Difference between revisions of "Talk:2016 Group 7 Project"

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I would suggest that containing more information could necessary because the there is missing of the introduction, the topic could start with the introduction because the reader would not know what is going on. the section of the history section can summarise as it contains too much information. the reference number 15 has to be fixed as the reference shows wrongly. the glossary part has to be presented. there is no mention about the exact size of the cell and what features are different from the other cells.
 
I would suggest that containing more information could necessary because the there is missing of the introduction, the topic could start with the introduction because the reader would not know what is going on. the section of the history section can summarise as it contains too much information. the reference number 15 has to be fixed as the reference shows wrongly. the glossary part has to be presented. there is no mention about the exact size of the cell and what features are different from the other cells.
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=== Group 7 | Eosinophils ===
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'''History''' : I feel you have the precursor to the finding of the Eosinophil down but you haven't talked much about post finding the eosinophils and the research and development that has resulted in understanding it's structure or function since.  You may want to go into this more deeply post 1900's.
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'''Birth, Life and Death in the Body''' : Is this meant to be your introduction?  It has very scattered information which isn't quite drawn together and presented clearly.  I feel your ideas that you're presenting here are jumping around.  Please re write this and draw all the ideas together, helping the reader to engage with eosinophils and help them progress their understanding without just dumping knowledge facts here and there about eosinophils.
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'''Structure''' : Great picture of eosinophil - should format better to have information concisely.  Looks a bit odd currently.  There has to be some formating and rearranging done with your granule section.  Once again it feels like you're taking facts and putting them together.  Even though you refer to the abbreviations earlier, it may just help readability if you also put the full name next to each of the components abbreviations in brackets.
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'''Role in Allergy and Disease''' : Some nice diagrams here.  I feel you could have gone deeper with a lot of the knowledge you presented here.  The video was good here as well as the table detailing the treatment of eosinophilia.  They help break up the text and explain information in creative ways.
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Should add an introduction.  First thing you read is a big knowledge slam without helping the reader to ease in to what you're trying to present.  I really feel that you lack some information and you could go deeper into most of your categories.  You didn't talk much about future direction and research for eosinophils.  They way you word things and phrase your points are often times confusing and don't flow very naturally.  Please work on this to increase readability, clarity and conciseness.
  
 
==Assessment Discussion==
 
==Assessment Discussion==

Revision as of 04:27, 12 May 2016

2016 Projects: Group 1 | Group 2 | Group 3 | Group 4 | Group 5 | Group 6 | Group 7
Group Projects - Blood Cell Biology - Updated 21 April  
This year's main topic is Blood Cell Biology. Each group should discuss with group members the specific sub-topic that will be covered by their project.

Here is a list of some of the cell types (Structure and Function)

PuMed citations PuMed Central citations PuMed Central note
Note - that while full publications are available online at PuMed Central, not all these publications allow reuse. You should still always identify the copyright statement within the actual article that allows reuse. Many research labs that receive government grants are required to make their published research available on PMC, this does not mean that the publicly available copy content can be used in your projects.

Remember - No easily identifiable statement usually means that you cannot reuse.


Examples from Megakaryocyte references on PubMed Central

Embryology - content cannot be reused but a useful resource about cell development.

Histology - images these can be reused in your projects.

Group Assessment Criteria  

Group Assessment Criteria

  1. The key points relating to the topic that your group allocated are clearly described.
  2. The choice of content, headings and sub-headings, diagrams, tables, graphs show a good understanding of the topic area.
  3. Content is correctly cited and referenced.
  4. The wiki has an element of teaching at a peer level using the student's own innovative diagrams, tables or figures and/or using interesting examples or explanations.
  5. Evidence of significant research relating to basic and applied sciences that goes beyond the formal teaching activities.
  6. Relates the topic and content of the Wiki entry to learning aims of cell biology.
  7. Clearly reflects on editing/feedback from group peers and articulates how the Wiki could be improved (or not) based on peer comments/feedback. Demonstrates an ability to review own work when criticised in an open edited wiki format. Reflects on what was learned from the process of editing a peer's wiki.
  8. Evaluates own performance and that of group peers to give a rounded summary of this wiki process in terms of group effort and achievement.
  9. The content of the wiki should demonstrate to the reader that your group has researched adequately on this topic and covered the key areas necessary to inform your peers in their learning.
  10. Develops and edits the wiki entries in accordance with the above guidelines.

Group 7: User:Z5021060 | User:Z5016365 | User:Z5016784 | User:Z3414546 | User:Z3417773

Links from main page

Cytoskeleton:

Integrins are Mechanosensors That Modulate Human Eosinophil Activation http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26539194

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26939881

Tumour-associated eosinophilia: a review http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC494593/

peer review

Eosinophils Group 7 z5105710

1. key points clear

  • "Significant amounts of MBP have been found in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid" explain
  • " rats with AD showed eosinophilic esophagitis in response to an allergen with migration of " what's AD?
  • "The role played by eosinophils in vasculitis has mainly been examined in conjunction with eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis (EGPA), which was renamed from Churg–Strauss Syndrome in 2012 to better reflect the disease pathology [54]. " so what what's the patholoty?

