Difference between revisions of "Talk:2016 Group 6 Project"

From CellBiology
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File:T Cell banner Small.jpg|
File:T lymphocyte.jpg|SEM T lymphocyte
File:Migratory challenges faced by T cells.jpeg|Migratory challenges faced by T cells
File:Lymphocyte rosettes.jpg|Lymphocyte rosettes
File:T and B cell.jpg|B and T cell comparison with ER rich B cells on the right
File:TCR structure and VDJ genes.jpg|Structure of TCR as it is interacting with a MHCII receptor
File:Lymphoid cell subtypes.jpg|Diagram of production site and lineage of lymphoid progenitor offspring.
File:Lymphoid tissue.jpg|fluorescently labeled cell types in a lymph node
File:T Cell infected by HIV.jpg|colored SEM T Helper Cell surface (blue) covered by HIV-1 (yellow)
File:T_Cell_subtypes_diagramm.gif|T Cell subtypes, functions and differentiation factors
File:CTL attacking a cancer cell.jpg|Lattice Light-Sheet Microscopy Reveals Actin Dynamics in Conjugating T Cells
File:T Cell Receptor binding with MHC1.png|CD8+ T cell binds with TCR and its CD8 co-receptor to MHC1 on Antigen presenting cell (own creation)
File:B7 lignad and MYPPPY.png|CD28 receptor with MYPPPY loop binds with B7-1 or B7-2 Ligand on APC (own creation)
File:Contributors to T cell exhaustion.png|Contributors to T cell exhaustion in HBV
File:NKT cells bridge the gap between innate and adaptive immune cells.jpeg|NKT cells, by which is meant specifically iNKT cells, interact with a variety of innate and adaptive immune cells to regulate the immune response.
File:The role of NKT cells during microbial infection.jpeg|NKT cells, by which is meant specifically iNKT cells
File:A schematic for human memory T cell development.jpeg|This image shows the effect of antigen exposure on memory T cells
File:Differentiation of resident memory T cells.jpeg|Generation and maintenance of resident memory T-cell subsets
File:CART own graphic 2.0.jpg|Flowchart of CAR generation procedure. Generation of scFV by through mAb, genetic Engineering of CAR sequence, introduction into viral vector and transfection of T. Own creation

Revision as of 20:01, 19 May 2016




General Organisation

peer review

Group 6

1. Well introduction to T-cells. Easy to understand and learn. 2. Information, diagrams and contents are all well-cited. 3. Good organisation of headings and sub-headings. However, the function of T-cells can be more summarized by adding sub-headings to each function or maybe number/bold the different functions out for easier learning and studying purposes. 4. Some diagrams can be explained for more details, in order to increase understanding of reader without reading too much of the texts. 5. Very profound research has been done, providing sufficient references to contents. 6. Student's own final thoughts as a summary has been included, good understanding has been shown. 7. Well relates the topic and content of the Wiki entry to learning aims of cell biology.

Group 6

Introduction: The introduction was well worded and flowed well between paragraphs. Some information however could be cut out and added in the development, as the introduction would just give a brief overview of T cells and what you would be speaking about throughout your page. Referencing is done well throughout this section, and it was good that you made a statement about a feature of the cell and provided the article that it was studied or reviewed in, but again this could have been added in another section.

Commonalities: This section is also well referenced and worded appropriately for your target audience. I found the use of the diagrams very handy and aided the text very well. There are a few grammatical errors that can be fixed. The information contained under each sub heading shows that you have done your research well, however, some sections do seem a bit too wordy and may be need to be cut down on or slightly simplified so it can be that much easier to follow - such as T cell receptor and co-receptors.

Development: This section is also referenced well and contained a useful diagram. The use of the expanded video in this section is great as it provides extra insight into the development of T cells. This provides a good opening point before the reader goes through this section.

History: This is well referenced and concise. I thought it would be good to place this after the introduction as it would give an overview of the discovery of the types of T cells and in turn their function. This can also prepare the reader on what to expect you will be speaking about throughout your web page.

Types of T cells: Each sub-heading was well planned out, by having expandable tabs to give us further information on the cell is a great idea as it provides the viewer the option to check it out rather than have everything in front of them and overcrowding the page. Under T regulatory cells there is a sub heading - clinical implications and disease - not sure if this is going to be elaborated on specifically towards the T regulatory cells, but I would probably suggest keeping this section simple and integrate implications and disease with current research. I have also noticed that lots of articles have been referenced throughout this passage with statements like ‘as reviewed in’. This is a good idea to provide the reader with the original source directly, however, I think if you can reduce this and focus on the your main statement and just have the reference, this would make it less distracting for the reader. Overall though I feel this section was done well.

Current research: This section was interesting for me and done well. Referencing was done well and the information provided was worded well.

Group 6

Introduction is a bit long. I would condense it down to give a short overview about T cells and what is going to be covered in the wiki. Highlighting the differences between different t cell types and their function could be shortened. A lot of the references used are reviews, some of those references need to be replaces with some research articles.

The section commonalities between t cell: function, contains a lot of information about the different ways t cell subtypes function. This section should only have the common features, not focus on differences. There is a large section relating to structure in this section, this should be moved to the structure section.

Location and morphology sections were well done, they focused generally on t cells and didn’t go into much detail about specific t cell subtypes.

The T cell Receptor and C0-Receptors section needs to be condensed down. There is a lot of information packed in there which makes the whole thing difficult to follow. 'TCRα is related with CD3δε, and TCRβ with CD3γε, and then the ζζ module associated with TCRα' is an example of a part that you could consider taking out. It doesn't make a lot of sense and doesn’t contribute to the understanding of t cell receptors and co receptors.

The history section seems a bit out of place. I would try putting it towards the start of the wiki as a history is like an overview of t cells. It makes sense to put it with the introduction.

I liked the paragraph before the different subtypes, provided some context In which to read about the different subtypes

It was interesting to see a small description of the different subtypes and then have an expandable section for more information. Students may want just a small in. production to the cell subtype and not a really long, detailed explanation. This provides a way to either get a snapshot of the cell or a full description, depending on what the reader is looking for. These sections were well written.

The section on CARS was very well done an extremely interesting. It related a current research project back to the basics of T cells that was discussed in the wiki.

The Crispr section is really small and probably not worth mentioning in the wiki unless it is expanded in greater detail.

Overall, it is clear a lot of work went into this wiki. I would focus on condensing down some of the information, and working on some grammar. The sections on commonalities between t cells specifically needs a lot of editing, there is a massive overuse of commas that should be sorted out! There are a large number of review articles cited, probably too many. Try to replace some of these with research articles.

Group 6

Introduction-has too much information for an introduction-consider breaking it down or putting some of the info in your other sections. The second paragraph has an “As reviewed in” then a footnote reference-this needs to be an in text reference. Suggest putting the youtube video in the development section.

Future research- Good reference to specific research being done at the moment however could flesh out Crispr/Cas9 more.

Overall-Change subheading arrangement to history, structure, development then function-makes more chronological sense. Make sure if your making a direct reference to a paper ie. “As reviewed in” or “As found in” put an in text citation not just the footnote reference to the paper. Overall great information if maybe too much focused on immunology rather than just the cell itself, however as you have that information as well at least it’s not suffering for it.

Group 6

One of the best group projects so far! The level of information and the layout scheme of things are very smart and different. No one else had this layout or the types of T cells followed by the detailed structure, function, development and clinical application for each. I think it best f you guys have an introduction under each subheading then add the function of each type of T cell in the collapsible tab with structure and development. Additionally maybe you guys should consider structure going first ahead of function. This a minor critique really but I fell that if this was my group that’s what I would do, just to polish things up and finish off the project page in a professional manner. The flow is one of the best flows and I think this is due to the layout of the page. Further your group has shown to present a great detail of information on their page balancing this with a large amount of visuals. However if you aim for one visual aid per section this should positively develop your page. I’ve noticed that T regulators and Cytotoxic cells need an image in these sections. Lastly a great amount of reference used and this mirrors the level of information present.

Group 6 (z3461106)

Group 6 has composed an excellent introduction that has set out to briefly explain the origins and naming of T-cells. Through brief explanation of how T cells function, followed by a listing of what the wiki page will explain, has provided a nice structural overview. In addition, the History is tabulated with comprehensive information and citations which shows that the topic has been thoroughly researched, including important modern developments/ discoveries. There is an abundance of information which has been conveniently hidden in order to ensure that the main points are not construed. Diagrams have been extensively used which contain labels which assist with the visual representations of T cells and how they function. A great example of this is the APC-T cell interaction through explanations of the T cell receptor structure which interacts with the MHCII receptor of the antigen.

However, information can be further simplified through the use of tables, such as when outlining the differences between the subtypes of different T cells. In addition, to maintain professionalism of wikis, I believe that the text should not contain third person pronouns such as “we”.

Overall, Group 6 has maintained a fantastic effort in providing a simple understanding with great depth of research detail whilst also balancing diagrams and videos. Some potential tips to take onboard could be increased use of tables to illustrate and compare subtypes of T cells.


General pointers:

  • When referring to articles, use the Havard in-text referencing style i.e Surname et al (year), then follow with the superscript
  • Not much more detail is needed. Focus should now shift to managing how information is presented

A few more specific pointers:

  • shift the subheadings around. Start with Intro into History, then Yype of B Cells then Commonalities between T cells subtypes. Provides a more logical flow as the reader is introduced to the cell types then the similarities between them are identified.
  • separate the development paragraph and form a differentiation/maturation/activation subheading to reduce clumps of text
  • for types of T cells, try include a diagram to show the pathway of activation/mechanism of action. Can provide a little more detail without expanding that subtopic.
  • expand on Cripr/Cas9. Include how it works and how it interacts with T cells.
  • Work on the glossary. There is a lot of detail in total and a lot of new terms presented. A glossary would be necessary.

Good use of hiding information in the T cell types. The main points are outlined while additional information can be access if wished. Easy way of finding info.

Group 6

The first thing that stood out to me when I skimmed over the project were the expandable video tutorials. This could prove to be useful for people who don’t have any prior knowledge about T cells at all. The introduction proved to be detailed with a sufficient amount of references. A good amount of effort was seen put under the ‘Functions’ section but numerous grammatical errors were displayed. Again, this can be seen in the section regarding structure and disturbs flow and readability. Despite this, the information given is quite detailed. The morphology and and function section was well written, however, the image under morphology could be made a little larger. Good use of external links under ‘Origin and Migration’. The development section was written much better. The line ‘(see T Cell structure for TCR structure)’ was good as it linked the text to other parts of the project. The placement of the history section seemed a little odd but that is not major issue that needs to be considered. Possibly list out using bullet points the different types T cells under the ‘Type of T-Cells’ heading. Information regarding ‘The CAR Race’ was very detailed but the other two subheadings in the same section could be elaborated upon. A recent Crispr/Cas9 experiment regarding T cells could be included. The inclusion of the collapsible table in the project ‘Research at the UNSW and Active Labs’ was unique and serves a good purpose to those interested. Overall, despite grammatical errors seen under the ‘functions’ and ‘structure’ headings, this project is commendable shown through the detailed information displayed.

Group 6

1. Great introduction yet seems a little long and good use of the video, it intrigues the readers and makes the report more fun

2. History was placed away from the introduction, personally I think that its best to be placed after the introduction in which all the other projects have done

3. Lack of glossary is a downfall and needs to be worked on, large reference list is great

4. Good use of images all over the project

5. Overall it is a great report, maybe remover a little bit from the introduction, reposition the history and work on a glossary, apart from that well done


By reading this groups' project, you can easily see how much effort they put into their work. This can be seen from the amount of information they have gathered through research. This is great but the amount of information provided is definitely overwhelming for someone who is new to the topic of T Lymphocytes. In each section of the project, so much time and effort has been put in which is great! I think it would however be easier to read if the group could use bullet points or more tables. It is very difficult to absorb large amounts of information at once, especially if they are written in a paragraph format. The group did couple images with the lengthy sub-sections which was helpful in terms of absorbing information. As mentioned before, I think adding bullet points as well as tables along with the images would be good if the group was planning to keep all the information they have written.


