Difference between revisions of "Talk:2016 Group 5 Project"
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Some references are repeated in the bibliography, so it's better to check the codes and follow the "cheat sheet" provided early in the course to avoid this.
Some references are repeated in the bibliography, so it's better to check the codes and follow the "cheat sheet" provided early in the course to avoid this.
Revision as of 20:35, 11 May 2016
|Group Projects - Blood Cell Biology - Updated 21 April|
|This year's main topic is Blood Cell Biology. Each group should discuss with group members the specific sub-topic that will be covered by their project.
Here is a list of some of the cell types (Structure and Function)
Embryology - content cannot be reused but a useful resource about cell development.
Histology - images these can be reused in your projects.
|Group Assessment Criteria|
Group Assessment Criteria
- 1 Peer review
- 2 Project Sub-Topic
- 3 Lab 3 Assessment
- 3.1 z3462124
- 3.2 z5017292
- 3.2.1 Article Source: Blockade of Mast Cell Activation Reduces Cutaneous Scar Formation Chen L, Schrementi ME, Ranzer MJ, Wilgus TA, DiPietro LA (2014) Blockade of Mast Cell Activation Reduces Cutaneous Scar Formation. PLoS ONE 9(1): e85226. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0085226
- 3.2.2 Article Source: Mast Cells Modulate Acute Toxoplasmosis in Murine Models Huang B, Huang S, Chen Y, Zheng H, Shen J, et al. (2013) Mast Cells Modulate Acute Toxoplasmosis in Murine Models. PLoS ONE 8(10): e77327. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0077327
- 3.2.3 Article Source: Familial Occurrence of Systemic Mast Cell Activation Disease Molderings GJ, Haenisch B, Bogdanow M, Fimmers R, Nöthen MM (2013) Familial Occurrence of Systemic Mast Cell Activation Disease. PLoS ONE 8(9): e76241. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0076241
- 3.2.4 Article Source: Apoptosis and Pro-inflammatory Cytokine Response of Mast Cells Induced by Influenza A Viruses Liu B, Meng D, Wei T, Zhang S, Hu Y, et al. (2014) Apoptosis and Pro-inflammatory Cytokine Response of Mast Cells Induced by Influenza A Viruses. PLoS ONE 9(6): e100109.doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0100109
- 3.3 z5015719
- 3.3.1 Article Source: study of mast cells and granules from Primo Nodes using Scanning Ionic conductance microscopy
- 3.3.2 Article Source: A method for detailed analysis of the structure of mast cell secretory granules by negative contrast imaging
- 3.3.3 Article Source: Phospholipase D2: A Pivotal Player Modulating RBL-2H3 Mast Cell Structure
- 3.3.4 Article Source: NOD1 and NOD2 Interact with the Phagosome Cargo in Mast Cells: A Detailed Morphological Evidence
- 3.4 3463953
- 4 Discussion continued
- Separate large chunks of writing by inserting subheadings and/or breaking up paragraphs
- Pictures of pathways/activation can be inserted to degranulation and Parathyroid bone disease. The hand-drawn image can be utilised here as it probably is easier to draw a pathway than to find one.
Overall, well written. No major mistakes or things that need to be fixed. A good amount of detail is provided for each subheading.
Out of all the projects, I think this groups one was one of the best ones. It had a good structure and flow. It started with the introduction and gave more descriptive information as it got to the sections on. The information they wrote was paired with images or tables that supplemented the information that was written. There were sections of the project where it did seem like the information was almost too lengthy but the tables that were created allowed the reader to absorb the information easily. If you did not understand the paragraphs, you could refer to the paragraphs. The only thing I could suggest for this group is to possibly use some bullet points in the other paragraphs that are quite lengthy but do not have a table for image to support it.
Group 5: Mast cells
Introduction: Good introduction gives good overview of the cell explaining what, when, where and why however, I feel that their functions of “communicate the presence of pathogens to the lymph nodes and other immune cells.”etc. should be one of the first things I read.
History: Formatting of table is nice, nicely spaced and easy to read.
