Despite the prevalence and significant burden of delirium, knowledge of its pathophysiology is limited. The physiological and molecular pathways from diverse causal factors to the core features of delirium are a fundamental research issue. A common pathway of pathogenesis is suggested by the stereotyped clinical presentation of delirium, despite the numerous potential causes.

autoclave is a device to sterilize equipment and supplies by subjecting them to high pressure steam at 121° C or more.

Alpha-1-acidic glycoprotein

Homo sapiens complex locus ORM1 and ORM2, encoding orosomucoid 1 and orosomucoid 2.


  • serum protein, also called orosomucoid
  • monomer about 210 amino acid residues long
  • amino acid sequence has been determined through 192 amino acids
  • Variants have been demonstrated in the blood of normal Caucasians and Japanese (Schmid et al., 1965). Johnson et al. (1969) presented twin and family data supporting the view that 3 phenotypes, SS, FF and FS, are determined by 2 codominant alleles.
  • gene for orosomucoid was assigned to the end of the long arm of chromosome 9
  • Yuasa et al. (1997) noted that in plasma, ORM proteins are presented as a mixture of ORM1 and ORM2 proteins in a molar ratio of 3:1, respectively.
  • inflammatory marker (orosomucoid, tumour necrosis factor-alpha, transforming growth factor-beta, vascular endothelial growth factor and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1) PMID20222150

Increased urinary orosomucoid excretion predicts preeclampsia in pregnant women with pregestational type 1 diabetes

Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2010 Jul;89(1):16-21. Epub 2010 Apr 14.

Christiansen MS, Hesse D, Ekbom P, Hesse U, Damm P, Hommel E, Feldt-Rasmussen B, Mathiesen E. Source Department of Clinical Biochemistry and Department of Medicine, Amager Hospital, Italiensvej 1, Copenhagen S, Denmark. Abstract AIMS: We evaluated the urinary orosomucoid excretion (UOE) as a biomarker of preeclampsia and preterm delivery in pregnant women with type 1 diabetes.

METHODS: Singleton pregnant women with pregestational type 1 diabetes were included provided one urine sample had been collected before 17 gestational weeks. Serum and urinary orosomucoid were analysed by immunoturbidimetry. Primary outcome measurements were development of preeclampsia (blood pressure>140/90mmHg and proteinuria) and preterm delivery before 37 weeks.

RESULTS: In total 173 women were included. The UOE increased during pregnancy. Preeclampsia developed in 20 women and 65 women delivered preterm. Using logistic regression analysis we found that UOE>1.37mg/l (OR: 6.85 (95% CI: 1.97-23.88; p<0.003)), nulliparity (3.88 (1.10-13.72); p<0.04), systolic blood pressure>120mmHg (4.12 (1.35-12.59); p<0.02) and duration of diabetes>20 years (3.69 (1.18-11.52); p<0.03) independently predicted the development of preeclampsia. Independent predictors of preterm delivery were duration of diabetes and HbA1c>7%. The remaining covariates included in the regression models were BMI, serum creatinine, smoking and microalbuminuria.

CONCLUSIONS: Increased UOE early in pregnancy predicted preeclampsia in women with pregestational type 1 diabetes independently of albuminuria and other known risk factors. No association to preterm delivery was found.

PMID: 20392509

Orosomucoid system: 17 additional orosomucoid variants and proposal for a new nomenclature

Vox Sang. 1993;64(1):47-55.

Yuasa I, Weidinger S, Umetsu K, Suenaga K, Ishimoto G, Eap BC, Duche JC, Baumann P. Source Department of Legal Medicine, Tottori University School of Medicine, Yonago, Japan. Abstract There are two forms of orosomucoid (ORM) in the sera of most individuals. They are encoded by two separate but closely linked loci, ORM1 and ORM2. A number of variants have been identified in various populations. Duplication and nonexpression are also observed in some populations. Thus, the ORM system is very complicated and its nomenclature is very confusing. In order to propose a new nomenclature, ORM variants detected by several laboratories have been compared and characterized by isoelectric focusing (IEF) followed by immunoprinting. A total of 57 different alleles including 17 new ones were identified. The 27 alleles were assigned to the ORM1 locus, and the others to the ORM2 locus. The designations ORM*F1, ORM1*F2, ORM1*S and ORM2*M were adopted for the four common alleles instead of ORM1*1, ORM1*3, ORM1*2 and ORM2*1 (ORM2*A), respectively. The variants were designated alpha numerically according to their relative mobilities after IEF in a pH gradient of 4.5-5.4 with Triton X-100 and glycerol. For the duplicated genes a prefix is added to a combined name of two alleles, e.g. ORM1*dB9S. Silent alleles were named ORM1*Q0 and ORM2*Q0 conventionally. In addition, the effects of diseases to ORM band patterns after IEF are also discussed.

PMID: 8447119