Very extensive, Very colourful, Very informative. The main theme of criticism is in the language used, but the content is great. Many sentences have good information but need to be reread and rewritten to make sense. A classic example is : A plethora of subtypes and difficulties to find adequate markers have provided difficulty to clearly establish what Treg distinguishes from T effector cells Technically it makes sense but it may be rewritten to have more flow to example: There are a plethora of difficulties in finding adequate markers to clearly distinguish Tregs from T effector cells. - It doesn’t read well to day: as reviewed in (footnote). I would recommend using the normal authors names then foot note that. I.e. as reviewed in Robertson et al. (2000)(footnote) - Also, you refer to the same review in two continuous sentences. Perhaps you can make the paragraph flow better by using linking language. i.e. this previously mentioned review by Robertson et al also discussed… - I like the video - There are some spelling errors which imply a reread is necessary. i.e. subsection function you say “makers” not “markers*” etc. Also the next sentence doesn’t read well “ To gives a mobility the physical structure of the T cell has to continuously remodeling. “ rewrite so it says “to give mobility*” Some sentences have poor grammar i.e. don’t start with a capital letter etc. - Great job explaining VDJ recombination, I would give the images titles though. This would make it easier for the reader to have a text title to refer to. You can do this by just making the the title of the images in bold - History isn’t very extensive compared to the standard of the rest of the report - The sub sub table “autoimmune diseases” needs to be addressed. It’s telling the reader to go look up information! And the following HIV section only has a photo that’s much to small to read from! There are several areas that require addressing - Interesting that Tregs are relatively non motile, did you know after appendicitis there’s a massive release of Tregs from the appendix that spread through the colon (with relatively high motility) maybe that would be an interesting add-on - Great job on the summarising of Tregs in cancer involvement - I love the Research at UNSW section, great original thinking. - No glossary’ - Also when discussing the TCR it says the TCR is "simple" then proceeds to explain the paragraph that is pretty complex. Even if it's simple to the writer, when you use language like that you risk insulting the reader.

Factsheet & Roadmap



Drive: https://drive.google.com/folderview?id=0B73R6WMeqvwfRDk5VjBhbW5GLTg&usp=sharing (View Only link, edit link will be provided in private)

Basic questions needing answering

What is the shape of a T cell like? What do the T cells differentiate from? Where do they mature? Thymus Locations where they reside?


  • Good use of subheadings, coverage of topics and very thorough information however I found it very hard to get through at times, too many blocks of text and not enough tables, images or flow charts to cut through it. Some sections need to be summarised further into dot points, need to be careful as less can be more.
  • It is also difficult to understand the style of writing at times
  • Some sections are overly complicated (development, recombination events), think carefully of the target audience
  • Great range of sources and use of videos to explain and simplify difficult concepts
  • The focus on current research and links to research groups was an excellent idea

Group 6 peer review

This is definitely the most detailed page, and you only need to look at the number of references to know that a great deal of research has gone into it. I see that you have listed some websites and textbooks in the references section. If you have used these as sources of information then you should be aware that Mark has frowned upon the use of these in the comments on previous years projects. The code for reference number 204 needs to be fixed as it doesn't show anything in the references section. The glossary has obviously not been started. The images you have compliment the text very well especially the self-created image.

However the T cell SEM image may infringe copyright as I'm not so sure that posting it on this website is considered private use although I could be wrong. Similarly the copyright information for the CD4/CD8 receptor image does not detail any open access rights or creative commons license. Having said that, I think that the list of active research with links is a nice touch, as is the collapsible tables that contain a staggering amount of information in themselves, and I don't think you have to worry at all about doing well in this assignment.



  • The introduction is a bit long. This section should provide an overview of the whole project and identify the major points about T cells, which this has done, however it begins to go into a bit too much detail, and covers information that should be/ is covered in the body.


  • This section is very well done - appropriate length for a history section, clearly set out in a table, and contains both historical and recent discoveries in relation to T cells - provides a good overview of their function.


  • This section could be worded in a way that would be more easily understood by people who are not experts in T cells. It contains a lot of good information, its just a bit hard to read.
  • The paragraph under the subheading “T cell receptor and Co- receptors” is very hard to read, and perhaps too complicated for this purpose. There are a lot of letters and not a lot of words, and I found it hard to understand what you were trying to say. This might be because each sentence originated from a different source, which shows you’ve done a lot of research, however these sentences need to flow with each other.

Types of T cells

  • The paragraph on T helper cell function needs to be reworded. There are unfinished sentence and some phrases could be worded better.
  • Same applies for the first paragraph on Tregs - basic language would be better than trying to use complicated language that is not making sense. Some of these sentences need to be reordered
  • Reconsider how you reference - including the name of authors or studies with the footnotes would give the readers an understanding of where the information has come from, rather than just having the numbers
  • The entire section on Memory T cells seems to say ‘As reviewed in’ at the beginning of every sentence. Although you are providing a lot of information, it is quite distracting to read, and means the sentences and information don’t flow on from each other.


  • This section is done well, providing a succinct summary of research in the field of T cells
  • Perhaps the CRISPR/ Cas 9 subheading could be expanded on
  • The UNSW current research table is nice, and makes the information in the project relevant to students


  • There are a number of spelling errors throughout, but i’m sure those will be picked up in the final editing process
  • The incredible depth that this project goes into shows that you’ve done a lot of research, however, in a few areas it is worded in a very complicated way that is perhaps beyond what is necessary. I found some areas quite tedious to read. In my opinion, it would be better to simplify it and condense the information as this would make a reader a lot more inclined to want to continue reading.
  • Although T cells are inextricably linked to immunology, i think there are areas where this project goes too far into the immunology side of things rather than the cell biology.
  • You have all of the information/research you need on the page already, it just needs to be sorted through and worded/ arranged in a more readable manner
  • Good research skills are evident. Well done so far.

group 6

1. key points throughout are clear

2. In the introduction there’s a sentence “T-cells earn their name from their main organ of maturation, the Thymus, which provides the means for their selection and differentiation, as shown in[2][3][4]…” I don’t think the as shown in is necessary I understand it’s to show research but simply putting the references after differentiation will suffice, otherwise it reads a bit more like an essay rather than a wiki page. Also the history section seems a bit out of place where it is, maybe it would make more sense to add it after the introduction.

3. I’m not sure if the SEM can be used under copyright, it says for personal use and not 100% if the use here would be personal. Also not sure about the image from the molecular biology text book, this may be rights reserved.

4. Very valuable teaching tool with a lot of information about the topic overall well presented

5. A lot of references which show a lot of research into the topic. However a lot of them aren’t directly referred to instead just stated as shown in… maybe instead these could be placed in an appendix or further reading section? It breaks the flow a bit when added throughout

6. Overall it is consistent with the course aims of cell biology.

Group 6

Amazing page!! Really thorough and provides an enormous amount of detail.

  • The structure and formatting is great; especially the use of collapsable tables for the different types of t cells- this really makes the page a lot less daunting than automatically displaying the huge amount of information. A great idea.
  • Maybe reorder the over all structure however, ie moving history to below introduction to allow the page to flow a little better.
  • Your use of images and videos is great. Each of them add to the information you have provided and also aid in explaining difficult concepts.
  • The reference list is extensive and very impressive, highlighting how much research you guys have done. However, I was under the impression it was preferred we did not use review articles for information and only used the for sources of images/diagrams so you might want to double check this with Mark.
  • I also really like the inclusion of research labs; especially those ones at UNSW. A really nice touch and provides students with a resource for finding more information that is current and relevant to the type of T-cells.

Over all there is not much that need fixing. I would suggest having another read through the do some last minute editing and ensuring all sections are written and flow really well (for example the structure section is really dense). Awesome job guys!

Group 6

This page is extremely detailed and it is evident that a lot of thought and work went into the way in which the information is presented. The introduction is well done and provides a good overview of T cells in an educational manner. The video placed in the introduction is also a good touch to make the page interesting from the very start. All of the individual sections are very well done and show a high level of detail, and the section of the different types of T cells is extremely thorough and provides good detail on the entire range of T cells. All of the drop down tables are also a nice touch to the page, with links to videos such as Khan Academy further helping to solidify knowledge on the subject. Additionally, the supplementing images are well picked out as they serve to solidify the information that is being provided. However, while looking through the images, the diagram of CD4 and CD8 co-receptors doesn’t seem to include a copyright statement (it only includes the fact that it is copyrighted from the British Pharmacological Society), so that is something that needs to be fixed. While the extensive number of references indicates the high level of research that has been put into the page, some of them seem to be links to websites and not articles, and I am not sure if those websites can be used as a source of information in this assignment. The research at UNSW section is a nice, unique touch to add to the page, as is the glossary, although it needs to be filled out.

Overall, this page is very well done and it is evident that a lot of effort went into creating it. All of the information is well structured and constructed, and all of the additional touches such as images and drop down sections are extremely informative. Some improvements could be made regarding the references and the images, but overall this page is very well done.

Group 6 Peer Review

This is an amazingly detailed, informative and engaging page explaining about T lymphocytes, while keeping it simple when if some readers don't need the all details by putting collapsible boxes containing all the extra information. Despite this, some of the subheadings do not have any information yet.

History describes the main research progression well and also referenced correctly, although moving it just under the introduction would be great for the flow of the page.

The walls of text in the structure section can be split into several paragraphs so it does not actually feel too dense in terms of providing information.

The usage of videos and images are also impressive regarding how they actually can aid readers going through the page in their own way and pace.

The references are extremely extensive with more than one supporting articles for numerous statements, giving readers options to choose which article to access if they intend to learn more about a topic from the page.

Again, inclusion of extra information in collapsible boxes for each topic and even current active research labs in UNSW is very nice, providing deep explanations and sources for the readers who want to learn more about any topics in the page. I think some of the sources should be revised again, as primary sources are preferred compared to review articles.

Glossary is still not implemented yet, though. When it's up it will help readers more to understand terms used in the page.

Overall, I really enjoyed reading through this page. In my opinion, this is how an article page should be, giving the readers freedom to go through all of the information in the page in their own way and pace with images, videos and collapsible boxes containing more in-depth information.

Group 6 Peer Review (z5020175)


  • This section is really well written
  • Clearly introduces distinguishing features of T cells
  • It is good that you have briefly mentioned their function in the immune system
  • I don't think it is conventional to cite articles by saying "as shown in (7)(8)". You usually just add the citation numbers at the end of the information.
  • It might be a bit too much information to discuss the classes of T cells in the introduction.


  • This section could be improved by correcting the wording, grammar and sentence structure.
  • Information is cited and comes from a wide variety of sources.
  • A table would be useful to highlight the differences between Tregs and other effector T cells.
  • The cytoskeleton information should be placed under structure and not function.
  • The diagram doesn't really correspond with the functions of T cells.
  • The mechanisms in which T cells eliminate tumours, virally infected cells or regulates the immune response should be explored.
  • This section is not solely focused on the functions of T cells and this should be corrected.


  • The first paragraph bears no relevance to the structure of T cells
  • T cell Morphology: It is better if you do not mention B cells and just focus on the morphology of the T cells. All the necessary information such as cell size, shape and nucleus appearance is stated but the B cell information should be removed.
  • Location shouldn't be placed under the structure subheading
  • T Cell Receptor and Co-receptors: A good diagram was used . The genetic background of the TCR is extensively covered but there is too much detail and this can be difficult for a student who is trying to learn about TCRs for the first time. Not every student will have knowledge about VDJ genes and their rearrangement.


  • The written expression in this section was clear but is very heavy in information and this may be difficult to facilitate student learning.
  • Information is clearly cited but you don't need to put in "reviewed in". Simply add the numbers to the end of the information you intend to cite.
  • A diagram could really be shown in this section particularly if you are trying to teach a difficult concept such as VDJ rearrangement to students.
  • There are many images for positive and negative selection which simplify the process so that it can be understood well. Adding in one of these images may assist the reader in understanding the process.


