From CellBiology

Project Discussion Page

I will be adding information at the top of this discussion page that I want all groups to read. When adding your comments please also add your signature.

Do not delete {{MHProjectDiscussion12}} at the top of this page. Mark Hill 16:47, 15 March 2012 (EST)

This page should be used by members of your group to:

  1. Talk to each other.
  2. Distribute/Allocate research areas.
  3. Add links to reviews, articles and websites (in draft form).
  4. Add images that may be useful for your project for there to see.

Group Discussion

papers for assignment (homework)

1) The journal article was researched about the effect of Hydrogen Sulfide to VEGF during myocardial infarction. VEGF binds to the tyrosine kinase and fms-like tyrosine kinase receptor that can up-regulate or down regulate vascular organisation. The research showed that mice treated with hydrogen sulfide after an induced myocardial infarct had higher levels of VEGF and the 2 receptors mentioned earlier that resulted in a better recovery after the injury.

Reference: <pubmed>22419888</pubmed>

2) In the research conducted by Tororovic et al. they studied the correlation of the presence of VEFG and the proliferation of leukemic blast cells and microvessel density found in acute lymphoblastic leukemia(ALL) patients. The study found that increased VEGF leads to higher levels of leukemic blast cells and microvessel density count. This finding can be used to seek new methods in combating ALL.

Reference: <pubmed>22417860</pubmed>

3) The article talks about the effect of VEGF which binds on VEGFR-1(vascular endothelial growth factor-1) and VEGFR-2(vascular endothelial growth factor 2) that affects the astrocytes in terms of gap junctional intercellular communication, cell proliferation and motility of astrocytes. The experiment was conducted through the nurturing of astrocytes in VEFG rich solutions, from here, it was discovered that VEGF promotes gap junctional intercellular communication, increases cell mitosis and enhances the motility of astrocytes through the VEGFR-2.

Reference: <pubmed>22431192</pubmed>

4) VEGF plays major role in the progression of osteoarthritis thought the proliferation of blood vessels in the subchondral growth plate. It was hypothesized that VEGF plays a role in the early stage of osteoarthritis as a marker for diagnosis that can be used as a marker for diagnosis and was proven to be correct.

Reference: <pubmed>22429866</pubmed> --Z3336156 01:36, 27 March 2012 (EST)


CTRP3 is a molecule found in high concentration in adipose and causes increase in production of testosterone.

1. <pubmed>22342437</pubmed> This article explains how testosterone increase the muscle mass and circulation of GH and I-GFI in the blood.

2. <pubmed>21084444</pubmed>

Phthalic acid esters are used in production of plastic. studies shows that phthalates impair testicular testosterone production in the rat. This article looks at the effect of Phthalic in man.


This article looks at the effect of testosterone in older men and testosterone replacement therapy and its benefits.


1 Marina Grigorova, Margus Punab, Birutė Zilaitienė, Juris Erenpreiss, Kristo Ausmees, Valentinas Matuleviĉius, Igor Tsarev, Niels Jørgensen, Maris Laan Genetically determined dosage of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) affects male reproductive parameters. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.: 2011, 96(9);E1534-41 PMID:21733993

The effects of the low level of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) on the male reproductive system. It shows the indirect role of testosterone and FSH.

2 M Scobey, S Bertera, J Somers, S Watkins, A Zeleznik, W Walker Delivery of a cyclic adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate response element-binding protein (creb) mutant to seminiferous tubules results in impaired spermatogenesis. Endocrinology: 2001, 142(2);948-54 PMID:11159868

Examination of the role of cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB)in spermatogenesis.

3 W P Benten, M Lieberherr, G Giese, C Wrehlke, O Stamm, C E Sekeris, H Mossmann, F Wunderlich Functional testosterone receptors in plasma membranes of T cells. FASEB J.: 1999, 13(1);123-33 PMID:9872937

The presence of testosterone receptors on T-cell membranes suggesting the potential of testosterone being involved in immunity.

4 Robert W Holdcraft, Robert E Braun Hormonal regulation of spermatogenesis. Int. J. Androl.: 2004, 27(6);335-42 PMID:15595952


The role of testosterone in spermatogenesis.

--Z3332676 21:55, 28 March 2012 (EST)

Papers for assignment

Papers for assignment - week 3 Lab.

a)<pubmed>21395975</pubmed> This review article talks about the target genes required for notch signalling and how it is regulated.

b)<pubmed>20816401</pubmed> This review article outlines a type of notch signalling - endocardial notch, and its roles and activities it plays in this particular notch.

c)<pubmed>22432025</pubmed> The research article above highlights the requirement of the notch signalling pathway involved in the proximal and distal tubules of the kidney, and the genes involved.

(d)<pubmed>22363487</pubmed> This research article provides results of what would happen if specific changes occurred in the notch pathway.

--Z3290558 23:58, 26 March 2012 (EST)

Papers for Group Assignment

The following is an excerpt from Robbins Basic Pathology. It describes simply what VEGF is, and its role in angiogenesis.

Growth Factors Involved in Angiogenesis

Several factors induce angiogenesis, but the most important are VEGF and basic fibroblast growth factor (FGF-2).

VEGFs constitute a family of growth factors that include VEGF-A, -B, -C, and -D. VEGF-A is generally referred to as VEGF; VEGF-C selectively regulates lymphoid vasculature. VEGFs are dimeric glycoproteins with many isoforms. Listed below are some of the properties of VEGF:

  • VEGFs are expressed at low levels in most tissues and are highly expressed in kidney podocytes and myocardial cells.
  • VEGFs bind to a family of receptors (VEGFR-1, -2, and -3) with tyrosine kinase activity. The most important of these receptors for angiogenesis is VEGFR-2, which is restricted to endothelial cells. Targeted mutations in this receptor result in lack of vasculogenesis.
  • Several agents can induce VEGFs, the most important being hypoxia. Other inducers are platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF), TGF-β, and TGF-α.