2. choice of content, headings and graphs.

  • Start with a introduction, if I am a student and am in a hurry I want to read within 5 phrases what Eo's are good for, how they look and what's special about them.
  • Nice histology pictures
  • Like how you try to explain function by structure, e.g. nucleus bi-lobed but that does not carry function.
  • "Granules are trilaminar..." explain more, insert picture
  • Need to add a lot more content within the Granules section, you can't just use bullet points, elaborate further.
  • "This is because eosinophils can regulate antigens" how can they regulate antigens? do you mean antibodies?
  • "Forms crystalloid structure of granules" how, why?
  • "Toxic to helminthic worms [27]

Cytotoxic to airways (partialy responsible for tissue damage in asthema)" how, why?

  • Same goes for all the other components, you need to add a lot of content there
  • The skeleton of information is good, you just need to elaborate further
  • Include current research section
  • Separate function from structure in structure section
  • good pictures

3. Referencing

  • Picture referencing is either non existent or wrong
  • In text referencing seems good, but make sure you declare reviews as reviews.
  • Pictures, such as https://cellbiology.med.unsw.edu.au/cellbiology/index.php/File:Eosinophil_Cytolysis.jpg, are really messy. Give comprehensive names, such es electtron micrograph of eosinophils instead of Fimmu-05-00496-g005.jpg. Why should we have numbers in the name? Then work on the formating not only in the article but also in the picture files, make them just as shown by mark in the intro course. (referencing not correct yet in file and in text for that specific picture e.g., you picture doesn't have a title in the description. You can just copy and paste the code from mark's example and then change the text and title and file name


4. own innovative diagrams, tables or figures and/or using interesting examples or explanations.

  • not included yet

5. Evidence of significant research relating to basic and applied sciences that goes beyond the formal teaching activities.

  • You really need to add more in depth info, this is not suitable yet for a assignment with this scope. Needs a lot of work still, hard to assess as a lot is still lacking.


6. Relates content to cell biology.

  • Not really apparent yet, introduce more signaling, effects of cytokines and inflammatory pathways, include pictures of cytoskeleton, migration, structure of surface molecules, what they are good for, how do they signal

7. Formatting

  • Picture legend formatting is wrong
  • Pictures are too small not readable
  • Helminth video: good placement, but you have put in twice




Group 7 (z3461106)

Group 7 has provided a great amount of information and has presented them in a concise and simply understood format. Histological diagrams of eosinophils have been cleverly utilised which has assisted in visually representing the cell. The amount of citations that have been utilised is a sufficient amount to demonstrate profound depth of research in regards to the subject of eosinophils. They have also expanded upon acronyms very well.

Mechanisms for Contents Release has been explained briefly, however, it would benefit from being incorporated into a table. The same applies for contents for the Granules. Instead of simply listing the contents of the cytokines as “preformed chemokines”, “preformed cytokines”, etc., it may help to tabulate this information. On another column, examples of the types of cytokines and chemokines can be listed to demonstrate a deeper understanding of eosinophils. In addition, group 7 will also further benefit by opening with a solid introduction that provides a basic overview of eosinophils with further entries made to the History table. I believe that there are more modern developments/discoveries that have happened in the past, especially in the 20th and 21st centuries when there has been huge advancements in technology.

I also further recommend the group to ensure that the use of their Youtube video is appropriate as some online videos are not available under the Creative Commons License, but the Standard Youtube License instead.

Some terms such as “Respiratory Syncytial Virus” can be further detailed by just a sentence in regards to the main pathogenesis of the disease as opposed to simply listing it as an example. This will provide readers with a more significant link between the eosinophil granules play a part in viruses.

Overall, Group 7 has made a solid attempt at demonstrating the knowledge of Eosinophils through information presented in a great depth but clever structure. But, more care needs to be given when linking to copyrighted content.


z3461911

General pointers:

  • A little more detail is needed, try not to write out information in dot points.
  • Proof read before final submission, there are a few spelling and grammar errors.

A few more specific pointers:

  • include an introduction to provide a brief run down of eosinophil location, function, development etc. Just a brief touch on the topic.
  • in structure, go into a bit more detail by explaining the morphology diagram. The granules section is fine though as that is the main point of eosinophils.
  • Separate Role in Allergy and Disease into eosinophil function, and diseases.
  • More detail into Atopic Dermatitis (Eczema) if possible and more eosinophil related diseases should be addressed.
  • include a glossary

Good use of images. If more content is added to the page, more pictures should be inserted to maintain the current spaced out, easy to read display.

Group 7: peer review

Initially I wonder why there is no introduction giving me a basic overview of Who? (eosinophils) What they do? When the do it? Where? And why? I also notice there is no function section, whilst their function may be incorporated into other sections I think it is important to at least have a function heading for navigational purposes and then have subheadings beneath it.