  • All historical findings have been cited
  • A few more historical findings can be added especially since T cell research is such a big field

Types of T cells:

  • The line separation here was a bit confusing and should be removed
  • Each type of T cell was thoroughly examined but the amount of information added doesn't follow Mark's 'keep it simple' rule and would make it difficult for students to remember key features of the different T cell types
  • A table illustrating differences between the T cell subtypes can be a useful tool in 'simply' presenting the information.
  • Good use of diagrams
  • It is commendable that you explored the structure, function, development and diseases associated with each T cell type.

Current Research and Future Directions:

  • It is good that you have raised several different applications of T cells.
  • The T cells and Cancer section had too much contextual information and not much on how T cells can be used to fight cancer. What molecular mechanisms are being studied?
  • The Crispr/Cas9 and T cells section does not really illustrate the relationship between these proteins and T cells.
  • The CAR race was interesting to read and clearly illustrated the use of T cells in CAR therapy. However, some of the contextual information can be removed and the information should be condensed to the essence of the wiki page - to 'simply' explain how T cells are used in CAR therapy and for what purpose.

Final thoughts:

  • This section is not needed on a wiki page


  • This page was rich in information but there needs to be 'concision' and should be easy to read and remember for students.
  • The introduction was very well written
  • The functions section requires editing and should solely focus on the different functions of T cells such as anti - viral activity, anti - tumour activity, immune regulation, tolerance induction etc.
  • Diagrams are needed for functions and development
  • Good referencing but you don't need to say "as reviewed in [42]"
  • Comparison of T cells can be done in a table format
  • The current research section had too much contextual information and could be improved by focusing on how T cells can be exploited for future treatment of cancers etc.
  • This page has a very extensive amount of information and it is very commendable that you have actively read through many research articles.

Group 6 (z3423497)

  • Great introduction, the right amount information to allow the readers have clear idea on what the page is about.
  • Good use of the diagram as well as a youtube video to further help with the understanding of the topic.
  • Headings and subtopics could do with a reorganising, alot of the topics could fall under a greater heading.
  • A lot of information is present but needs to be broken down and simplified for readers to better understand it. Block of texts can be divided into smaller paragraphs.
  • The information could also be rearranged to create a better flow of information down the page so it is easier to understand.
  • Good use of referencing and every thing seems to be well cited.
  • Glossary needs to be completed or removed as well as the final thoughts, don't see the need for a summary on a wiki page.
  • A student image needs to be implemented and could be possibly be done for the comparison of T cells.

Overall the page has all the information, it just needs to be simplified for readers to better understand. This can be achieved by condensing the paragraphs and making it more concise, images can be further added to help show a visualisation of the information, instead of having blocks of texts.


  • The banner looks great, great picture and colours.
  • Maybe the history section could be moved so that it is under the introduction, to give a little overview of the history before people read on to the structure and function. The history table looks great and the information is good however.
  • I like the video under the introduction, it gives a good overview and puts T lymphocytes in context.
  • The structure and function section needs to be reworked just a tiny bit, it just needs a proof read because the sentences are not comprehensive. The information is good it just needs to be more cohesive. The section is well referenced though.
  • The development section is really well written and referenced.
  • The types of T cells section is missing references in the first paragraph as well as in the T helper section. The title ‘Type of T-cells’ should maybe be changed to ‘Types of T-cells’, and the paragraph under that is quite substantial, maybe only a brief introduction to the different types is needed.
  • The collapsible information on T helper cells is great and is very extensive but is maybe too detailed and unnecessary.
  • For each type of T cell, maybe include structure as well as just function under the heading, instead of putting the structure in the collapsible information. So then the viewer can see structure and function straight away, and only open the collapsible information if they are interested in finding out more.
  • The clinical implications and disease heading has nothing under it.
  • The picture next to the CAR race title needs a reference in the legend.
  • I like the links to the university research going on at different institutions, maybe make the title of the collapsible thing more concise though.
  • The final thoughts section seems a bit irrelevant.
  • The glossary needs to be filled in but it’s great to see it included.
  • The reference list is extensive which is great, however some of the references used are from websites and even Wikipedia pages. Maybe try to only use research articles. Also some of the references in the list have a number but nothing next to it, i.e. 204 and 205.
  • It’s really obvious that a lot of work and time has been spent on this page which is impressive.

Group 6 Review

The introduction was succinct and a good overview. As a side not there are a few grammatical errors that you should fix: For example, the second sentence of ‘Function’ is filled with mistakes: “especially dendrite cell takes huge part of T-cell activation” does not make sense, and “phagocyte” is not a verb, you say “this naïve T-cell with antigen never with antigen thus never activated”. The accumulation of all these errors made it very difficult to understand what you were saying and makes it seem non-academic. The ‘Function’ section really needs to be refined- there is good information, and you have references to recent research, but it is too hard to follow. It should also be expanded- particularly expand on recent research and how it has changed our understanding of function. The structure section is far better. I like that you focused on T-cell receptors and co-receptors because most of the T-cell functions are based around recognition at the cell-surface. It is good that you compare with B-cells because the two interact. Again it will make it more clear if you refine the grammar. The development section goes into good depth and draws on . It also follows a logical progression- perhaps think about linking this with some of the structure aspects you talk about because from what I know T-cell surface receptors change at different stages of its development. Also, whole project would make more sense if you move some of the information around: I would move “types” to the top and then under each type talk about its specific structure and function, rather than having separate sections on structure and function and then going on to talk about each sub-type individually. The Current Research and Future Directions part was very interesting. I also like that you finish with “final thoughts” as it gives some perspective to all the information you have discussed, answering the important question of why T-cells are so important in research.

Group 6 | T Lymphocytes

Introduction : Strong introduction with great referencing. Used an image and video well which supported the content that was talked about. Set up the reader to engage with the page and what to expect from the page. Managing reader expectations!

Function : I'm not sure the relevance of mentioning the helper T cell subtypes. What's the point of mentioning these? Do they assist in function? If so how? You should probably clarify and say that tregs are Regulatory T Cells. I originally had no clue until I read over the paragraph several times. Make things clear for your readers. The cytoskeleton section was helpful as it explained a little about the structure of the cytoskeleton and the the resulting function that comes from it's cytoskeletal structure! Some grammatical errors throughout.

Structure : I feel you could have used tables to show some of the differences between cell types. This would have been a clearer way to display information. When talking about the receptor you began to introduce several concepts, terms and ideas which weren't elaborated into in much depth and just mentioned. This left me feeling confused with a large block of text which wasn't explained clearly to me. Some grammatical errors throughout.

Development : Another video! Great! Once again some more grammatical errors in this section. Really clear and helpful diagram used! It then turned into a large block of text in which I began to feel a bit overwhelmed with lots of abbreviations and fast moving ideas. This made it confusing and difficult to read. My head hurts now. Please simplify this section, so as to help the reader understand as much as possible while engaging them. The possible use of more graphics here or referring to your image would be a helpful thing to include.

History : Clear and concise! Key points, dates and discoveries are noted here!

Type of T Cells : This was well presented! You had overviews and clarity about the function of the different types of T cells but you also included fold outs which contained a lot of more information with clear subheadings and detailed information! Some of the clinical implications and diseases were left blank here. Fill them out to actually see the effects of these T cells and application in actual practice! A bit hard to wade through heaps of blocks of text.

Current Research and Future Direction : Wonderful list of things mentioned! Even better was that you linked projects and research that is going on at our own university! Really helpful to see where research is heading for T cells!

Overall was a decent project. Could do with some simplification of some of the concepts that were talked about. I felt there were large blocks of texts sort of all over and you could do better to simplify some of the things that you present while retaining the complexity that you go into. I also felt that when you went into the different types of T cells you could have potentially done tables to compare between them as well as supporting images. Instead there were large blocks of text which were hard to navigate through all at once. Definitely use more graphics and creative ways of showing information other than text!


post resource link in the respective subsection (otherwise we'll get a real mess of resources) and include a short comment what it should be usesful for

Adaptions after peer review

  • Paragraphs need to be broken up - they are massive
    • Development of group 1 is good - how it is divided
  • Introduce disease in the intro


writing style overwork

erase "we" etc.


introduction: erase wrong point about presenting (see FB) and shorter

we really need to work on the intro and framework ( commonalities ) make it a little easier

expand crisptr cas subheading

replace some review with primary research.

that's NKT not CTL. (just so we dont forget to correct it when its unlocked again)

we need a proper histology H/E stained pic for structure

we also need something that shows the inner living of t cells, a fluorescently labeled actin picture or something, or something showing there are few endoplasmatic reticulum or something just a nice fluorescent picture of T cells

comparison of T cells table and comparison to other cells.

explain that Tregs are t regulatory cells.


more pictures


CD4/8 copyright


We completetly forgot about activation. that has to go into function i want some singaling pathways and I also want some common signaling pathways that are triggered by cytokines Jak/Stat certainly is one of the key ones

make a glossary


Reflist layout, three columnal



Introduction links

PMID 26635800 - T Lymphocyte Migration: An Action Movie Starring the Actin and Associated Actors.

PMID 25523165 - Role of T lymphocytes in hypertension.

PMID 24556090 - Metabolism of activated T lymphocytes.

PMID 24672781 - A role for T-lymphocytes in human breast cancer and in canine mammary tumors.

PMID 24003925 - The targeting of β-cells by T lymphocytes in human type 1 diabetes: clinical perspectives.


History/ other T cell links

PMID 25746046 - Orchestration of invariant natural killer T cell development by E and Id proteins.

PMID 25396352 - Molecular regulation of effector and memory T cell differentiation.

PMID 25727290 - Innate memory T cells.

PMID 17972353 - A brief history of CD8 T cells

PMID 17972355 - Regulatory T cells – a brief history and perspective

PMID 15140026 - Events that led to the discovery of T-cell development and function--a personal recollection.

PMCID: PMC1857272 - Th1 and Th2 subsets

Common Structure and Function

Questions to pose regarding to this subheading
  • Ressources

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK10762/ https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/T_cell Look up T cells in molecular biology of the cell, by alberts, it's the main textbook of this course, you should be able to access it through the internet. https://www.khanacademy.org/science/health-and-medicine/human-anatomy-and-physiology/introduction-to-immunology/v/review-of-b-cells-cd4-t-cells-and-cd8-t-cells https://askabiologist.asu.edu/t-cell http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1991486 http://accessmedicine.mhmedical.com/content.aspx?bookid=358&sectionid=39835895 http://science.sciencemag.org/content/188/4189/732 http://www.pnas.org/content/95/11/6302.full https://medtextfree.wordpress.com/2012/01/12/chapter-80-morphology-of-lymphocytes-and-plasma-cells/ http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3342336/

  • Dont just google t-cell structure, google different terms like t cell shape, t cell morphology, t cell form, t cell surface, how to differentiate t cells from other cells, t cell organelles, t cell plasma, t cell markers, t cell weight, t cell size etc. Google not only t cell but also t lymphocytes, and use search operators to get rid of information you don't want to (https://support.google.com/websearch/answer/2466433?hl=en) So you will get more informational pages, rather than just 2y high school overviews of t cell function. Also always good is: "images of blablabla" "visualisation of blablabla" there you'll get images and a good description what happens. Basically, just ask yourself what you wanted to know, and then google specifically for that, e.g. I want to know what the t cell membrane differs from other, hence I google "T Cell membrane" and "T Lymphocyte membrane" or just "lymphocyte membrane" to see if b and t cell have common membranes etc.

