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Lab Attendance

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Individual Assessment

Lab 1

1. What are the key cell biology journals?

The Journal of Cell Biology

Nature Journals


Trends in Cell Biology

Public Library of Science

2. Which journal allow reuse of their published content?

Public Library of Science

The Journal of Cell Biology

BMC Cell Biology

Lab 2

Q1) Which chromosome contribute to the nucleolus?

Transcription, processing and assembly of ribosomal (rRNA) gene occurs in the nucleolus and the five different chromosomes that contribute to the nucleolus are 13, 14, 15, 21, 22.

Q2) Identify and add a link to your page of a recent cell biology article using confocal microscopy.

Expanding the multicolor capabilities of basic confocal microscopes by employing red and near-infrared quantum dot conjugates

Lab 3

Q1) Find the SDS infromation for chloroform and identify the hazards associated with this chemical.'

Standard Name: Chloroform (Chemical Name of Chloroform: Trichloromethane)

A Chemical Abstract Service Registry Number (CAS Number): 67-66-3

The United Nations Number (UN number): 1888

Hazards associated with this chemical is classified as:

Classification: Xn; R22-48/20/22 Xi; R38 Carc. Cat. 3; R40

The abbreviations, risk and safety phrases of the above classification stand for:

Xn: Harmful

R22: Harmful if swallowed.

R23: Toxic by inhalation.

R48/20/22: Harmful: danger of serious damage to health by prolonged exposure through inhalation and if swallowed.

Xi: Irritant

R38: Irritating to skin

Carc. Cat. 3: Substances suspected of having carcinogenic potential

R40: Limited evidence of a carcinogenic effect

For further risk phrases, refer to Individual risk and safety phrases

Notice: Significant source of exposure to chloroform may be absorption through the skin.

Q2)You will need to upload an image and add it to your page, with the reference and copyright information with the image.

Calcium signalling in aging.jpg


Lab 4

Q1). Identify a commercial supplier of an antibody that relates to your group project topic.

The monoclonal antibody (HAM8) recognizes the gap junction protein connexin 32 according to the article Immunohistochemical analysis of rat liver using a monoclonal antibody HAM8 against gap junction The HAM8 antibody is supplied by Santa Cruz Biotechnology, Inc. For further information, refer to HAM8 antibody

Q2). In mitochondria, where is the gene located that encode Cytochrome C and what keeps this protein trapped within the mitochondria? (Hint - Watch Part 2: Factors Involved in the Intrinsic Pathway of Apoptosis

Cytochrome C is encoded by the CYCS gene located on chromosome 7. Thus, the gene is located in the nucleus of the mitochondria. Cytochrome C is the only water soluble component of the electron transport chain so they are trapped inside the mitochondria by the outer membrane.

Lab 6

Total Percentage of Morphological phenotypes in Group A and B.JPG

The table represents different categories of Phenotype ranging from A to F that are present in Group A and B. Group A represents the cell treated with Tm4 and Group B is the control.

Phenotype A to F represents the following:

A: Fan, B: Broken Fan, C: Stumped, D: Pronged, E: Stringed, F: Pygnotic

1. What are the changes in Phenotypes that you observe between Group A and Group B from the graph?

Group A has greater number of Phenotypes D and E (Pronged and Stumped respectively) than Group B although Group B has greater number of Phenotype B (Broken Fan) and C (Stumped) than Group A. The number of phenotypes A (Fan) and F (Pygnotic)however is more or less the same in both Group A and B.

2. What are the changes in Phenotypes that you observe between Group A and Group B from the pictures?

In Group A that has been over expressed with Tm4, we observed formation of more branching and processes that lead to more interactions between neurites. In Group B which is the control, we observed somewhat the opposite of what's mentioned in Group A. Furthermore, cells in Group A are more brightly stained compared to those in Group B. Overall, in Group A we see cells emerged as clusters or groups and they are dominantly composed of Phenotypes D and E whereas in Group B, cells are mostly isolated and they have an array of phenotypes A,B,C and F but dominantly D and E.

3. How does Tm4 mediate these changes?

Tropomyosins (Tms) are actin-binding proteins that play a role in muscle and non-muscle cells. In skeletal muscle cells, they regulate the interaction of actin filaments with myosin filaments to allow contraction. In non muscle cells where various tropomyosin isoforms are expressed, tropomyosins are considered to play a part in cytoskeleton. In fact, tropomysoins in non muscle cells are considered to function solely on stabilizing actin filaments as both low molecular weight and high molecular weight Tms are found in regions of cells where actin is dynamic.[2]Although there are many isoforms of Tm, the experiment focuses on Tm4 and how it mediates changes in phenotypes of Group A and B. Tm4 is found prominently in immature stages in rat neurons and it is concentrated in areas where neurites are growing.[3]This finding complemented to our results in a way that the cells in Group A that has been over expressed with Tm4 show many presence of neurite growing. This results in more interaction between the cells in Group A rather than Group B.

Lab 9

Q1) Identify from one of the cell line repositories: a neural cell line and a muscle cell line.

ATCC supplies neural cell lines and complete culture solutions. Neural cell lines they supply inculde:

From Homo Sapiens (Human):

ATCC® Number: HTB-11™

Designations: SK-N-SH

Depositors: G Trempe, LJ Old

Biosafety level: 1

Growth Properties: adherent

Organism: Homo sapiens (human)

Morphology: epithelial

Source: Organ: brain

Disease: neuroblastoma

Derived from metastatic site: bone marrow

Cellular Products: plasminogen activator

From Mouse:

ATCC® Number: CCL-131™

Designations: Neuro-2a

Depositors: RJ Klebe

Biosafety Level: 1

Growth Properties: adherent

Organism: Mus musculus (mouse)

Morphology: neuronal and amoeboid stem cells

Source: Strain: A

Organ: brain

Disease: neuroblastoma

Cell Type: neuroblast

Cellular Products: acetylcholinesterase

Muscle cell line they supply includes:

ATCC® Number: CRL-1458™

Designations: L6

Depositors: D Schubert

Biosafety Level: 1

Growth Properties: adherent

Organism: Rattus norvegicus (rat)

Morphology: myoblast

Source: Tissue: skeletal muscle

Cell Type: myoblast myoblast;

Cellular Products: myosin

Q2) Identify the species and growth conditions for these cell lines.