History: some points are quite long I think sticking to key points and if there is more information that is essential incorporate into introduction

Birth, life and death: Hematopoietic progenitor cells need explaining, not everyone knows what they are. The second paragraph is really good, tells a chronological story that is easy to follow. The third paragraph almost seems like an introduction to section on function.

Structure: I really like the picture however it could be positioned on the left side with corresponding text next to it rather than below. I am confused in the paragraph is the enzyme catalyzing 3 different things? If so use of commas or dot points rather than +, or is it an equation? This isn’t clear. I really like the breakdown of granules it makes it super clear and easy to read and understand! The surface markers section definitely needs to be elaborated on and use of diagrams helps to show interaction between cells. What markers are present on the cell should be at the start of the paragraph not at the end, as this is the whole point of the paragraph.

Role in disease: In the helminth section I have no idea what is going on, what is a helminth? This needs introducing and then relating to eosinophils. Section on fungal infection is great, follow this format for other sections and elaborate when needed. I feel bacterial could also be expanded on, what happens next? “Eosinophilic Esophagitis, Eosinophilic Gastritis, and Eosinophilic Gastroenteritis” could be worded “Eosinophilic esophagitis, gastritis and gastroenteritis”. I also find the table on eosinophilia quite large for such a small section; it makes me assume it is really important when it is more of a minor addition. Overall this section needs to follow a common structure within each disease and have more equal amounts of content for each subheading if possible.

Overall good project! Just needs some work in having everything structured in a consistent manner and the addition of an introduction and function sections.


3463953

colourful with short punchy paragraphs that are informative! here are some notes: - History is great, but only goes until 1879! Did nothing happen between then and now! - In terms of the paragraph structure of the Birth, Life and Death in the Body section, there is the number 3 (perhaps a footnote) in the 3rd paragraph that needs to be removed or converted to a footnote. There’s also some other spelling mistakes like in MBP section you’ve spelt asthema instead of asthma. Perhaps it’s worth just rereading over the whole thing to correct the little errors. - Add some text for the images, and I would recommend having the image title in bold. - Video did not play in Wikipedia, but it was spectacular to watch in youtube! - I would be interested in knowing if anytreatments are being developed specifically targetging eosinophils in eczema - The schematic representation of eosinophil trafficking image should be enlarged. Also to add a text box below the image refer to our first lab class. This should be done with all your images

Group 7 peer review

It appears that most of the information about eosinophils are there, however it could be presented a little better. There are too many little subheadings which would be better presented in a table, such as "What role do the components play". A short introduction before the history table would also be nice to summarise the most basic information before going into the more complex details, and the history table itself needs to include more recent findings from the 20th and 21st centuries. The banner image should be resized to make it a bit smaller, and all other images should be thumbnails with a descriptive line underneath. I don't believe you've added a self-created image yet either. In regards to the lineages and skin lesions figures, I don't think Mark approves of using images from Wikipedia even if they are free of copyright. I think you should also add a section at the end for any current or recent research being performed on eosinophils, and the sections on viral and bacterial infections seem very hollow and could do with some more information. The codes for reference numbers 15 and 30 need to be fixed as well.

GROUP 7

Introduction

  • Needs an introduction! This is useful to introduce the reader to what eosinophils actually are and give a brief overview of their location, structure, function etc (Just one or two lines on each to give an overview of what the project is going to be talking about

History

  • This section is good, i like that each historical discovery is expanded on a little bit, however you should try to include some more recent discoveries

Birth, Life, Death

  • The images used in this section nicely back up the text
  • I think there is more detail that can be provided on each of the factors discussed under this subheading - production, function and destruction are all big areas and require more than a small paragraph on each. I would recommend using sub- subheadings to divide this section up, and expand on each within these. The information you have here is good, its just summarised to provide too little information
  • Showing the progression/ flow from production —> function —> death would make it clearer
  • I didn’t really gain an understanding of the what eosinophils actually do it the body and why they exist

Structure

  • This section is succinct and provides a clear description of the structure of eosinophils - the images used are well placed and support the text nicely

Role in Disease

  • The layout of this section made it confusing to read
  • The Asthma section doesn't really focus on the role of eosinophils in asthma development
  • Overall provides a good understanding of eosinophils in disease, however each subsection could be worked on the make eosinophils the focus, rather than the disease as a whole and other contributing factors

Overall

  • A few spelling errors, which should be picked up in the final editing process
  • The page is quite short overall - expanding on each of the subsections, and creating a few new subheadings (for introduction, function etc) should improve this
  • A glossary would be useful for the reader, as there were some terms used that i had never heard of and no explanation was provided
  • Good job so far, but improvements are needed

group 7

1. Key points are there however I feel like the very large section on structure could be split into structure and function.