Questions to pose regarding to this subheading
  • How would you differentiate between T-Cell and other bodily and immune cells based on their function? (Bspw. B-Cells main job is to produce antigens, what is main job of T-Cells?) Attention: Wikipedia is flawed, it says T Cells are involved in cell-mediated immunity, but Th2 cells are just as heavily involved in humoral immunity)
  • What is their job in immunity, and how is this based on their function (always try to reason based on structure, e.g.: they are small, thus they can carry out their function and invade in tissues)
  • T Cell proliferation (clonal amplification, memory cell formation, stemm cells, proliferative potential compared to other cells)
  • T Cell migration: how to they move, how to they invade the tissue and why, and what molecules are involved
  • T Effector cells vs. T regulatory cells subdevision
Questions to pose regarding to this subheading
  • How do they look like, can you distinguish them from other cells of the body and the immune system based on pictures, markers, composition? Things to consider (thats not a complete list, just giving you examples what might be interesting): Size, histological stainings, morphological features (form, protrusions, how does the nucleus look like), include pictures when you find a suitable one, e.g. those on the wikipedia page are really cool as they compare different immune cells in the same picture, but you cant use a wikipedia picture!, it was specifically critisized in one of the older project that they used one.
  • Do they have the same organelles with the same size, distribution and function as all other cells?
  • Do they have specific molecules on the surface that makes them distinguishable from other cells?
  • Do they have variations in the cytoskeleton compared to other cells?
  • Is their membrane composed of the same lipis as other cells?
  • Is their cytosol and cell environment different from other cells?
  • Do they have the same genomic code as other bodily cells? (Hint: No, VDJ recombination of V region of TCR) Do all T-Cells have the same genomic code (Hint: No, same as before)
  • Where do they normally reside, in what organs in particular? (hint: secondary lymphoid organs
  • Give a overview of all T Cell subtypes that are covered, include a good diagram
  • How long do they live?

Type of T-Cells

Cytotoxic T Cells

PMID 26161391 - Functional Alteration of Natural Killer Cells and Cytotoxic T Lymphocytes upon Asbestos Exposure and in Malignant Mesothelioma Patients

PMID 25973438 - Epigenetic control of interferon-gamma expression in CD8 T cells.

PMID 25834833 - The story of CD4+ CD28- T cells revisited: solved or still ongoing?

PMID 22294696 - Interleukin-22 is produced by invariant natural killer T lymphocytes during influenza A virus infection: potential role in protection against lung epithelial damages, Paget, C., et al.

PMID 22442383 - Microbial exposure during early life has persistent effects on natural killer T cell function, Olszak, T., et al.

PMID 12021841 - Regulation of autoimmune disease by natural killer T cells.

PMID 16412042 - The natural killer T lymphocyte: a player in the complex regulation of autoimmune diabetes in non-obese diabetic mice.

Current Research, Future Directions and Conclusion

T helper cell subsets

Types of subsets  
Include subsets. Subsets I know about: T follicular helper cells, TH1, TH2, TH3, TH17, TH17 regulatory cells



Note: I haven't checked the copyright on any of these yet. Most are reviews and will need to be referenced accordingly

All T cell links

PMID 7006707 - Human T-lymphocyte growth factor: regulation of growth and function of T lymphocytes.

PMID 26913033 - Biophysical Aspects of T Lymphocyte Activation at the Immune Synapse.

PMID 24099302 - MicroRNA regulation of T-lymphocyte immunity: modulation of molecular networks responsible for T-cell activation, differentiation, and development.

PMID 8727107 - T-lymphocyte interactions with endothelium and extracellular matrix.

PMID 6389597 - Human T lymphocyte subsets. Functional heterogeneity and surface recognition structures.

Natural Killer T cell links



Facebook chat transcript  


Z3465531 Hi Everyone, not to chat too much on Facebook, but I looked at the feedback that was given for last year's projects and I thought I would make a rough draft of a skeleton outline for the project for what Mark seemed to like about them. If you get a free moment sometime this evening, I'd appreciate your positive or negative feedback.

Z3329177 Yep

Z3465531 Thanks Z3329177

Z5105710 cool, got it on the discussion page?

Z3465531 Yep!

Z5105710 send me ur gmail adresses if they're not in the sheet yet so I can give you access to the drive foldee folder*

Z3465531 x@gmail.com

Z5018866 I'm at work at the moment and can't remember off hand But I'll get back to you

Z3465531 Oh wow, I actually might not have work tomorrow. Maybe false alarm, I'll get back to you. And thanks Z5018866!

Z5105710 alright guys, so I understand that some of you have to work tomorrow, so you'll find the 'Doodle' under the following link, pay attention, for every time slot there's either in Person or via Skype, just choose whichever you prefere. Please fill this out as soon as possible, it takes 2 sec http://doodle.com/poll/3g8aq9qike998g4d

Doodle: Group 6 Doodle radically simplifies the process of scheduling events, meetings, appointments, etc. Herding cats gets 2x faster with Doodle. For free! doodle.com

Z5105710 Thanks @z3465531 for the great work @Z5018866, I'll invite to the google drive as soon as you've provided me with your email oh btw, I wanted to tell it to you in class today but somehow didn't come to: Love your pink superstars, they look great! You'll find a google sheet version of the roadmap and factsheet on the drive, you need to reenter you data, it kinda got lost from today, sorry for that Concerning anonymousity: I will figure out a way how to not show the names of the people editing, but it's not really bad anyway, nothing that doesn't belong to the public Z5018866

Z5018866 Okay this all sounds awesome I'll find my gmail when I get home in the morning! Thank you!

Z5105710 np z5018866, z3329177, please upload your draft to the discussion page, I've made a header for structure, and z3465531s and my proposal below, please follow our lead and do it the same way

Z3329177 Thanx ill catch up soon


Z5105710 Friendly reminder for the Doodle z3329177, you can only 4pm in person?

Z3329177 Yep

Z5018866 Is the doodle only for today? I'm not available

Z3329177 We can make other day

Z5105710 that's what we said yesterday, other day is also possible but keep in mind, soon is break so people are gonna leave tomorrow fine? I'll just recycle the doodle for the time

Z5018866 I'm working 8-6 tomorrow Is it possible to do after Easter, I'll do the draft structure over the weekend

Z5105710 It'll only take you 5mins to do the structure and 15mins to agree on one, we don't even have to meet skype is fine. Thing is: After structure we can assign subjects and everyone can start to work individually, so It'll be best if we shortly do it this weekend. would that be possible for you?

Z5018866 Yep should be able to get it done Sunday

Z5105710 cool, then I'll make a doodle for sunday afternoon

Z5105710 http://doodle.com/poll/3g8aq9qike998g4d

Doodle: Group 6 Doodle radically simplifies the process of scheduling events, meetings, appointments, etc. Herding cats gets 2x faster with Doodle. For free! doodle.com


Z5105710 Friendly reminder: dont forget the doodle


Z5018866 Okay sorry I've been pretty unavailable, it was Easter and I was quite busy. I can meet up in person today after 2 Tomorrow anytime Thursday before 2

Z5105710 I am unavailable until next sunday


Z5105710 Alright guys, tomorrow skype. Only gonna take 15mins, everyone is able to make 15min time. make yourself available, post your skype name here and if not done already, install skype obviously. I have no preferences, just give me your timeslots


Z5018866 I'm working 8-630 and then going straight to dinner. Can we meet up tomorrow before or after the Lecture

Z3465531 After the lecture would be great for me. I can do before as well if people have somewhere to be after. For Skype details, just search Z3465531 or X@gmail.com. Two options come up. They are both me, friend them both and one of them is the one that I have been using, but yeah, haha, we can always do before/after lecture ^

Z5105710 good, then after lecture.

Z3329177 Yep

Z5018866 Z5018866@gmail.com is g mail too


Z5105710 Hey Guys, as we will get feedback on the group project tomorrow if you have a spare minute try starting with your research and post a few articles

Z5105710 also had to restructure the discussion-references section. It's structured just as our page, so you post the reference in the reference section of the according subtopic. You can use this as "readinglist" and to calculate all your resources so you don't forget to cite them on the actual page later

Z5105710 Thanks for the links z5018866h, but they seem sometimes extremely specific and random, could you please include a comment what the link should the according responsible person of that section help for? Cause just random links dont really help, we just have to delete them again. to All: Just include links that have comments what they should help for, everyone can just pubmed search t-cells, and post the first 20 links. that does not help at all, we just all have to go through all the links and to the work 4 times...

Z5105710 a very good review of t-cell function and subsets is found on http://www.springer.com/cda/content/document/cda_downloaddocument/9783034601351-c1.pdf?SGWID=0-0-45-1173337-p174129073 www.springer.com springer.com

Z5105710 also postet it in your section of the introduction discussion, z3465531


Z5018866 The links were mostly for my reference, I bolded when there was another T cell type and if that's was your topic that it may be relevant to you so have a look. Can we maybe put our z numbers at the end of the links because now I don't really know what ones I posted They are specific because that's all there really is there are no review articles for cytotoxic T cells

Z5018866 Hope you are all okay

Z5105710 he went in using no lube. no were allright haha next week we have peer assessment which actually counts for the marks get a little meat on your section, we'll do a short skype on sunday if there's anything to discuss

Z5018866 Did he give us a date For the peer assessment Like end or start of week

Z3465531 Just instead of showing him our actual page I just showed our discussion section with the links to the review articles.

Z5018866 Beautiful work team, sorry I had to leave I had a leadership workshop thing

Z3465531 I think that we should just try to tell the story using good review articles (look at review article references to find good basic review articles to tell the story). Then use the primary articles from that to get the findings we need. Also, something really useful he mentioned, you can image pubmed search. I intend to go do an image search of t-lympocytes. Find basic textbook looking pictures, and emulate that. It will help keep our wiki concise and on target.

Z3465531 It was totally okay Z5018866. I feel like all he was doing today was barking so that everyone would start doing their project. We should probably just try to knock the whole thing out before the end of the week though so that we can get a decent peer review and then put it to rest for the semester.


  • before the end of the weekend.

Z5018866 Did he say when the peer review was due

Z3465531 "Sometime next week" like he didn't even know tongue

Z5018866 That's so not okay Can he at least gives us a date

Z3465531 Nobody asked him to clarify though. Maybe it's our assignment that we get at next lab is what I was expecting.

Z5018866 True

Z3465531 "Your individual week 7 assignment will be to do peer reviews." Is probably what it will be. So we probably want to be done by Thursday. But let's see how much we can finish by the end of the weekend because it would be so great to just have it done, and maybe fine-tune for Thursday.

Z5018866 I'm working over the weekend but Monday Tuesday and Wednesday I'm pretty free so I should be able to get a lot done

Z3465531 Cool, let's try to shoot for before Thursday and review it as best we can Tuesday/Wednesday night.


Z5105710 So guys I've been working on the page for a little bit since I have an exam next wednesday I realized so I can't do too much after tomorrow. He mentionned we should at some point introduce our own file. I said i would do the banner. but there are so many really beautiful pictures of T Cells that I would prefer to do a more simpler picture. I'll do it for the CAR section I just did

Z5105710 For the banner we'll take one of those kick ass 3D pictures, they look really nice


Z3329177 Great👏


Z5105710 i propose a change of structure of the Tc subheadings, from 1.dev 2. struc. 3. funct, as the first thing I want to now about a cell is its function, then how it looks like and then how it is generated, and not the other way arround

Z5105710 z3329177, z3465531, did you have time to work on it yet? I did like 60% of my sections

Z3329177 I will work on it tomorrow after finish work.


Z5105710 I made you a list z3329177, of questions points. That list is by no means complete, it just shows you how you can proceed in elaborating that subject and give it subtopics

Z3329177 thanks z5105710

Z5105710 if you need any help, dont hesitate to call +61426588384

Z3329177 yep i will first work on it following the steps thanks so much

Z5105710 all good man

Z5105710 oh and on a side note, MHCI and MHCII not 1 and 2 is the common convention. just a detail!

Z5018866 Awesome I wasn't sure about that Saw both


Z5105710 Great work Z3329177, really good start. I like the information you included, it's really interesting. As a general advice in scientific writing: Avoid expressions as "compared with B cell, T cell is smaller." Always include the actual numbers, I don't know the sizes of the two, but say something like B Cells are 20micros and T Cells are 10micros, which makes B cells approxamately double the size

Z5105710 I also love the pictures you included, they are two great ways to visualize the cells. try to also include a histology image of t vs. other cells. Good progress, try to finish as much as possible until tomorrow. If you need help, just call me I am available the whole day or tomorrow before the Lab Important to the pictures: Always reference the pictures in the description, as you did with the TCR, cd3 and cd4. Its missing in the t cell pictures

Z5105710 tip: you can adapt th e size of a tz3465531mbnail of a picture by adding |400px|, if you want it 400 pixels big. So Image of lymphocyte instead of Image of lymphocyte i already adapted the two pictures to suitable sizes!