Physiology: Morphology: The picture coding has an error, shows 300px. Also would be good to have pictures of different morphologies.
Function: Very clear section that outlines the key functions. Is there any information on how they are protective in regards to tumor growth?
Origin and migration: What makes the mast cell go to different areas? What are these corresponding molecules? Also what chemokine receptors are present? Otherwise section has good content potentially rewording some of the sentence for ease of reading as a final touch up.
Activation and mediators: I really like this section, straight to the point and clear. Degranulation: Good table however, and introduction to it might be helpful and explain what degranulation is.
Pathology: Great introduction to topic ran over everything again to refresh what I needed to know for below. For the MACD I think the subsets should be bullet pointed, as it can be a little confusing to read all in one line. Also potentially making the criteria and treatments collapsible as you have done with signs and symptoms. I feel the parathyroid bone disease and other disease paragraphs could be made more concise as there is quite a number of them.
Glossary: I think may be best in a table. Overall a really great page! I found it quite difficult to find major faults, only minor rewording and a few things to add.
1. 4 key points easily described through use of headings with subheadings used effectively to demarcate information
2. A lot of good information and diagrams throughout, use of collapsible images very smart.
3. All information both text and images are referenced correctly throughout.
4. Useful information clearly layed out very valuable for education purposes.
5. At 122 references it is evident that the group has done thorough research in the topic
6. Relates very clearly to the cell biology course
- Good layout and balance between text and visuals, good idea to include links to other useful information sources
- Very few spelling/grammar errors, well set out paragraphs
- Used an array of sources to derive information
- Great information on morphology however function is generalised and I think further elaboration is needed, possibly use more subheadings under function. Origin could also be cut down as there was some repetition of information.
- Images used in this section are appropriate and explain differentiation from haematopoietic stem cells as well as locations in tissues
- Could go into information such as signalling pathways and surface molecules/receptors, these were mentioned briefly but would be good to add
- Great explanation for pathology and overview of diseases, good to focus on one major disease associated with mast cells (providing treatment, signs, symptoms etc.) and then briefly explain some other disorders
Group 5 peer review
The page is greatly detailed and it is clear that an extensive amount of research has gone into it. There is good use of tables to summarise information and break up the blocks of text. The self-adapted image was also well done. There are some issues in regards to referencing. The reference tags should be placed before the period as a standard convention, and the reference coding needs to be reviewed as there are multiple copies of references to the same source in the references section which does not look good. I'm not sure if Mark gave the approval for links to Wikipedia pages. If so then it's a nice touch, but if not then you may have to bring it up with him again or remove them.
The haematopoetic lineages image appears to be copyrighted. I've read the permissions page and the full line says that you may only "print or download content for scholarly use" and then later says that "you may not copy or display all or any content from the site in any medium". It's hard to interpret and you might want to ask Mark about it, but since it's not under a creative commons license I would be reluctant to use it. Similarly the copyright statement in the mast cells in asthma image says nothing about you being able to reproduce that image, only that it is free to access on PMC and I'm fairly certain anything from Nature is copyrighted. The glossary is a good idea but you need to add more terms and definitions to it. In terms of spelling and grammar errors there were few to none that I could pick up on so well done there.
- There is not much constructive criticism i can give for this page. It it set out nicely, each section is appropriate in length, and the use of tables and images supports the text nicely, reinforcing the information being presented. The language used is appropriate complexity for the target audience, and is backed up with the glossary.
- It all seems to be well referenced and sentence structure/ grammar is ideal.
- There were a couple of words i came across which could probably be added to the glossary as they were quite specific. I couldn’t find them again, so maybe when finalising each section reevaluate whether there are any words that could be added.
- Perhaps consider reordering the subheadings under the physiology section. A flow from origin —> differentiation —> morphology (how they appear in their terminally differentiated state) would create a nice flow of how/ where they originate to what they end up looking like. Then have function following on from this, as their functioning occurs in this state.