2. Images and tables are good however I fell like more original content could greatly add to the project

3. All images and text is correctly cited with copyright information included

4. Good explanation of terms throughout, handy as a teaching tool.

5. A lot of useful references, the topic appears clearly researched

6. Meets the aims of the cell biology course.

Group 7

Really colourful page and well structured! I particularly like the pink table!!!

  • An inclusion of an introduction would be really helpful; especially providing a brief overview of the topic as a learning resource for students
  • I'm unsure of whether the history section is finished. The information provided so far is interesting and relevant, so a good start either way.
  • I really liked the section "Birth, life and death.." but something that could make it polished would be a small subheading of for each section to point out where you are explaining birth, life and death.
  • The layout of the structure section is good, the use of dotpoints is helpful to keep it short and straight to the point; however, a short sentence explaining each dot point would add so much more depth that most students would probably be looking for.
  • Role in allergy and disease is a really interesting section and I learnt a lot of things that I didn't know. However, I think its important to briefly explain the diseases such a helminth. You could even do this in a glossary which would be a nice touch.

Overall you guys have produced a good page and its just the last finishing touches to add now. Great job!!

Group 7

On the whole, this page provides a good amount of information regarding eosinophils in a clear and engaging manner. However, I feel that the page would benefit from including an introduction/ overview of the cell at the beginning, instead of starting immediately from the history of eosinophils. Additionally, while the history section is well detailed, It could benefit from having information from more recent dates as well (as it stops at 1879), as well as information from more sources than just one article. The use of images is well done and it complements the information in the structure and birth, life and death in the body sections well. Furthermore, the text itself in these sections is well presented and easy to follow. The section on role in allergy and disease provides a lot of good detail, however, some sections seem a little on the short side, such as the sections on viral, fungal and bacterial infection, and might benefit from adding more information there. The addition of the drop down videos was a good aspect on the page, and allows for a more interesting read. One other minor point would be the fact that the last two references in the reference list don’t appear to be linked properly as there is no pubmed reference for them.

Overall, this page is well done with a lot of good information provided. However, I do believe that it can be improved by the addition of more text to make the different sections more comprehensive. There is a nice balance of images and texts, and this could benefit even more by the addition of more information.

Group 7 Peer Review

An introduction would be great to introduce readers to eosinophils before going in depth to topics surrounding them.

History section is pretty detailed, providing more information about how the discoveries were done and not just what they were. However, it stopped only until 1879. More recent discoveries regarding eosinophils would be great to see how much have we learned about the cells in the present.

This one is very nitpicky but in the "Birth, Life and Death in the body" section there are some numbered citations separated by commas which you don’t actually need (eg. …cytokine interleukin 5 (IL-5) [3], [4])

Bullet points in the Structure section do make everything simple to read but some will need more explanation than just points, especially the eosinophil granule components and their roles in the body.

More information for some diseases in the Role in Allergy and Disease section would also be preferred, and I like the inclusion of a video about how eosinophils attack. The treatment of eosinophilia table requires more information of how the therapies actually work in treating the disease The images are pretty well put and definitely helps to visually aid readers to understand the contexts for some topics.

In general, it's a pretty good read with some glaring problems. Two other sections which are still lacking, current research and glossary. Current research is vital for the readers to know and be introduced to current applications of something in the science world and how these will affect future research. Glossary is great to define terms which are hard to understand used in the page without breaking the pacing in the main sections with definitions.

Group 7 Peer Review (z5020175)

Overall:

  • An introduction should be added to the page. It's essential to introduce the cell type and its importance in eliminating extracellular parasites. Talk a bit about how it’s a granulocyte and where it is found i.e. the bloodstream
  • The written expression was suitable for student learning
  • Maybe a section on current research or future applications should be explored
  • There needs to be more information on the page

History:

  • Well Referenced
  • History is quite dense with information and can be shortened
  • There is no mention of any historical findings following 1879 for Eosinophil

Birth, Life and Death in the Body:

  • The information in the first bit of this section should be placed inside of the introduction
  • Good use of references
  • Clearly states the different locations of eosinophils through their life cycle
  • Written expression is a suitable level for student learning
  • Main cytokine in eosinophil development - IL-5 was discussed quite well
  • Clearly outlines the need for regulating eosinophil activation and cell death.
  • A flow diagram of the eosinophil's development would be a good addition to this section

Structure:

  • Very good diagram illustrating the effects of different bioactive molecules released from eosinophils and it also has copyright approval
  • Change "which containing" to "which contain"
  • What is the importance of catalysing "2-lysophosphatidylcholine +…"
  • The subheadings underneath granules make it more engaging for students to read
  • A brief explanation of what MBP-1 and MBP-2 should be mentioned in the 'What are they' paragraph
  • The sentence structure in the 'What are they' paragraph needs to be corrected. You cannot begin a sentence with 'suggesting'.
  • The idea of using dotpoints for the granular contents is good in that it makes it easier for the person to read. However, this could also be formatted in a table which includes brief functions of each of these molecules.
  • Mechanisms for content release shouldn't be placed under the structure sub-heading. It should be made a subheading on its own and diagrams illustrating eosinophil exocytosis and cytolysis should be used for a better understanding of the release mechanisms.
  • The role of each mediator was concisely displayed
  • Good choice of granule pictures

