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z3217578: It's a bit hard to understand the second image, as you can't read the text within the piture.

You have now created your individual project page. --Mark Hill 09:39, 20 April 2009 (EST) Please see me ASAP. There is no content on your individual student page.

Individual Projects

You should by now have answers to your homework questions and your selected individual project topic.

Lab Homework

Lab 6 - Cytoskeleton Exercise

"If you've seen differences in the distribution of phenotypes in Tm4 over-expressing B35 cells versus control B35 cells, describe these differences."

Groups/Phenotypes Fan Broken Fan Stumped Pronged Stringed Pygnotic
Group A 4 10 5 59 64 2
Group B 3 36 1 43 14 6

Group A total=144; estimated Average= 24

Group B total=103; estimated Average= 17.2

The results in this study gives us the distribution in the number of different phenotypes for both Groups A and B. Group A has been counted to have 144 neural cells while Group B had 103 neural cells. We counted more Pronged and Stringed Neural cells in group A, giving Pronged and Stringed Neural cells the average of 41% and 44% respectively compared to the estimated group A average only standing at 24%. Group B,however, has 42% of Pronged neural cells compared to the estimated Group B average of 17.2%.

The above table itself conveys that group A neural cells are likely to carry over-expressed Tm4 gene. Over-expressed Tm4 gene is likely to suggest array of phenotypic morphology. Group B may be indicative of wild type neural cells.

Group B neural cells tend to be longer and thinner while Group A neural cells tend to be shorter and have more synapses with the dendrites of neighbouring neural cells. Hence, the findings may lead us to the hypothesis, "over-expression of Tm4 gene would lead to over-activation of ion channels, and thus the release of transmitter substances, which can lead to primary neurite synapses in early differentiation stage".

Ps: Hamid and I worked as a pair in this exercise. Hence, we both have the same results.

Lab 7 - Confocal Microscopy

What are the 2 main forms of confocal microscopy?

1. Confocal laser screening microscope (CLSM)

2. Spinning disk confocal microscope

Lecture Feedbacks

Lecture 4 - Nucleus

I love nucleus because it is a very crucial membrane-enclosed organelle as it carries the genetic material. It has an important role in regulation of gene expression. The nuclear envelope is the main structural component of the nucleus. Nucleus has a double membrane that encloses the nucleus and separates it from the cellular cytoplasm.

Lecture 5 - Exocytosis

I found this lecture quite easy as I studied exocytosis in the endocrinology lecture series of Human Physiology 1B course in my 2nd year. The more detailed Cell Biology lecture on exocytosis really grabbed my interest. However, the secretory vesicles and its relation with membrane turnover urged me to have a further read so that I can have a good understanding of it.

Lecture 7 - What types of cellular processes require lots of energy from the mitochondria?

· Skeletal and cardiac muscle contraction

· Sperm tail and flagella(need lots of energy for mobility.)

· Cellular respiration

· Cell division

· Glycolytic reaction

· Apoptotic funtions

Lecture 8 - What do the acronyms I-CAM, L-CAM, N-CAM, Ng-CAM all mean?

· I-CAM-Intracellular Cell Adhesion Molecule.

· L-CAM- Liver Cell Adhesion Molecule involved in cell-cell adhesion.

· N-CAM- Neural Cell Adhesion Molecule.

· Ng-CAM- Neural Glial Cell Adhesion Molecule.

Lecture 10 - What is the name of the epidermal layer between the basal and granulosa layer and how does it relate to intermediate filaments?

The Stratum Spinosum is the cuboidal epithelial skin layer between the Stratum Basale and the Stratum Granulosum.

Lecture 15 - Cell Cycle

S in the S phase of the cell cycle stands for Synthesis.

Group Project

Group Project 4 is still under construction. Click Tropomyosin-receptor-Kinase (Trk) to view it to date.