Z3329177 Thanks z5105710 i will edit as u advise me

Z5105710 i am just in the progress in uploading a nice diagram of the t cell subtypes, a nice professor from melbourne was so kind to permit for reuse after I asked her

Z5105710 to the others: Make sure that you'll make some progress for tomorrow, it'll be marked and we can't make up for it's lacking afterwards!

Z5105710 I also just finished the mandatory picture we had to do. You like it? I can make adaptions https://cellbiology.med.unsw.edu.au/cellbiology/index.php/File:CART_own_graphic_2.0.jpg

File:CART own graphic 2.0.jpg - CellBiology Flowchart of CAR generation procedure. Generation of scFV by through mAb, genetic Engineering of CAR sequence, introduction into viral vector and transfection of T Cell. cellbiology.med.unsw.edu.au

Z5018866 I'm struggling to find references for basic information for the general function of cytotoxic tcells ps picture is nice

Z5018866 also how interchangeable are the terms CD8+ and CTL

Z5105710 not at all cd8+ is a surface marker found on NKT Cells, CTL and NK cells (not even t lymphocytes)

Z5018866 Yea So a CD8+ T cell is a CTL?

Z5105710 no, other way around

Z5018866 okay Im so confused

Z5105710 ctl is one of a few cd8+ subgroup

Z5018866 every articles mentions them in different context

Z5105710 what you can be sure of is anything carrying cd8+ will kill cells infected by intracellular pathogen or if you engineer them they can also kill cancer or whatever cell u wanr as seen by cart section do the same approach i recommended for z3329177, you will find my comments in his section of the wikipage

Z5018866 So if its got a CD8 and a TCR its a ctl

Z5105710 not necessarily nk t cells (not nk cells!) and intereptihelial lymphocyte cd8+ e.g. have cd8, tcr but are not ctl you have to find markers specific for cd8+

Z5018866 How do I figure if the article is talking about the right cell

Z5105710 google for 't killer cell' and 'cytotoxic t cell' search for a broad overview e.g. wikipedia look if it says anything about markers and how to distinguish it if not, look at the reference of the wiki if nothing there look for other articles or pages

Z5018866 There is like 2 references on the wiki I've got heaps of articles And have read them But they are all a bit vague I'm not 100% if they are relevant I'll figure it out

Z5105710 sure, takes a little time, I know. But you'll be able to do it!


Z3465531 Tangye-UNSW-lectures-2015-student-notes.pdf


Z3329177 im wondering that is Follicular B helper T cells part of the helper t cell?

Z5105710 yes, fth are the Th that are maimly responsible for activating b cells in the lymphnodes



Z5105710 could you help me about some of the follicular B helper cell part please?

Z5105710 absolutely, i'll wrap up the T regs the next hour and will adress Tfh after that you can focus on common structure and funciton and the questions i put in the beginning after that we'll do Th Z5018866h, how are you doing on CTL? I can just see the skelleton still, do you need help?

Z3329177 Yep thanx man

Z5105710 Too easy. i've seen that your thelper cell is lacking reference I can only find one source that's fairly scarce, he will def. critisize that. try to bring you references for that section to paper

Z3329177 Oh yeah ill put reference

Z5105710 I finished Treg and future directions, now working on common structure and function and T helper cells. Keep up guys, you don't want it to look like I did all of the work wink

Z5018866 I've almost done the common and ctl development

Z5105710 nice! that's the spirit

Z5105710 finished follicular t helper cells


Z5105710 citing needed for common function of T cells saw you added citations for sturcture part, nice!

Z5105710 z5018866h, you did common development right? you used a lot of terms without explaining. Be sure, whenever you introduce a term or use it from a paper, explain it. Even I didn't understand a lot of the text and I am probably one of the most competent people in the class in terms of T-cells. I am working over it right now

Z5018866 I was going to go through and add a glossary of the terms

Z5105710 Cool, i'll give you a hand

Z5018866 It's not really fair that you go through and edit all my work without asking. All of the stuff I'm posting I fully intend on going though and fine tuning. Right now I'm focusing on getting content up. If you've finished your section and want to help, ask first. The marks are heavily weighted on how many edits each person does, and I don't want all my taken away from me because you've gone in when I don't need help yet.

Z5018866 If I want and need help I'll ask and it would be totally okay if we were in the final stages of the assignment. However, it is only the peer review this week and I don't want my mark to be negatively effected because you did all the editing I could do at a later stage

Z5105710 sorry S', only saw that now. As far as our labour partition goes, common structure, function and development is Z3329177's part, and he specificially asked me for help, not you. you just said you will write down development since you already have to read it anyway. So technically it was you taking over z3329177's part... I would never just intrude in you section. And "only peer review": I want to remind you that its week 9 out of 13, and we will have at least one buffer week at the end, making it 9/12. which is about 75% of the time. And you definitely have other assignements during the later stage. So before you start to help z3329177 and get offended If he asks me, you might want to finish your bit first.

Z5105710 I did not interfere with all of your work, in fact i did not interfere with any of the work you signed up for, being cd8 killer cells and history.

Z5018866 I believe We discussed in the last lab I would do common development And this is the only assignment I have after Friday

Z5105710 that's excellent, we have tons of stuff to do yet and in that case you can work on it alot after friday :

Z5018866 That's the plan


Z5105710 Guys, love the progress we're making! z3465531, did you go over mine and z3329177's contribs yet? who did the image Janis K Burkhardt, Esteban Carrizosa, Meredith H Shaffer The actin cytoskeleton in T cell activation. Annu. Rev. Immunol.: 2008, 26;233-59 PubMed 18304005 aout t cell migration? awesome picture! are you sure that we have the permission to use it? Ann. Rev. normally does not allow

Z3329177 Oh... Let me double check it

Z5105710 did you work on the t-helper cells? which is you z code again z3329177? the progress on Thelper's is really impressive! there is, however, again, no reference please don't forget: referencing is probably the single most important thing in this project! We will get roasted tomorrow if there are no references in this section

Z3329177 Yep ill put ref thanx for reminding me 👍

Z5105710 dude, but the progress is amazing you put in a lot of work! really well done z3329177! and z3329177: do the referencing as you go. Before you write something down, write down the source of what you are about to write down otherwise you will have a big mess with referencing at a later point

Z3329177 Yep im kinda regret that i didnt put ref at the beginning...


Z5018866 I tidied things up a bit, I put the information into the collapsable boxes


Z5018866 I got ride of the empty headings (we can add them back once we have actual info) it just looked bad with blank headings

Z3465531 Thanks Z5018866! Excuse us leaving you with it like that!

Z3329177 Thanx 👏

Z5018866 No it was fine

Z5018866 I made the banner fit the screen as it was really wide too

Z5018866 I also got rid of the collapsable boxes with the guide questions I moved them to our discussion page

Z3329177 Yeah i was wondering with that boxes too

Z5105710 perfect

Z5105710 thats wrong and very important to delete as soon as you can z3465531 t cells are not antigen presenting cells presenting antigens is the specific task of antigen presenting cells they are only able to present endogenous antigens through MHCI, which all cells are able to t cells are, in fact, the major cell type interacting with antigen presenting cells the standart procedure of immune system is: you have pathogen, antigen presenting cells take pathoge up and present it on surface (mhcii), t cells start to spread the word and orchestrate the immune response and i dont wan't to be arrogant, since I am after all ESL, but your sentences are too long with too many subsentences. its hard to read erase the comas and make periods out of them take the RBC group as an example, they have an extremely agreeable writing style we really need to work on the intro and framework ( commonalities (love that word z5018866, haven't heard it yet! :D), to be more clear and easy

Z5105710 that's NKT not CTL. (just so we dont forget to correct it when its unlocked again)

Z3329177 Yeah you are rite👍

Z5105710 we need a proper histology H/E stained pic for structure

Z3329177 Yep ill find it

Z5105710 we also need something that shows the inner living of t cells, a fluorescently labeled actin picture or something, or something showing there are few endoplasmatic reticulum or something just a nice fluorescent picture of T cells

Z5105710 We completetly forgot about activation. that has to go into function i want some singaling pathways and I also want some common signaling pathways that are triggered by cytokines Jak/Stat certainly is one of the key ones

Z3465531 All good. We'll make changes when editing opens up again.

Z5105710 sure. I'm doing the peer review, really helps to more objectively judge our own work


Z5105710 we need to copy the table formating of group 5, its really nice

Z5018866 I'm happy to do that

Z5105710 first do your ctls z5018866 main priority for you formating takes a few secs, no big deal content is more important Tz3465531rsday 12/5

Z5105710 got through the reviews, my take aways are: history move up. collapsable boxes are taken up VERY well. was a good act. The load of content was appreciated and mostly not critisized! so they don't take it as too much or too cluttered, they really appreciated the depth in most comments (except t cell receptors which we know that we have to break it down) as it was contained in the collapsables. the current research page was

Z5105710 in total: we're on a really good track guys. Lets finish this sucker up for monday and all get our well deserved 20ies i was a little bit surprised, cause we were always worrying there was too much content or too technical, but they actually appreciated that

Z5105710 and z5018866h, dont do too much about the development section, mainly do headings 5 people specifically said that this section is very well written so we don't need to put too much time in that one if you've already done it, cool, but z5018866e the time for more pressing matters that are critisized Friday

Z5105710 how are you doing guys? making progress?

Z3329177 I'll start it from tomorrow. I've got other one to finish by today... Friday

Z5105710 z5018866h, z3465531, what about you?

Z5018866 I fixed development and did one part one my pathology, please stop checking in on me like a child. It will be done by monday


Z5105710 Z3329177, I had to cut out one of your pics. It was from the alberts textbook, we do not have permission to use thst did you have a written permission for the cd8/cd4 comic in the t helper subsectio n?* if not we cant use it i also had to replace your pic of the Scanning Elextron microscope of the french lab, we don't have permission to use it we still need a good histology pic of t cells


Z5105710 The two Pics are fuarking amazing, good job!

Z5018866 I found them on Marks embryology wiki

Z5105710 hahaha smart move i searched like 30mins on the net and didn't find anything useful z3465531, z3329177, did you get a chance to work over his grammar already? this is probably the most important thing now.

Z3465531 I have done some pending (awaiting approval) grammar suggestions for functions at least. If Z3329177 looks them over to make sure I didn't make any mistakes in the new wording, then we should be good.

Z5018866 I was going to do my proof reading tonight after work and tomorrow morning I'll do the same as you z3465531 and write it below

Z3465531 Cool, sounds good Z5018866. I corrected the introduction for the part that Z5105710 didn't like about T-cells. The article that I got the information from was somewhat ambiguous. "While antibodies recognize intact antigens, T cells distinguish foreign material from self through presentation of fragments of the antigen by the MHC cell surface receptors. Only if an MHC molecule presents an appropriate antigenic peptide will a cellular immune response be triggered." i think I have corrected it now with " As reviewed in [7], T-cells are able to determine the presence of immunogenic material by recognizing fragments of the target antigen displayed as part of the MHC cell surface receptors of target cells. Antibodies, on the other hand, as reviewed in [7], have binding specificity for intact antigen."

Z5105710 okay, that's way better now make 3 sentences out of that z3465531ge sentence and we're all set! well, nah i think it okay let it be it just looks big on the chat screen, i copied it into word and there it seems nice good job, saw the corrections you did already

Z3329177 I booked the room 214 for tomorrow.


Z5105710 perfect


Z5105710 instead of cell bio we said right?

Z5105710 Commonalities between T cells subtypes Functions is not corrected yet i'll start correcting it in 1h if nobody is working on it right now

Z5105710 what we gonna do today when we meet:

we,re all reading through the whole page and correct anything we don't like. 

Then everyone of us is going through the feedback mark has given previous year,s teams and write down what we should adapt. Then we,re going to do the same with the peer review. When we have the list of changes to be made everyone can work on it and finalize the page until wednesday morning. Wednesday evening we'll give it a final read and have it finished.