Role in Allergy and Disease:

  • The time lapse video didn't work on the wiki itself
  • It should be "There is some evidence" and not "They is some…"
  • The wording of the Helminth paragraph can be improved upon
  • Maybe go into a bit more depth about how the Eosinophil granular proteins are able to degrade ssRNA viruses specifically.
  • How exactly does the EDN and MBP kill the fungal organisms?You have only mentioned that they do but have not gone into a bit more detail about their action on fungal organisms. Do they cleave molecules in the cell wall or is it another mechanism?
  • The 'bacterial' paragraph requires a bit more information and maybe an image of the 'bacterial traps' to show their appearance. Also, you may consider adding in information about how these traps kill the bacteria.
  • There is no information that describes how eosinophils contribute to the pathogenesis of Atopic Dermatitis even though the subheading was 'Role in Allergy'. This should be explored further in order to improve the page and overtly demonstrate the ways in which eosinophils trigger or participate in the allergic response.
  • The paragraph on asthma could be improved by adding more detail about the pathogenesis. You should talk about how eosinophils are recruited and release inflammatory mediators which increase…. As a result, the epithelial lining of the airway becomes damaged and there is a thickening of the wall as well as the excess production of mucus. All of these effects of eosinophil degranulation can lead to obstruction of the airways which in asthma patients manifests as wheezing and shortness of breath.
  • Explore the clinical manifestations of asthma!
  • Good use of diagrams
  • You have not explained what constitutes 'severe eosinophilia' and its effects. Explain how the mechanism of action prevents the generation of disease. For example, by inhibiting receptor tyrosine kinase activity, how does Imantinib treat eosinophil related disease?

Group 7 z5020043

The history section was detailed and well written. I found the title after the history section quite interesting, however, the minor use of colloquial language was seen and should be replaced with formal language e.g. ‘They get produced in’. A few grammatical errors were also seen in this section. The use of dot points under the morphology allowed the information to be easily understood. A good amount of images was also used in this section. The information presented under the ‘Role in Allergy and Disease’ heading appeared to be sufficient however the layout and use of indentation seemed a little odd and out of place. The table listing the treatment for severe eosinophilia could be used as a supplement in addition to elaborated paragraphs for the different types of treatments used to treat disease. Overall, the project page seemed short and lacking information. This could be improved by the adding of information regarding that of current and future research into eosinophils.

Group 7 (z3423497)

  • Great choice of title image.
  • The addition of a introduction would be great to give an insight into the topic.
  • Nice timeline but it some points could be simplified and the addition of more recent events could further expand on this.
  • Could do with more clearer headings for each topic and could be better structured to make it easier to read and create a better flow of information.
  • The dot points in structure need to be further expanded upon.
  • There are alot of grammatical errors but this can be easily fix,
  • Page lacks a student created image and one could easily be made possibly for the roles of the components, a table of some sort.

Overall the page does seem to be incomplete but is on the right track, it just requires a bit more information for each topic and better organisation of the information it make it more presentable.

z3329177

there are two figures that comparing eosinophil to the other cells very well explained. the structure part is very nicely explained with the proper figures. using the video to help understanding of readers. the photo of eczema in the real human arm is very interesting. and the figure of asthma also has detailed in it.

I would suggest that containing more information could necessary because the there is missing of the introduction, the topic could start with the introduction because the reader would not know what is going on. the section of the history section can summarise as it contains too much information. the reference number 15 has to be fixed as the reference shows wrongly. the glossary part has to be presented. there is no mention about the exact size of the cell and what features are different from the other cells.

Group 7 | Eosinophils

History : I feel you have the precursor to the finding of the Eosinophil down but you haven't talked much about post finding the eosinophils and the research and development that has resulted in understanding it's structure or function since. You may want to go into this more deeply post 1900's.

Birth, Life and Death in the Body : Is this meant to be your introduction? It has very scattered information which isn't quite drawn together and presented clearly. I feel your ideas that you're presenting here are jumping around. Please re write this and draw all the ideas together, helping the reader to engage with eosinophils and help them progress their understanding without just dumping knowledge facts here and there about eosinophils.

Structure : Great picture of eosinophil - should format better to have information concisely. Looks a bit odd currently. There has to be some formating and rearranging done with your granule section. Once again it feels like you're taking facts and putting them together. Even though you refer to the abbreviations earlier, it may just help readability if you also put the full name next to each of the components abbreviations in brackets.

Role in Allergy and Disease : Some nice diagrams here. I feel you could have gone deeper with a lot of the knowledge you presented here. The video was good here as well as the table detailing the treatment of eosinophilia. They help break up the text and explain information in creative ways.