- A section on current and future potential research on mast cells would be good to include. This would support the information in the pathology section and give the readers a deeper understanding of the cells role in disease by showing what is being done in research.
- I would also suggest breaking up or cutting down some of the bigger paragraphs, including only the important information, to keep the reader interested. Most sections are a good length, there are just a few that are quite long.
- You have covered a good range of mast cell associated diseases here, which provides an in depth understanding of how levels of these cells induce or prevent disease.
Very well done so far!
Group 5 Peer Review
An extremely well made page with a lot of interesting information. The referencing style is interesting, combining hyperlinks to terms (as a substitute to glossary, while still including a glossary section to define shorter and easier to define terms) and the well made numbered references and bibliography.
History is pretty extensive and more than enough to provide readers to understand the stage of how much we currently know about mast cells.
Function can be added as an entirely separate section with subheadings ( though keeping it in the physiology section is not much as a problem, separating some main points into subheadings is recommended) and expanded upon. Diagrams of how the cells maintain and undergo various processes in their function will be a great addition to explain complex mechanisms which are much simplified in the current text form. This is another reason why I suggest this section to be a separate section with subheadings, separating mast cell role in the immune system and injury repair.
Inclusion of a number tables and images in various parts of the page is a great addition to improve readability.
A brief section of current researches and applications should be added to explain how the existence of mast cells actually affect science and the society in general, both currently and to the future.
The glossary terms could use some citations, just to mention where the definitions come from.
Some references are repeated in the bibliography, so it's better to check the codes and follow the "cheat sheet" provided early in the course to avoid this.
Group 5 Peer Review (z5020175)
- Very well written introduction on mast cells
- Clearly introduces the main points about mast cells such as their origin, location, roles in our body and a bit about their structure (contains granules)
- Information is clearly referenced
- The Introduction may need to be split into 2 paragraphs particularly at the words "Mast cells are highly granulated…" since this is a completely different point about mast cells.
- The formatting of the table is really pleasant aesthetically
- The Findings weren't too dense with information which is good and suitable for student learning
- All information was referenced
- Morphology was really well written and provided sufficient detail. The language was not to dense with jargon and was suitable for student learning. It could be broken up into a few paragraphs for easier reading and for the different points to stand out.
- Function: The diverse roles of mast cells was established within this paragraph. There is a missing word in the very last sentence of the second paragraph. The information on mast cells and their involvement in tumour growth should be placed in a separate paragraph. Maybe 1 or 2 diagrams could be added to enhance the information. Overall, this was a really solid section as you have clearly illustrated a connection between the molecules secreted by mast cells and their diverse roles: inflammation, tumour inhibition and pathogen clearance.
- Origin and migration: This section was engaging to read as it briefly mentioned the historical context in which mast cell precursors were discovered. It is very clear that Group 5 has been actively reading through research papers on mast cells and their origins. The addition of 'integrins' in this section really ties in well with what we have learnt in cell biology. Diagrams were well chosen and demonstrate mast cell development comprehensively.
- Differentiation: The table summarises the intrinsic and extrinsic factors that lead to mast cell differentiation really well. This is easy to read and would be very helpful for students.
- Activation: The hand - made drawing is really easy to follow and this section was not too information dense. However, the main intermediate steps in the signalling pathways may need to be elucidated.
- Mediators: The two main classes of mediators produced by mast cells is thoroughly covered and images have been added to enhance this section.
- Degranulation: The addition of a video and EM images was a really smart idea. The use of a table in this section made learning about mast cell degranulation easier to understand. It also clearly shows the differences between piecemeal and anaphylactic degranulation such as how they are stimulated by TLR and FCeR1 cross - linking respectively.
- The diagram really summarises the involvement of mast cells in the various forms of immunity very well
- The information presented on mast cells is correct
- Mast Cell Activation Disease is really interesting to read
- The addition of pathogenesis and clinical manifestations really provides a more holistic picture of the mast cell related diseases.
