple-Blue nuclei.
More stringed and prolonged phenotypes. More stumped and broken fan phenotypes
Cells are likely to be separated Cells are more fused together

How Does Tm4 mediate these changes?

Background:Tropomyosins are among the most studied structural proteins of the actin cytoskeleton that are implicated in alterations of actin filament organization in transformed cells. Decreased expression of non-muscle tropomysons is commonly associated with transfomed phenotype. The changes in Tm expression appear to correlate well with the rearrangement of microfilament bundles and morphological alterations observed in transformed cells. The decrease in Tm synthesis has been reported to occur in cells transformed by a variety of agents including chemical carcinogens.

It has been hypothesized main role of Tm4 is regulation of the adhesion structures of cells (such as osteoclasts) by stabilizing filamentous actin in podosomes and actin rings and thus affecting migration and function of the cell ( such as bone resorption). Moreover, Tm4 has a strong localization to the actin core of the podosome and in the actin ring. Furthermore, Tm4 is the only product of the delta tropomyosin gene. Finally, Tm4 forms a cap on the actin ring, localizing to the exterior, top, and interior sides of the actin ring denoted by arrows and the yellow merge.

Work Area

Here is some bold text

Here is some italic text

Teaching my favorite students basic stuff

The Journal of Cell Biology Homepage



  1. <pubmed>21209876</pubmed>