Should add an introduction. First thing you read is a big knowledge slam without helping the reader to ease in to what you're trying to present. I really feel that you lack some information and you could go deeper into most of your categories. You didn't talk much about future direction and research for eosinophils. They way you word things and phrase your points are often times confusing and don't flow very naturally. Please work on this to increase readability, clarity and conciseness.

Assessment Discussion

Should we meet up and discuss how we are going to set out the entire project, or just write up a set up on here so we can add information I Did embryology last year, i dont know if yous want to use this as a guideline https://embryology.med.unsw.edu.au/embryology/index.php/2015_Group_Project_2


Maybe before lab 7 we should find more papers that have information on the subheadings that are empty and add the information that we found into the relevant subheadings and maybe the week after we can allocate subheadings to people to be responsible for making that section sound cohesive.


Before lab 5 please resummarise your 4 paper summaries in a form that can be put on the assessment page. Leave out all irrelevant information and add relevant info under the sub-headings. Thanks


Before lab 4 - Everyone find 1 Paper each on structure, function, History or Histamine interactions and 1 on a more specific topic that we can take the research project in the direction of, so that we have options to choose from after the midsem break. Cheers, Sam

Lab 4 Homework

Z5021060

Eosinophil Formation & Development

Eosinophils are created from the eosinophil lineage committed progenitors (EoP), CD34+ cells [1], [2]. They get produced in response to infections and diseases that cause an inflammatory responses which leads to an increase in amount of eosinophils present in the blood due to cytokine interleukin 5 (IL-5) [3], [4]. EoPs develop into its mature form via the influence of the regulatory molecules that control IL-5 [5], [6], [7]. The alteration of IL-5 levels affects the rate at which EoPs can mature but does not effect the ability of the bone marrow to produce CD34+ [8].

Surface Markers

Eosinophils migrating to different tissues in the body are part of its function[9]. Eosinophils that are part of the circulatory system remain inactive until they reach the tissue[10]. When eosinophils migrate to endothelial cells, interleukin (IL)-4 or IL-Beta encouragse further migration[10]. The rate of this process further increases if a chemoattractant is used[10]. In an experiment where a culture is used, the endothelial cells that were treated to prevent this chemotactic event lead to a decrease in the expression of CD68[10]. CD69 is an early marker and CD35 is a receptor[11]. Both of these are controlled by endothelial cells and thus their expression increased when the eosinophils migrated to the endothelial cells[11].

Activation & Apoptosis

Eosinophils are a type of leukocyte that has many functions in terms of inflammatory response: has a role in parasitic, bacterial and viral infection, allergies, tumours and injuries to tissues[12]. Therefore, maintaining a certain level of eosinophils via activation and programmed cell death is important for the immune system[13]. This is because eosinophils can regulate antigens, tissues and they can also encourage the inflammatory process via release of cytokines and lipid mediators[13]. In humans, eosinophil activation can be influenced by the increase in the CD69 protein activity and the decrease in CD62L activity[14]. On the other hand, eosinophil apoptosis can also be influenced by NK which could be seen as the rate of apoptosis was higher in the culture that was incubated with Natural Killer cells[14].

Eosinophils in Parasitic Infections

Eosinophils can often be seen during allergic reactions and in parasitic diseases [15]. This can be investigated by looking at granules granule proteins of eosinophils. During parasitic infection, the granules such as eosinophil peroxides (EPO) and major basic protein-1 (MBP-1) eosinophil-derived neurotoxin and eosinophil catatonic protein can deposit its contents onto the helminth to kill it [16]. Thus eosinophils are needed for eliminating the the parasite as without it, the parasite would be able to survive in the body for a longer period of time [15].

Lab 3 Assessment

z5021060

Paper 1

Eosinophils migrating to different tissues in the body are part of its function[9]. Eosinophils that are part of the circulatory system remain inactive until they reach the tissue[10]. The article looks at what occurs in terms of the surface markers and release of leukotriene C4 when eosinophils reach these endothelial cells[10]. It was found that when eosinophils migrated to the endothelial cell, interleukin (IL)-4 or IL-Beta would encourage further migration. The rate of this process further increased if a chemoattractant was used. In the culture, the endothelial cells that were treated to prevent this chemotactic event would lead to a decrease in the expression of CD68. CD69 is an early marker and CD35 is a receptor[11]. Both of these are controlled by endothelial cells and thus their expression increased when the eosinophils migrated to the endothelial cells[11].

<pubmed>12797482</pubmed>

Paper 2

Eosinophils can often be seen during allergic reactions and in parasitic diseases [15]. This can be investigated by looking at granules granule proteins of eosinophils. During parasitic infection, the granules such as eosinophil peroxides (EPO) and major basic protein-1 (MBP-1) eosinophil-derived neurotoxin and eosinophil catatonic protein can deposit its contents onto the helminth to kill it [16]. Thus the article looks at the presence or absence of these proteins to see its effects on parasitic disease.The article looks at the parasite Brugia malayi microfilariae for the investigation. It was found that eosinophils were needed for eliminating the microfilariae during primary infection as its absence would allow for the microfilariae to survive in the body for a longer period of time [15]. The absence of EPO lead to the increase in levels of Immunoglobin E (IgE) which meant that eosinophils have a role in the controlling the levels of IgE [15]. The article also states that eosinophils can have both a positive and negative effect as the removal of MBP-1 lead to increased mucus production by goblet cell[15]s but the physiology of the respiratory system did not change with its absence [17].

