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Revision as of 12:38, 21 May 2009 by Z3217565 (talk | contribs)

Awesome, love the info and love the great visuals! --Mark Hill 00:07, 13 April 2009 (EST) Yes that is OK. just leave the references at the bottom of the page or on

the group discussion page. At this stage we are simply assembling information. Formatting etc is done later.

--Timothy Echevarria 16:32, 11 April 2009 (EST) Dr Hill, I have a bunch of work I'd like to put up onto the group page website but I'm not sure how you'd like me to reference things. Is it ok to put all my resources at the bottom of my part as webpages?

-- Mark Hill 18:06, 6 April 2009 (EST) Yes, this is probably the best place to keep homework.

--Mark Hill 09:40, 3 April 2009 (EST)--Mark Hill 09:40, 3 April 2009 (EST) Correct definitions for CAM terms, lots of science today uses acronyms (because the terms or gene names are very long), but what this means is that several acronyms can mean different things to different people.

--Mark Hill 14:36, 19 March 2009 (EST)Note the double-membrane is also called the "nuclear envelope"

   * Nuclear pores exist for the import and export of mRNA and proteins.

This second point is not clearly stated. It would have been better to state:

* Nuclear pores exist mainly for the import of proteins and export of mRNA.

Indicating that you understood the direction of shipment.

  • The nuclear membrane's structure is maintained by underlying lamins.

Correct, these lamins form the nuclear cytoskeleton.

You have now created your individual project page.


  • This is just a number.
  • This is a piece of text.
    • This is a subheading.

Nucleic Acids

There are 2 types of nucleic acid:

  1. DNA and
  2. RNA
Column1 Column 2 Column 3
Row 1 stuff stuff again
Row 2 things things again

The Nucleus

The nucleus is an organelle only seen in eukaryotic cells. It has within it genetic material in the form of DNA.

The nucleus also has the following properties:

  • It is surrounded by a double-membrane.
  • Nuclear pores exist for the import and export of mRNA and proteins.
  • The nuclear membrane's structure is maintained by underlying lamins.


I found most of the content interesting but it was a little difficult to understand how the mRNA knew to move to the ribosomes in the rough ER. This has been cleared up though!


Last lecture I learnt that the processes that occured in the mitochondria which were useful to the cell were the TCA cycle (generated ATP for the cell's metabolic processes) and apoptosis.

Pyruvate, fatty acids and oxygen were needed as substrates for the TCA cycle. End products were ATP and carbon dioxide.

Features of apoptosis in the mitochondria are the release of cytochrome C and also the appearance of 'vesicular mitochondria'.

Cell Junctions - CAMs

Type of CAM Full Name
N-CAM Neural Cell Adhesion Molecule
Ng-CAM Neural Glial Cell Adhesion Molecule
L-CAM Liver Cell Adhesion Molecule
I-CAM Intercellular Cell Adhesion Molecule

Intermediate Filaments

The layer of the epidermis called Stratum Spinosum contains desmosomes (which cause the 'spiny' appearance).

Confocal Microscopy

The two main ways to generate confocal microscopy are by using either the laser method or the spinning disc method.

Lab: Overexpression of Tm4


Phenotype % of total phenotypes in A (Tm4 Overexpression) % of total phenotypes in B (Wild Type)
Fan 14 17
Broken Fan 10 27
Stumped 22 9
Pronged 20 18
Stringed 33 29
Pygnotic 2 1

In Tm4 over-expressing cells, we see that there are significantly more 'stumped' phenotypes than in wild type. Similarly, in wild type cells, we see that there are significantly more 'broken fan' phenotypes. The other percentages for phenotypes were generally quite conserved in both groups.

Hence, I hypothesise that Tm4, on a molecular level, is involved with causing more extensions to be present in a given cell (whether they be lamellae or neurites).

Cell Cycle: S Phase

The S phase of the cell cycle is associated with DNA replication within the cell. S phase is short for synthesis phase.