Z5018866 I was going to go through and put everyones subsections in the collapsable boxes in the same order

Z5105710 what? how do you mean? do you want to put that little paragraph about function in the collaps as well

Z5018866 The subsections within the collapsable boxes are in a different order in the different types

Z5105710 oh, good observation nice yes, please

Z5018866 Also there was a few sections I think can go but we can discuss in a group - the ones that have like 1 sentence

Z5105710 we have like 3 different writing styles for T Cells. Everyone is going through his section and correct any spelling form to T Cell, not T cell or T-cell looks just not uniform like this or T cells? which is better?

Z5018866 I like T cells are we meeting now?

Z5105710 which time did we say again?

Z5018866 I thought it was 1200

Z5105710 i can come down

Z5018866 Z3329177 booked a room in the lib yea?

Z5105710 cool 214 in 6 mins

Z5018866 or wallace wurth?

Z5105710 if 214 is booked 214 is fine

Z5018866 Where is 214?

Z5105710 lib

Z5018866 Okay

Z3465531 Okay, the plan was muddled for a bit there. I'll be there in 10.

Z5018866 Who did T helper cells?

Z3465531 Not I, must be Z5105710 or Z3329177. What's up?

Z3329177 For the function z5105710 and i did z5105710 did the follicular t cell and least of the part i did

Z5018866 Its all sorted there was a contradiction due to a typo but I looked it up in the references

Z5105710 thanks S', good work

Z5018866 Im going to quickly edit if no one else is?


Z3465531 Proofreading has been a lengthy endeavour, hours on hours really. Not sure what to make of "Based is this commercial fencing on academic research, such as the one of Phillip Greenberg, working at the Fred Z3465531tchinson Cancer Research Center (FHCRC)." in current research or "Additionally, the intestine hosts an abundance of Tregs, with Treg deficiency being highly associated with intestinal inflammation. As most T Cells, adult tissue specific Treg cells are not particularly motile and will not circulate in an extensive manner[152]. These intestine specific Treg cells differ from other Treg cells in their phenotypical properties, such as?" in Treg cells. Z5105710

Z5105710 i'll deal with ir Z3465531

Z3465531 All good, they were just a couple things that stood out as I went through and I wasn't sure how to correct. I figured it was better to call it to your attention than try to fix it and wind up making it incorrect. In general though, I made a lot of grammar and spelling corrections. I doubt I caught absolutely everything, but I think that it will look a lot more professional with far fewer mistakes now than it did before.

Z5105710 thanks a LOT z3465531, this is really useful stuff!

Z3465531 I am happy to help!


Z5105710 Currently going over it, please do not make changes atm there is still some stuff that's either slightly wrong or redundant content-wise. Otherwise I think it looks super sweet, particularly now that you read over it Z3465531, it's really agreeable to read there are some sentences which are still unnecessarily substructured or prolonged, I'll adapt them in the same way I have done the one in the introduction: Make a full stop out of the comma and leave the rest like it is. Just so you're not surpised if somethings different

Z3465531 All good Z5105710. Thanks.

Z5105710 the T effector vs. T reg paragraph was redundant twice and had to go

Z5105710 Everything should be good contant-wise now Z5018866, can you arrange your pictures in a more agreeable way? and didn't you say you wanted to make them with a computer? this does not really fit the quality of the rest of the article and its a matter of minutes to do make those pictures...


Z5018866 They are next to the sections they are talking about I wanted to draw them and we won't get marked down because we hand drew them, in fact it was encouraged Everyone else was happy with them

Z5105710 not on pc full screen and he uses a pc full screen but i can adapt it with a library computer did you ask mark that we wont get marked down? Z5018866

Z5018866 The pictures are under the headings they are relevant to in the coding page please don't move them how do you know he wont go home and mark it on a mac or any other computer why would we get marked down for soemthing he suggested He said we could do a hand drawn image Z3465531

Z3465531 I am fairly certain he encouraged us to do hand drawn images. I think the images look very clean and instructive. You don't agree Z5105710? Anyone given further thought to the recent stem cell articles we are willing to do?

Z5018866 (talk) 22:48, 25 April 2016 (AEST)

  • Added in a table for history, I think it might be easier to read and understand just with a table, as the history is more of a minor section and will be good to break up text as much as possible?
  • Let me know if you have any key findings or points to add and I can find a reference for it and add it too.
  • I think nomenclature of t cell would be covered in intro or common section as they all develop in thymus.
  • I'll add in a graph of articles too

z5105710: As stated in the facebook group i propose a change of structure of the Tc subheadings, from 1.dev 2. struc. 3. funct, as the first thing I want to now about a cell is its function, then how it looks like and then how it is generated, and not the other way arround

z5105710: Guys, just adapted the structure to what we discussed. Feedback welcome. Cheers!

Z5018866 (talk) 15:11, 13 April 2016 (AEST) Hi, just for the structure of the history section do you guys think this is a good outline to follow:

  • When they were discovered and through what experiment
  • Nomenclature?
  • Key studies following the discovery
  • Potential Breakthrough findings since - if I can get enough key dates put it into a table

Also a lot of other groups have included the trends in research of that area, like how many articles on their topic over the year, not sure how they did this (wouldn't be hard to figure out) but do you think this would be good to have too?

z5105710: Sure thing, looks good for me. Make a short timeline and include fun facts. Dont do too much future, we dont want redundancy, we have a seperate heading for future directions

Z3465531 (talk) 18:02, 24 March 2016 (AEDT) Hi everyone, I expected to have work on Good Friday, but it turns out that I do not and that I am available. If we need to meet at any time, I am available.

Z3465531 (talk) 15:41, 24 March 2016 (AEDT) Hi Everyone, I apologize again that I will not be able to meet tomorrow to discuss the outline. I am definitely available by phone or skype after 5 pm or perhaps for I could step away for 15 minutes during work if you shoot me a message. I have looked at the feedback for the other projects that were done in 2015, and I think we should be have an outline that looks something like the following:

z3329177 I'm in the main library till 6 i guess, if anyone can meet i would love to join.

Proposals for Structure


1. Banner

2. Introduction

3. History

4. Add common structure and function

5. Types

5.a. Structure

5.b. Mechanisms and development

5.c. Functions and roles in the body

5.d. Clinical implications and diseases

6. Current research, future directions and do as conclusion

7. Glossary

8. References

In terms of dividing work I think we should do a type of t-cell each, making a glossary and doing references as we go along for our sub type. For the common structure and function and current research we can collaborate at the end Someone can do the intro and someone can do history whilst others can do the smaller subtypes of t cells


1) Banner Heading (as in Group 1 2015)

2) Introduction (as in Group 1 2015, or with timeline graphic as in group 4 with internal referencing, or video as in group 5, careful with citing though) Be sure to cite textbook if used

3) History (Emphasizing research techniques)

4) Types of T Lymphocytes

5) Structure (as in Group 1 2015)

6) Function

7) Malfunction of T-lymphcyes – investigation of T-Lymphocyte malfunction as a causative agent of disease

8) Current Research – (Possibly switched in order with clinical significance, we’ll see how it feels, good example Group 5 2015 with collapsible tables) -

9) Clinical Significance (as in Group 3 2015)

10) Future Directions (Possibly unify this with the conclusion? Plenty of examples)

11) Conclusion (closing section)

12) Glossary (as in Group 1 2015)

13) References

What does everyone think?


1)Titel Picture

2) Introduction

4) History (short! keep it on the history of discovery of structure and function, as this is a cell biology class)

3) Common Characteristics (Structure and function of T-Cells compared to other BC's, not too much as specific structure and function of each T-Cell type will be covered in Subsection and they are very different from each other)

Surface Proteins TCR ...

4) Development (Short, not too much immunology)

5) Types (focus on structure and function, Activation, mechanism of action, involved pathways etc.)

6) Clinical Significance (focus on cell biology pathways in the development of the disease)

7) Current research (Involved research centers, current theories related to cell biology of T-Cells etc.) Elaborate this section, he put emphasis on it on a) the lecture b) criticism to former projects


I was looking at the structure, i will add a bit more,but the format could be roughly like this

1. General information (about t-cells, types etc.)

2. History (early and current researches, future expectations)

3. Cell structure

4. Function and mechanisms

5. Related diseases

6. Glossary

7. References

Division of Topics:

Helper - z3329177

Cytotoxic - z5018866

Memory - z3465531

Suppressor - z5105710

Natural killer

Mucosal associated invariant

Gamma delta T cells -

Suggestions for subtopic

z5105710: T Regulatory Cells: I

z3465531: T Regulatory Cells would be good. Red Blood Cell, Neutrophil, Eosinophil, Basophil, or Monocyte/Macrophage would be great because they always seem to be relevant to our studies. I'l be happy to go with whatever the group decides.

z5018866: I am more than happy to do T regulatory cells, as it would be great to do a topic that someone has a particular interest in. If there isn't enough on t reg cells alone we could maybe do T cells as a whole and z5105710 you could potentially focus on your interest of t reg cells.

z3329177: I'm happy with the topic, because there are many of articles about t-cells that we can access. For the T-Regulatory cells, i think that it is interesting topic, but i will need to learn more about it to be honest.


- Do not cite a review article has having findings. "As reviewed by" is more appropriate terminology. (As in This reference (Biochemistry of tropoelastin. Vrhovski B, Weiss AS. Eur J Biochem. 1998 Nov 15;258(1):1-18. Review. No abstract available. PMID 9851686 ) is a good review article to introduce your topic. One key point is that it is a "review" not original research and should have been cited as such. For example "as reviewed in" or "see review". It is important to discriminate between original research articles and reviews in your writing., group 3 of 2015)

- At all times, remember: How is this sentence related to our topic/subtopic and what are the consequences thereof. Bspw Group 3 2015 made subsection of Vit. A deficiency but didn't explain what this had to do with their exact topic

- At least 1 image on the page should be a student drawn image (e.g flow diagram, power point slide of the cell structure).

- Remember to give all uploaded content an appropriate name.

- Any time that you see nomenclature in an article that is not the current nomenclature (eg. MSDS instead of SDS), that means the article is old and should not be used.

- Avoid add unnecessary detail explaining biological processes that not directly related to the topic (e.g. the description of translation in Group 1 2015)

- It might be a good idea to add "additional information" collapsible boxes (as in Group 3 2015)

Lab 3 Assessment


1. Summary: Cathepsin B controls the persistence of memory CD8+ T lymphocytes, Byrne, S. M., et al. [1]

This study investigates the mechanisms by which memory T lymphocytes persist, even in the absence of antigen.

The findings indicate that one of the major limiting factors to memory CD8(+) T cell populations is the stability of the cell lysosomes. The genes IL-15 and IL-7 contribute to the production of serine protease inhibitor (Spi) 2A, which inhibits cytosolic cathepsin and thus inhibits apoptosis. In animal models, Spi2A inhibition results in less CD8+ T lymphocyte maturation and less homeostatic proliferation as well. The experimental results indicated that Spi2A is required in order for the memory CD8(+) T lymphocytes to maintain population numbers after viral infection and that one specific mechanism of action is protection from lysosomal breakdown via cathepsin B inhibition. Furthermore, it was found that T cells deficient in Spi2A could have their homeostatis restored by concurrently blocking cathepsin B, which strongly suggested that the physiological target of Spi2A was indeed cathepsin B.

The relevance of this topic to T lymphocytes, specifically memory T lymphocytes, is manifold. The primary function of memory T lymphocytes is to persist within the organism until such time as they are necessary to promote a fast, powerful targeted response to a second infection. If the population of the memory T lymphocytes is allowed to deplete, then immunological memory will not remain. If, on the other hand, memory T lymphocytes proliferated over abundantly, then this would be a likely mechanism for the development of possible leukemia.

2. Summary: The majority of HIV type 1 DNA in circulating CD4+ T lymphocytes is present in non-gut-homing resting memory CD4+ T cells, McBride, K., et al. [2]

This study investigates the locational distributions of integrated HIV-1 DNA copies within memory CD4+ T lymphocytes for the purposes of better understanding the efficacy of disease treatments.