Organism: Mus musculus (mouse)

Base medium: fetal bovine serum to a final concentration of 10%

Atmosphere: air, 95%; carbon dioxide (CO2), 5%

Temperature: 37.0°C


Organism: Homo Sapiens (human)

Base medium: fetal bovine serum to a final concentration of 10%

Temperature: 37.0°C


Organism: Rattus norvegicus (rat)

Base medium: fetal bovine serum to a final concentration of 10%

Atmosphere: air, 95%; carbon dioxide (CO2), 5%

Temperature: 37.0°C

Growth Conditions: The myoblastic component of this line will be depleted rapidly if the cells are allowed to become confluent

Lab 11 Peer Review on Group Projects

Group 1 Synaptic Junctions

  • Introduction should briefly describe the overview of what is going to be discussed throughout the page.
  • There should be some recent 20th century discoveries included in the history since the history stops at 1981.
  • The hand drawings are well drawn and amazing.
  • The table on neurotransmitters is very visual, and informative and straight to point. Love the colour coding!
  • The explanation on what is synaptic junction should be more simplified and easy to understand since I feel like there are a lot of terms and I got lost in the words.
  • Diseases associated with synaptic junctions is well done in a way that the diseases are not briefly described but includes the causes, epidemiology, pathogenesis, clinical presentations, etc which shows great research and understanding.
  • Overall, the images and texts balance out but it would help the reader to understand more about synaptic junctions if written in more simplified version.

Group 3 Tight Junctions

  • Are there any recent discoveries regarding tight junctions after 2005? History could be a little bit more up to date.
  • The introduction provides a broad overview of junctions and then explains what tight junction is. A good introduction to start off with!
  • Just an advice on introduction is to break off words a bit so that it’s not a chunk of paragraph and bore the reader to read through.
  • The disease section should have more pictures since it’ll attract the reader to read more but the organisation of the information into tables makes it nice and simple to read.
  • Glossary is too short compared to a lot of scientific vocabulary that is used.
  • Overall, it is a very well researched and documented page about tight junctions!

Group 4 Desmosomes

  • Introduction doesn’t really provide information about what junctions are and explain straight off to what desmosomes are. This could be difficult to understand for those who are not familiar with or do not know what junctions are to begin with. It is too short and there are no pictures as well. It should also give an overview on what would be discussed after the introduction throughout the page for clarification.
  • History could be a little bit more up to date. What’s happening after 2004 which is 7 years ago?
  • Structure and function is well researched and has a good balance between text and picture. Well done guys!
  • The hemidesmosomes section needs an image so that readers can have a visual representation of what it is.
  • I feel the disease and current research part is a little bit too short, are those the only diseases that occurred due to desmosomes? What about other diseases?
  • There should be a glossary since there are a lot of scientific terms such as haploinsufficiency, hyperkeratosison, etc that need to be explained briefly.
  • Nice work on the link to the video of pathophysiology of bullous diseases! It provides an additional information to those who want to know more!

Group 5 Adherens Junctions

  • Introduction needs a picture and a brief introduction on junctions and what is going to be discussed throughout the page like a scope or an overview.
  • Are there no more discoveries after 2000? The history could be a little bit more up to date.
  • The structure part is well done with a balance between image and text and a link to the video!
  • However, again, an image is required for the function part? Since it is all text, it is boring for the reader.
  • It might require more effort to put in but I feel all diseases described should have their own individual images since a picture speaks a thousand words! It will also make the section more interesting to read.
  • I love the current research and the table comparing the junctions! It is well researched and informative.
  • One advice though, there should be an introductory sentence or a topic sentence that explains before the table that you are comparing other junctions with your own or something like that to clarify why you are putting that section. Otherwise it feels like there’s no link to the above topics and below.
  • Nice idea on the glossary, guys! It is alphabetically ordered which makes it easier to look for the word.

Group 6 Neuromuscular Junction

  • Introduction is brief and easy to understand.
  • History should be a little bit recent since it ends at 2000.
  • Mechanism of action part is mostly in dot point, less text but straight to the point and simple.
  • What I feel a little bit off-track is the part about advantages of light microscopy (LM) and electron microscopy (EM) utilization. I love the pictures and I feel they should be like in a gallery with a subheading “LM and EM images of Neuromuscular Junction (NMJ)”. I just don’t think the advantages and disadvantages of LM and EM are related with the NMJ.
  • I love the fact that you put in embryonic development of NMJ. It is so informative and shows that this is a result of a great research and for those who wants to know about how NMJ is developed, this is the page for them.
  • The images in common neuromuscular disorders are amazing and so eye-catching that you want to read the table!
  • Current and future research is very well researched with a good balance between text and image. There should be some captions under the images of current research though since they are graphs and fluorescence photos, it is hard to understand how these images are associated with what you have written.
  • Nice glossary and overall, this is a well researched page about NMJ.

Lab 1

Work Area

Here is some text

Here is some italic text

Introduction to lab 1

Journal of Cell Biology

Lab 2



  1. <pubmed>21423550</pubmed>
  2. <pubmed>20460184</pubmed>
  3. <pubmed>7876361</pubmed>