In angiogenesis originating from preexisting local vessels, VEGF stimulates both proliferation and motility of endothelial cells, thus initiating the process of capillary sprouting. In angiogenesis involving endothelial cell precursors from the bone marrow, VEGF acts through VEGFR-2 to mobilize these cells from the bone marrow and to induce proliferation and motility of these cells at the sites of angiogenesis.

Additional Articles

1. A vascular endothelial growth factor deficiency characterises scleroderma lung disease:This article is relatively current and explores the deleterious effects of VEGF deficiency in lung tissue in relation to scleroderma lung disease.


2. Vascular endothelial growth factor B controls endothelial fatty acid uptake: This article explores the role of VEGF B which is mostly unclear in terms of angiogenesis and its involvement in endothelial cell physiology.


3.Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor: This article gives a great overview about the structure and function of VEGF. Ian Zachary, Vascular endothelial growth factor, The International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology, Volume 30, Issue 11, November 1998, Pages 1169-1174, ISSN 1357-2725, 10.1016/S1357-2725(98)00082-X.

4.Vascular Endothelial Growth factors: This paper reviews the role of VEGF and its role in clinical applications in cardiovascular medicine. There are some great summaries on the biology of the VEGF family. Seppo Ylä-Herttuala, Tuomas T. Rissanen, Ismo Vajanto, Juha Hartikainen, Vascular Endothelial Growth Factors: Biology and Current Status of Clinical Applications in Cardiovascular Medicine, Journal of the American College of Cardiology, Volume 49, Issue 10, 13 March 2007, Pages 1015-1026, ISSN 0735-1097, 10.1016/j.jacc.2006.09.053.

--Z3332327 20:17, 23 March 2012 (EST)

Papers for group assignment:

<pubmed>21857662</pubmed> This paper talks about how the different conformations of the B adrenergic receptor can be induced by different ligands. This is important for our project because it explains the mechanisms underlying the activation and function of tis GPCR

<pubmed>1974837</pubmed> This paper gives a great overview of the structure and function of the B Adrenergic receptor. It talks about how cAMP acts as a secondary messenger and desensitisation of the receptor.

<pubmed>20975248</pubmed> This paper talks about the B3 adrenergic receptor and its role in controlling Ca ion concentrations in cardiomyocytes. This is immportant as improper regulation of Ca ions can lead to chronic heart failure. This is useful for our section on abnormalities and disease associated with our receptor.

<pubmed>2551839</pubmed> This article explains the inositol 1,4,5 triphosphate system of B adrenergic signalling and its role in muscle contraction. This gives more information about the downstream effects of the B adrenergic receptor.

z3332863--Z3332863 11:45, 24 March 2012 (EST)

Papers for Group Assignment

1)<pubmed>21498522</pubmed> I'm not sure if we can use this review as a reference but it covers basic details about insulin; what it does, its receptors, how is regulated and it's signaling pathways. So I thought that it will be good for just background information.




5)<pubmed>21448434</pubmed> This is not really about Insulin signaling but Insulin degrading Enzyme. I thought that because this mentions 'Alzheimer's disease' we might talk about it in abnormal section? --Z3291200 14:41, 28 March 2012 (EST)

Page Layout


- Introduction

- Pathway - map out what it looks like, include student drawing

- History: timeline

- Normal Function: normal pathway, or different pathways in different tissues

- Abnormal function: Diseases/Disorders

- Proteins: molecules involved in steps

- Receptors

- Research

- External links: additional readings

- References

- Glossary

Papers for Group Assignment

1. Yuan JS, Kousis PC, Suliman S, Visan I, Guidos CJ. Functions of notch signaling in the immune system: consensus and controversies. Annu Rev Immunol. 2010 Mar;28:343-65. PMID: 20192807


This article reviews recent advances in terms of Notch signaling as well as tries to clearly identify Notch functions within immunological processes. It is useful in terms of getting an overview into the history of the gene as well as gaining more of an understanding into the actual pathway itself and its normal function.

2. Liu J, Sato C, Cerletti M, Wagers A. Notch signaling in the regulation of stem cell self-renewal and differentiation. Curr Top Dev Biol. 2010;92:367-409. PMID: 20816402


This article reviews notch signaling pathways at multiple stages of organismal development. It would be useful to gain a broader understanding of the pathway and how it is considered useful within the human body.

3. Radtke F, Fasnacht N, Macdonald HR. Notch signaling in the immune system. Immunity. 2010 Jan 29;32(1):14-27. PMID: 20152168


This article talks about the abnormal funtionings of notch signaling as well as current research as to how these are associated with several human disorders including hematopoiesis, lymphocyte development and T cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia. It would be useful to gain more of an insight into current research and how abnormalities in the pathway can lead to dysfunctions within the body.

4. Carlson ME, O'Connor MS, Hsu M, Conboy IM. Notch signaling pathway and tissue engineering. Front Biosci. 2007 Sep 1;12:5143-56. PMID: 17569636


This article talks about the dysfunctions of Notch signaling pathway and how it has been linked to the pathogenesis of several inherited human diseases. It describes the components within signal tranductions plus outlines the role of the pathway and finally summarises current research within the area.

--Z3289642 10:03, 29 March 2012 (EST)