A proposed site of prominent HIV-1 replication with Memory CD4+ T lymphocytes is the gut-associated lymphoid tissue, where such cells tend to recirculate. The researchers of this study hypothesized that regulatory T cells and activated CD4+ T lymphocytes tend to recirculate and disproportionately make up a source of the HIV-1 reservoir, serving as a difficulty needing to be solved in any possible eradication of the disease.

Real time polymerase chain reaction was used to localise HIV-1 DNA within the human immune cells. More than 80% of total HIV-1 DNA was found in non-gut-homing CD45RO+ memory T lymphocytes, while less than 10% was found in regulatory T cells and CD38+ activated memory cells. The researchers found that most of the HIV-1 DNA was present in non-gut homing resting CD(+) T cells. The findings of the experiment are significant because they work toward better understanding the locational pathogenesis of HIV-1 in memory CD4+ T lymphocytes, which is necessary for developing a cure.

3. Summary: Interleukin-22 is produced by invariant natural killer T lymphocytes during influenza A virus infection: potential role in protection against lung epithelial damages, Paget, C., et al. [3]

During viral infections, invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cells are a type of non-conventional T lymphocyte that plays a key role through quickly producing cytokines. While the mechanism of their action is not entirely well known, it has been proposed that they play a useful role during influenza A virus (IAV) infection.

The findings of the article support that iNKT cells produce IFN-γ and IL-22, cytokines critical to muscosal immunity. The specific mechanisms of the production and mediation of these cytokines are investigated, especially with respect to the morality of those infected by the virus. It was demonstrated in vitro and vivo, at least during early IAV infection, that IL-22 helps to prevent epithelial cell death in a IAV-infection of the airway. In total, iNKT cells were revealed to provide a quick source of IL-22 that possibly is critical to protecting the lung epithelium. These findings are significant to better understanding how T-lymphocytes, and specifically natural killer T lymphocytes, play a role in proactively protecting from early infections in critical exposed areas, such as the lungs.

4. Summary: Microbial exposure during early life has persistent effects on natural killer T cell function, Olszak, T., et al. [4]

This study investigated the importance of microbial exposure at a young age to the function of natural killer T cells, which are supposed to play a critical role in diseases relating to the immune system such inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and asthma.

The findings of the article are that germ-free (GF) mice tended to accumulate invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cells in the lungs and in the lamina propria of colon, increasing morbidity as compared with specific pathogen-free mice. Also, the GF mice had increased intestinal and pulmonary expression of CXCL16, a chemokine ligand associated with increased iNKT cells of the mucosa.

On the other hand, when neonatal GF mice were colonized with conventional microbiota, the mice tended to be protected from iNKT accumulation within the mucosa and associated pathogenicity. The results of the experiments as a whole suggested that contact with commensal microbes by a critical early age are crucial to developing a healthy levels of mucosal iNKT. These findings are significant to better understanding iNKT cells because they address both the natural function of iNKT cells in providing resistance to environmental exposures, but the experimenters also investigate the double edged nature to this immunity. If a the host fails to interact with any conventional microbiota during the early stages of life, then the natural killer T-cells themselves seem to be a source of pathogenicity. The results of the experiment provide crucial insight for better understanding T lymphocytes as a whole.

Migratory challenges faced by T cells [5]


  1. <pubmed>22745374</pubmed>
  2. <pubmed>23971972</pubmed>
  3. <pubmed>22294696</pubmed>
  4. <pubmed>22442383</pubmed>
  5. <pubmed>26635800</pubmed>


1. Summary: Folate-mediated chitosan nanoparticles containing the IP-10 gene enhance melanoma-specific cytotoxic CD8+CD28+T Lymphocyte responses, He, J., “et. al.” [1]

In the study promising combination treatments for malignant melanomas are explored using adoptive immunotherapy with Cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL).

The study aimed to increase the CTL anti-tumor response by inducing melanoma TRP2-specific CD8+CD28+T cell in combination with folate-modified chitosan nanoparticles containing Interferon-y-inducible protein-10 (IP-10). IP-10 plays a role in chemotaxis particularly for CD8+ T cells towards the tumor [2][3]. The chitosan molecules where prepared with a IP-10 gene from a mouse and the TRP2-specific CD8+CD28+ T cells co-cultured with artificial antigen presenting cells, due to cost and efficiency. Affected mice were treated with one therapy, both or a saline control, with tumor size and survival times measured. Other immune cells were measured and TUNEL techniques used to determine proliferation and angiogenesis.

Overall the combination of the two therapies increased the anti-tumor response and hindered the advancement of the melanoma in vivo. Inhibiting growth and proliferation whilst promoting apoptosis of tumor cells leading to an extended survival time for the mice than either therapy alone. With the chitosan nanoparticles creating a chemotaxic by inducing IP-10 secretion, resulting in recruitment of CD8+ t cells in the tumor area angiogenesis and proliferation were reduced.

2. Summary: Delivery system of CpG oligodeoxynucleotides through eliciting and effective T cell immune response against melanoma in mice, Sun, W., “et. al.” [4]

Through the addition of a C-class CpG ODN-685 (oligodeoxynucleotides) the study aims to explore the effects on anti-tumor activity in melanoma inoculated mice as well as prophylactically in healthy mice to ultimately improve the immunogenicity of the whole tumor cell lysate developed as a vaccine for tumors, whilst. The CpG ODNs are involved in stimulating the early immune responses with T cell activation occurring during their transport to the immune system. There were two groups of study, prophylactic – which were given tumor cell lysate, CpG ODN, tumor cell lysate plus CpG ODN or PBS as control. At a later stage were given tumor cells. The other therapeutic group was inoculated with melanoma tumor cells and then received a treatment. Tumors were either inoculated in hind leg or peritoneum of mice. Subcutaneous and intraperitoneal melanoma affected mice did not respond to tumor lysate or CpG ODN but when combined an immune response was triggered. This led to longer survival time and prevented tumor spread to through the abdominal cavity. Upon analysis of splenocytes the lysate only group displayed anti-tumor effects whilst the CpG ODN alone did not however, when used in conjunction an enhanced response was displayed. Suggesting assistance from CpG ODN in stimulating a cytotoxic immune response. CD4+ / CD8+ T cells increased significantly after tumor inoculation signifying their involvement in immune response and when CpG ODNs where combine with tumor lysate a strong specific Cytotoxic T lymphocyte response was generated. It was concluded that CpG ODN-685 could be effective in increasing immunogenicity of tumor vaccines against melanoma.

3. Summary: Spinal cord T-cell infiltration in the rate spread nerve injury model: a time course study, Gattlen, C., “et. al.” [5]

Infiltration of the spinal cord by T-cells after SCI [5]

In this study Gattlen et. al. explored the immune response following a spared nerve injury (SNI) [6] in mice, in particular microglia, T-lymphocytes and cytotoxic T-lymphocytes responses. The study looks at the relation between different immune cell types and their role in pain and chronic pain. Levels of microglia (Iba1), T-lymphocyte (CD2) and cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CD8) were measured through various techniques such as measuring gene expression and immunofluorescence.

Microglial reactivity gene expression was unregulated for a prolong period, whilst microglial proliferation measured through immunofluorescence was only increased sharply on day 2. Inflammatory genes were regulated following the SNI with pro-inflammatory factors such as interleukins being increased soon after injury and typical anti-inflammatory factors began to increase at a later stage. Following the SNI CD2 and CD8 cells were counted in the dorsal horn to detect T-cell infiltration into the spinal cord however, a significant difference was not found. This is comparable to a spinal cord injury where T-cell infiltration is displayed.

The increase of anti-inflammatory factors could be a factor in the resolution of the inflammation [7]. Increased excitability in the lamina neurons of the spinal cord has been linked to the increased presence of Pro-inflammatory factors [8]. From this the study concluded that further study should focus on the transition from pro- to anti- inflammatory phases of the microglial cells.

4. Summary: Eliciting cytotoxic T lymphocytes against human laryngeal cancer-derived antigens” evaluation of dendritic cells pulsed with a heat-treated tumour lysate and other antigen loading strategies for dendritic cell based vaccination, Wei, F., “et. al.” [9]

With the goal of improving the antitumor immunity though optimizing antigen loading of current dendritic cell (DC) vaccinations, Wei et. al. explore the value of various dendritic cell vaccinations comprised of whole tumor cells or their derivatives. Through antigen loading DCs tumor-associated antigen (TAA) specific t-cells and cytokine production can be induced. DCs pulsed with tumor cell supernatant (DC-TCS), whole-cell tumor stressed lysate (DC-TSL) and irradiated tumor cells (DC-ITC) where the three different types. It was found that DC-TSL induced strongest responses for TAA-specific T-cells, Th1 cytokine production, and cytotoxic T lymphocyte activity. Making it the most efficient of the three tested for laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma. DC-TCS and ITC inhibited T cell activation however, had limited capacity for CTL activity.

DCs have a potent antigen presenting capacity, which are taken advantage of in the vaccines that have shown promising clinical results [10]. However, a percentage of patients remain insensitive to the therapy, where further research can develop the immunogenicity of these current vaccinations.


  1. <pubmed>27022421</pubmed>
  2. <pubmed>18723067</pubmed>
  3. <pubmed>21802343</pubmed>
  4. <pubmed>26918036</pubmed>
  5. 5.0 5.1 <pubmed>27005622 </pubmed> Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; name "PMID27005622" defined multiple times with different content
  6. <pubmed>19923276</pubmed>
  7. <pubmed>10767254</pubmed>
  8. <pubmed>18480275 </pubmed>
  9. <pubmed>26795730</pubmed>
  10. <pubmed>12633662</pubmed>


1. Summary: Defining characteristics of classical Hodgkin lymphoma microenvironment T-helper cells, Greaves P, et. al. [1]

This article shows that how the t helper cells acts in the diseases such as hodgkin lymohoma. The hypothesis that TH-infliltrate is expressing TH1 marker-rich rather than TH2-enriched in hodgkin lymohoma miroenvironment. The method that they used was gathering the samples from the CHL and RLN patients. The sample cultured based on technique developed for proliferation tumor infiltrating lymphocytes. The way of examine is looking at amount of the TH1 and TH2 associated with CCRs. The result of the experiment was that TH1 associated CCRs more than TH2 association with CCRs. This result proves that hypothesis that CHL express more to TH1 active and suppressed TH2 action. This study could give potential diagnostic, prognostic and therapy on CHL.

2. Summary: Brain Glycolipids Suppress T Helper Cells and Inhibit Autoimmune Demyelination, Mycko MP, et. al.[2]

Sulfatide treatment suppresses EAE. A, B, CD1d-deficient mice sensitized for EAE with MOG35–55 were treated with five intravenous injections of sulfatides or vehicle[2]

The summary of this article is that autoimmune demyelination disease such as multiple sclerosis. Myelin in the CNS contains proteins and lipids. These component could recognise as foreign by immune system. Autoimmune demyelination is the term that our immune system attacks our myelin. This research found inhibition of sulfatides dependent navie T helper cells. The sulfatides are consisting major component of myelin glycolipids. The effect of sulfatides was not related to necrosis or apoptosis but they are upregulating two transcription factors in early growth of T cell. This research found that Sulfatides inhibit navie T cell. Moreover, glycolipid 3-sulfate group was essential for the T cell suppression, and the T cell inhibition was galectin-4-dependent. The Th17 that is known as major effect for autoimmune demyelination is inhibited by sulfatides. Therefore, following result shows that sulfatides can prevent autoimmune demyelination. It could be relevant for future treatment of the MS.