<pubmed>24626328</pubmed>

Paper 3

Eosinophils are a type of leukocyte that has many functions in terms of inflammatory response: has a role in parasitic, bacterial and viral infection, allergies, tumours and injuries to tissues[12]. Therefore, maintaining a certain level of eosinophils via activation and programmed cell death is important for the immune system, as eosinophils can regulate antigens, tissues, as they can also encourage the inflammatory process via release of cytokines and lipid mediators[13]. This article further studies the regulation activation and apoptosis of eosinophils via the influence of Natural Killer (NK) cells. In humans, eosinophil activation can be influenced by the increase in the CD69 protein activity and the decrease in CD62L activity. On the other hand, eosinophil apoptosis can also be influenced by NK which could be seen as the rate of apoptosis was higher in the culture that was incubated with NK cells.

<pubmed>24727794</pubmed>

Paper 4

EoP count in eosinophila patients[6]

Eosinophils are created from the eosinophil lineage committed progenitors (EoP), CD34+ cells [1], [2]. They get produced in response to infections and diseases that cause an inflammatory responses which leads to an increase in amount of eosinophils present in the blood due to cytokine interleukin 5 (IL-5) [3], [4]. EoPs develop into its mature form via the influence of the regulatory molecules that control IL-5 [5], [6], [7]. The alteration of IL-5 levels affects the rate at which EoPs can mature but does not effect the ability of the bone marrow to produce CD34+ [8].

z3414546

Eosinophilic Inflammation in Allergic Asthma

<pubmed> PMC3627984</pubmed>

This paper broadly explores the molecular events that lead to eosinophil recruitment in allergic asthma and their participation in airway hyper responsiveness and remodelling. It also provides a good overview of the immune response (and pathogenesis) upon allergen challenge, hence would be a suitable source of information for the sub-section concerning the role of eosinophils in disease [18].

Evidence suggests that Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) regulates the adhesion, distribution and morphologic changes in eosinophils. Whilst certain Leukotrienes (e.g. leukotriene B4 (LTB4)) promote the trafficking and recruitment of eosinophils to inflamed tissues and ensure their survival once there. According to the research, inhaled allergens activate mast cells and Th2 CD4+ lymphocytes to produce cytokines IL-13, IL-4, IL-5 and TNF-α[18][19]. These stimulate epithelial cells, smooth muscle cells and fibroblasts to produce eotaxin. IL-5 regulates migration of eosinophils out of bone marrow, eotaxin directs their movement to lung tissue through blood vessels (via CC chemokine receptors CCR3) [18][20]. Eosinophils then release granule proteins (e.g. eosinophil cationic protein and major basic protein) as well as other molecules such as leukotrienes and metalloproteinases. These are cytotoxic and induce further immune responses that lead to airway hyper-responsiveness and remodelling [18][21].

Research has also demonstrated that some leukotrienes are bronchoconstrictors and have been known to prolong the migration of eosinophils to the airways in allergic asthma [22]. It has further been revealed that eosinophil recruitment occurs in the lung parenchyma as well. Lastly, whilst eosinophils play a major role in the pathogenesis of asthma, research shows they also play a crucial role in lung defence, through the direct regulation of T-cell activities [18][23].


The early history of the eosinophil

<pubmed>25544991</pubmed> This paper is particularly useful for the subsection on the history of the eosinophil as it presents a comprehensive timeline and findings regarding morphology, formation, function and fate of the eosinophil as well as important events that contributed to these discoveries. According Kay 2015 eosinophils where first identified and named by Paul Ehrlich during the 1870s due to the development of specific staining techniques for blood films. The most significant stain utilised was Eosin, a synthetic red dye discovered by Heinrich Caro, 1874. Eosin stains basic proteins due to its acidic properties and eosinophil granules possess a particularly high affinity for it. Kay 2015 stated that Ehrlich was able to describe the features of eosinophils in great detail as a result of this essential stain, for example alpha granules appeared spherical or as short rods with round ends. He also observed beta-granules in eosinophils derived from the bone marrow, most likely immature alpha granules. He further identified inconsistencies in the number of nuclear lobes and granules from one cell to another[24].

Ehrlich documented the distribution of eosinophils in tissues and their formation in bone marrow. According Kay 2015, Ehrlich accurately recognised that granules possessed secretory components and that eosinophils were somewhat responsible for the reactions seen in asthma, helminth infections and certain skin diseases. Kay 2015 highlights that there were many others that observed this cell before Ehrlich, Thomas Wharton Jones first noted granulated cells in human and animal blood specimens in 1846. Julius Vogel observed eosinophils in inflammatory exudates, whilst Max Johann Sigismund Schultze first observed the movements and phagocytic nature of these cells[24].


Eosinophil granules function extracellularly as receptor-mediated secretory organelles

<pubmed>19017810</pubmed> This paper is appropriate for the subsection on eosinophil function, it highlights a rather specific function of their intracellular components as opposed to the generalized function of the cell as a whole. The article particularly focuses on eosinophil granules and granule protein release extracellularly and further provides a perspective on the mechanisms that drive this protein release and how this process may contribute to the severity of an inflammatory response (during eosinophil associated disease)[25].

Neves et al. observed that granules of eosinophils express receptors for cytokines and G protein coupled receptors (CCR3) for chemokines. They found that these receptors are located on the surface membranes of granules, and respond to external cytokines and chemokines by activating a signal-transduction pathway within granules. They also highlight that IFN-γ (cytokine) and eotaxin (chemokine) are responsible for stimulating the secretion of cationic proteins, enzymes and cytokines originating from granules[25].

Neves et al. suggest that this extracellular secretion process is regulated by the ability of granules to function as individual secretory vessels outside of eosinophils (in diseased tissue sites). This is how they may contribute to inflammation mediated by eosinophils and immunoregulation/immunomodulation[25].


IgE, Mast Cells, Basophils, and Eosinophils

<pubmed>20176269</pubmed> This article is relevant for the subsection on structure, the information in this article was derived from a broad range of investigations. It provides an overview of the major morphological features specific to eosinophils, with particular focus on granules, cytoplasmic components and surface markers. Stone et al. state that eosinophils possess a large bi-lobed nucleus, containing highly condensed chromatin within. Another specific feature that Stone et al. highlights are granules, there are two major types. Specific granules contain cationic proteins such as major basic protein, eosinophil peroxidase, eosinophil cationic protein and eosinophil-derived neurotoxin. These proteins give eosinophils their distinct staining property. Primary granules on the other hand, possess Charcot-Leyden crystal proteins [26][27]. Stone et al. also draw attention to lipid bodies that reside in the cytoplasm (not membrane bound) which contain eicosanoid synthetic enzymes and from rapidly after eosinophil activation[26][27].

Stone et al. specifies many of the cell surface markers present on eosinophils, some of these include cytokine receptors (IL-3R, IL-5R, GM-CSF) which promote their development, Immunoglobulin receptors (IgA, IgG); complement receptors (CR3, CD88) as well as receptors for chemokines (CCR1 and CCR3) and many other receptor molecules [27][28].

z5016784

Role of Eosinophils In Disease

Viral infection - Eosinophil granule proteins are known for their ribonuclease activity and have been shown to degrade single stranded RNA containing viruses. It has recently been shown that viruses such as parainfluenza virus, respiratory syncytial virus, or rhinovirus induce the release of EPO by eosinophils when co-incubated in the presence of antigen-presenting cells and T cells . Eosinophils may also have a protective role in other infections, especially against RNA viruses such as respiratory syncytial virus and pneumonia virus of mice (PVM)

Fungal infection - Recent investigation has focused on the role of eosinophils in fungal infections. Eosinophils release their cytotoxic granule proteins into the extracellular milieu and onto the surface of fungal organisms in order to kill fungi in a contact-dependent manner. However eosinophils do not react with chitin, a fungal cell wall component.

Bacterial infection - Eosinophils rapidly release mitochondrial DNA in response to exposure to bacteria, C5a or CCR3 ligands. The traps contain the granule protein ECP and MBP, and display antimicrobial activity. In the extracellular space, the mitochondrial DNA and the granule proteins form extracellular structures that bind and kill bacteria both in vitro and under inflammatory conditions in vivo. After cecal ligation and puncture, IL5-transgenic but not wild-type mice show intestinal eosinophil infiltration and extracellular DNA deposition in association with protection against microbial sepsis. This data suggests a previously undescribed mechanism of eosinophil-mediated innate immune responses that might be crucial for maintaining the intestinal barrier function after inflammation-associated epithelial cell damage, preventing the host from uncontrolled invasion of bacteria .

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4109275/

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/?term=22475285[PMID]&report=imagesdocsum

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/?term=19231593[PMID]&report=imagesdocsum

Targeting Eosinophils in Allergy, Inflammation and Beyond

Eosinophils can regulate local immune and inflammatory responses, and their accumulation in the blood and tissue is associated with several inflammatory and infectious diseases. As such, therapies aimed at eosinophils may help control diverse diseases, including disorders such as asthma and allergy, and also diseases that are not primarily associated with eosinophils such as autoimmunity and malignancy. Recently, eosinophil-targeted therapeutic agents aimed at blocking specific steps involved in eosinophil development, migration and activation have entered clinical testing and have produced encouraging results and insights into the role of eosinophils.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3822762/

Eosinophila

Different stages and ways to treat it

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