3. Summary: Follicular T helper cells and humoral reactivity in kidney transplant patients, de Graav GN, et. al. [3]

This article demonstrate that Tfh cells may mediate humoral alloreactivity, and it also presents in immunosuppressed environment. This research wants to find the humoral alloreactivity of Tfh cells regulation in kidney transplant patients, unlikely current research found that B cell is main role in alloreactivity in kidney transplantation. Tfh cells gives differentiation of B cells by IL-21. They observe the numbers and function of peripheral Tfh cells in patients before and after transplantation. The research using the relationship with the presence of DSA and Tfh cells. The result shows that the remaining number of Tfh is stable after transplantation. However, their IL-21 producing capacity is decreasing under the immunosuppressive drugs, and also during the biopsies the Tfh cells co-localized with B cells and immunoglobulins in follicular-like structures.

4. Summary: Microbe driven T-helper cell differentiation: lessons from Candida albicans and Staphylococcus aureus, Zielinski CE. [4]

The Th1 and Th2 cells are discovered about 3 decades ago, but now we know that more of Th cells present, such as Th17 which is very important role in IL-17 induced recruitment of neutrophils, and also it is involving in destroying bacteria and fungi. However, this Th17 cells are also involving in pathogenesis of autoimmune disease. The differentiation of human Th17 cells are depending on the microbial antigen such as C. albicans and S. aureus. The C. albicans specific Th17 cells are dependent to IL-1β, but not in S. aureus specific th17 cells. The C. albicans induces pro-inflammatory Th17 cells, and this is incapable of self-regulatoryIL-10 production, unlikely S.aureus induces anti-inflammatory Th17 cells, and also produce IL-10. Having knowledge that how the microbes induces t-cell will be very important to therapeutic method for immunomodulation strategies.


  1. <pubmed>24004665</pubmed>
  2. 2.0 2.1 <pubmed>24948818</pubmed>
  3. <pubmed>25557528</pubmed>
  4. <pubmed>25040443</pubmed>


1. T lymphocytes need less than 3 min to discriminate between peptide MHCs with similar TCR-binding parameters, Brodovitch, A., et al. [1]


Brodovitch et al. investigated the kinetics of the interaction between MHCs and TCRs. MHC and TCR interaction plays a crucial role in the foundation of "immunological synapses" and discrimination of self and non-self. 1G4 TCR carrying human T-Lymphocytes are dropped on a surface functionalized with various different types, formes (diamonds, squares, crosses) and amounts of pMHCs. To determine the time necessary to differentiate between the distinguished pMHC types, interference reflection microscopy (IRM) was used to quantify the spreading area in real time. The results indicate, that the differentiation process is completed already after 2 minutes, a reflection of how fast our immune system is able to process attacks on our system.

2. The direction of migration of T-lymphocytes under flow depends upon which adhesion receptors are engaged, Dominiquez, GA., et al. [2]


The movement of leukocytes within vascular environments has given invaluable insight in the progression of auto-immune diseases such as multiple sklerose. The effort of basic research has been promptly rewarded by the discovery of one of the most effective treatments against MS, a monoclonal antibody called Natalizumab, which opts against the delocalisation of lymphocytes from the blood stream into nervous tissue[3]. In the light of such discoveries, further emphasis has been placed on the research of Lymphocyte movement. This paper tried to observe the interaction between lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1 (LFA-1; αLβ2), very late antigen-4 (VLA-4; α4β1) and their ligands, intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1), cell adhesion molecules expressed on the vascular endothelial lining. VCAM and ICAM was printed on a silicone polymer (PDSM) to inquire, whether ligand type and engagement strenght would influence the migration direction. It was found that direction and cell polarity are well influenced by ligand type and engagement strenght.

3. Broad T-cell receptor repertoire in T-lymphocytes derived from human induced pluripotent stem cells, Chang, CW., et al.[4]


Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC) are one of the biggest promises nowadays. The standard approach, also used in this paper, is viral transfection with Oct3/4, Sox2, c-Myc, and Klf4 [5]. These are the four transcription factors with the power to push cells back to the initial steps of their development. The therapeutic options for iPS are mind-boggling, from Leukemia to Multiple Sclerosis, an uncountable number of diseases is a direct consequence of a malfunctioning immune system. Chang et al. achieved for the first time to induce pluripotent human T-Lymphocytes with expression of various different T Cell Receptors (TCRs). The number of TCRs decreases with the advancing T-Cell development, an increase of incorporation of different TCRs thus signals dedifferentiation. The observed iPSC showed normal patterns of differentiation, as shown in subsequent expression of CD7 and CD3. Furthermore, cytokine signaling strongly resembled natural patterns. The importance of the findings in this paper are emphasized if one takes into account one of the major difficulties with iPSC: directed differentiation. Current approaches focus on mimicking the natural cell environment and copy it from in-vivo to in-vitro, an approach which has been successfully applied by the authors of this paper.

4. Restrictions to HIV-1 replication in resting CD4+ T lymphocytes, Pan, X., et al.[6], a review


Schematic model of HIV-1 replication and restrictions thereof in activated and resting CD4+ T lymphocytes[6]

Inarguably one of the most important Type of T-Cells are Cells expressing a CD4 surface glycoprotein (not in the Paper, but on a side note: In the range of T-Lymphocytes, CD4 is mainly expressed by T-Helper cells, but also found on other Leukocytes, such as NK-Cells[7]). As reviewed in the paper, besides physiological functions, T-Helper Cells also serve as the main host for HIV1, but only as long as they are in a active state. Active T-Helper Cells primarily reside in lympnodes and replicate not only its own, but also the viral genome. As CD4+ T-Lymphocytes become inactive, a actin structure forms around the cell nucleus and the cell becomes insusceptible for HIV invasion. The review states the cell restriction factor SAMHD1, a deoxynucleoside triphosphate triphosphohydrolase, a key player in inactive CD4+ Cell defense against reverse transcriptase and insertion of viral genom into nuclear DNA.

Group 6 | T Lymphocytes

Introduction : Strong introduction with great referencing. Used an image and video well which supported the content that was talked about. Set up the reader to engage with the page and what to expect from the page. Managing reader expectations!

Function : I'm not sure the relevance of mentioning the helper T cell subtypes. What's the point of mentioning these? Do they assist in function? If so how? You should probably clarify and say that tregs are Regulatory T Cells. I originally had no clue until I read over the paragraph several times. Make things clear for your readers. The cytoskeleton section was helpful as it explained a little about the structure of the cytoskeleton and the the resulting function that comes from it's cytoskeletal structure! Some grammatical errors throughout.

Structure : I feel you could have used tables to show some of the differences between cell types. This would have been a clearer way to display information. When talking about the receptor you began to introduce several concepts, terms and ideas which weren't elaborated into in much depth and just mentioned. This left me feeling confused with a large block of text which wasn't explained clearly to me. Some grammatical errors throughout.

Development : Another video! Great! Once again some more grammatical errors in this section. Really clear and helpful diagram used! It then turned into a large block of text in which I began to feel a bit overwhelmed with lots of abbreviations and fast moving ideas. This made it confusing and difficult to read. My head hurts now. Please simplify this section, so as to help the reader understand as much as possible while engaging them. The possible use of more graphics here or referring to your image would be a helpful thing to include.

History : Clear and concise! Key points, dates and discoveries are noted here!

Type of T Cells : This was well presented! You had overviews and clarity about the function of the different types of T cells but you also included fold outs which contained a lot of more information with clear subheadings and detailed information! Some of the clinical implications and diseases were left blank here. Fill them out to actually see the effects of these T cells and application in actual practice! A bit hard to wade through heaps of blocks of text.

Current Research and Future Direction : Wonderful list of things mentioned! Even better was that you linked projects and research that is going on at our own university! Really helpful to see where research is heading for T cells!

Overall was a decent project. Could do with some simplification of some of the concepts that were talked about. I felt there were large blocks of texts sort of all over and you could do better to simplify some of the things that you present while retaining the complexity that you go into. I also felt that when you went into the different types of T cells you could have potentially done tables to compare between them as well as supporting images. Instead there were large blocks of text which were hard to navigate through all at once. Definitely use more graphics and creative ways of showing information other than text!


  1. <pubmed>25782169</pubmed>
  2. <pubmed>25674729</pubmed>
  3. <pubmed>16510744</pubmed>
  4. <pubmed>PMC4020825</pubmed>
  5. <pubmed>16904174</pubmed>
  6. 6.0 6.1 <pubmed>PMC3698640</pubmed>
  7. <pubmed>16951326</pubmed>


Introduction - image and maybe Khan academy video http://journal.frontiersin.org/article/10.3389/fimmu.2014.00057/full

A large proportion of the individual assessment is the peer assessment

Don't write an essay. Be concise and thorough. Identify the parts of the project that were very useful/not useful. Speak in professional language

Peer Assessment


English needs work – example being “Especially dendrite cell takes huge part of T-cell activation” and “this naïve T-cell never with antigen thus never activated” in Functions section. Uses terms such as tregs, MHCI and VDJ but they are not defined. Quite a few spelling errors too. This makes the page quite hard to follow as you need to go back and re-read sections to clarify the meaning. There are places where facts are stated but little further discussion about their relevance. Some of the statements do not make much sense – “T-cell is about 70% and B-cell is about 20% of the lymphocyte in the blood”. What are the remaining 10%? (natural killer cells) Diagrams are very effective but their legends could be improved.


Group 6: Information: Overall, information was presented well, in a logical sequence. Scientific jargon was defined well however some simplification of information may be required. This would increase understanding of the main points which was lost in the technical jargon used. Depth of information: There was good depth of research shown. However, at times the abundance in detail was a bit overwhelming. The “Crispr/Cas9 and T Cells” subsection in the “Current Research” section requires further detail and elaboration but is headed towards the right direction. Conciseness and Readability: Overall, text was quite difficult to read. The lack of paragraphing and concise sentence structure contributed to this. Perhaps better use of subheading, tables and even expandable sections can better summarise information in a more readable manner. There were very few spelling and grammatical errors made which was quite professional. Layout and Images: Layout was consistent throughout. There was good use of images to support corresponding text. Images were labelled well and were relevant to the topics presented. There was also correct use of citation and referencing of images. Referencing: There was extensive referencing throughout paragraphs of text. Referencing was also generally consistent and orderly however the repetition of “as review in…” is unnecessary if the text itself is referenced.

2016 Projects: Group 1 | Group 2 | Group 3 | Group 4 | Group 5 | Group 6 | Group 7
Group Projects - Blood Cell Biology - Updated 21 April  
This year's main topic is Blood Cell Biology. Each group should discuss with group members the specific sub-topic that will be covered by their project.

Here is a list of some of the cell types (Structure and Function)

PuMed citations PuMed Central citations PuMed Central note
Note - that while full publications are available online at PuMed Central, not all these publications allow reuse. You should still always identify the copyright statement within the actual article that allows reuse. Many research labs that receive government grants are required to make their published research available on PMC, this does not mean that the publicly available copy content can be used in your projects.

Remember - No easily identifiable statement usually means that you cannot reuse.

Examples from Megakaryocyte references on PubMed Central

Embryology - content cannot be reused but a useful resource about cell development.

Histology - images these can be reused in your projects.

Group Assessment Criteria  

Group Assessment Criteria

  1. The key points relating to the topic that your group allocated are clearly described.
  2. The choice of content, headings and sub-headings, diagrams, tables, graphs show a good understanding of the topic area.
  3. Content is correctly cited and referenced.
  4. The wiki has an element of teaching at a peer level using the student's own innovative diagrams, tables or figures and/or using interesting examples or explanations.
  5. Evidence of significant research relating to basic and applied sciences that goes beyond the formal teaching activities.
  6. Relates the topic and content of the Wiki entry to learning aims of cell biology.
  7. Clearly reflects on editing/feedback from group peers and articulates how the Wiki could be improved (or not) based on peer comments/feedback. Demonstrates an ability to review own work when criticised in an open edited wiki format. Reflects on what was learned from the process of editing a peer's wiki.
  8. Evaluates own performance and that of group peers to give a rounded summary of this wiki process in terms of group effort and achievement.
  9. The content of the wiki should demonstrate to the reader that your group has researched adequately on this topic and covered the key areas necessary to inform your peers in their learning.
  10. Develops and edits the wiki entries in accordance with the above guidelines.

Group 6: User:Z5018866 | User:Z3329177 | User:Z3465531 | User:Z5105710