- The signs and symptoms table was really set out since it shows how the different organs are affected
- Using a table for treatment was a really wise choice
- You’ve extensively covered the allergic disorders and how mast cells are involved in their pathogenesis. However, the addition of treatment can improve this section for e.g. loratadine is used to treat allergic rhinitis and ventolin is used to treat asthma. Sodium cromoglycate stabilises mast cells and prevents their degranulation.
- You have clearly shown that they have done extensive research on mast cells.
- The overall formatting was really well executed
- The written expression was spectacular and would be easy for a student to follow.
- The information was really engaging to read especially since it was briefly contextualised. For example, the origin of mast cells was discovered through a patient with leukaemia.
- The use of tables for certain sections was really effective in teaching the reader about mast cell differentiation or degranulation.
- Certain sections need to be divided into paragraphs
- Has good use of diagrams and contains a student diagram
- Covers many diseases associated with mast cells
Z5015719 (talk) 18:14, 22 March 2016 (AEDT) hey guys! so does anyone have any preferences for which topic to do? I feel like they'd all be quite good, the options from red blood cell to monocyte/ macrophage look particularly good to me in terms of the marking criteria and so does the mast cell but again they all look pretty good to do. Thoughts?
- Cell surface specialisations
- History of the cell and research
These two articles are review articles but they're a good place to star for background info and to find primary articles.
Ok, so here is the brainstormed list of suggested subtopics: ○ Introductory paragraph ○ History § Current research § Future research ○ Morphology/structure ○ Physiology ○ Biochemistry ○ Pathology ○ CNS/ autism ○ Staining----- ○ glossary
By week 5, let's all have read the wikipedia page on mast cells, read those 4 research articles and decide which sections we're going to write!
- content - correctly cited and referenced: referenced source, copyright info, student image template, reference appears with the image
- don’t cite review article as original research- there is no new information here
- element of teaching to peer level
- citation of literature, put to date research in area (published in the last 2 years etc) - current areas of research about the cell
- Identify key research labs that are researching on the topic: external links that is researching something specific about the cell
- feedback in the group discussion (positive criticism)
- animations, videos (yt) (insert link),
- At least one image is a student drawn image
PMID 26976119 - this is a review article but its a good source for information on the role of mast cells in allergic diseases which is really good for our own discussion for the pathology section
PMID 12895603 - this one is also a review article, and its about the role of mast cells in asthma which gives really good background information for the pathology section as allergic diseases is a major part of mast cell function so this article is just a good source of information for this subtopic
Lab 3 Assessment
Four article summaries on one selected sub-section
Role of Mast Cells in disease and examples of diseases.
The aim of this article was to analyse the relationship between mast cells and the glycoslphosphatidylinositol-anchored molecule CD48, and the role of this relationship in the recognition (and immune response) of pathogenic E. coli via FimH. Malaviya et.al. demonstrated that CD48 binding to E. coli that expressed FimH could be inhibited by pretreatment of mast cells with CD48 antibodies. It was further shown that FimH-expressing E. coli effectively binds to recombinant CD48 in a cell free system and that the insertion of cDNA encoding rat CD48 into CHO (Chinese Hamster Ovary) cells resulted in CD48 acting as functional FimH receptors. Additionally, they found that pretreatment of Bone Marrow mast cells with increasing concentrations of phospholipase C resulted in a significant reduction in mast cell ability to release TNF-a (therefore decreasing neutrophil chemotaxis) after exposure to FimH-expressing E. coli. Therefore, it was shown that mast cells TNF-a response to FimH expressing bacteria is mediated by CD48 molecules which could be clinically significant in the immune response to pathogenic E. coli in the immunocompromised. 
This article would be useful when talking about the role of mast cells in disease as it talks about the relationship between mast cells and the FimH expressing bacteria (specifically E. coli). An understanding of the mechanisms of recognition and the immune response to bacterial pathogens is an important section of the cells role in disease. This study also explains the implications of the environment surrounding the mast cell on their ability to efficiently carry out normal functions and the effects that would have on the pathogenesis of a disease. Finally, the study also provides an explanation of the clinical significance of its findings and a possible treatment for the immunocompromised.
This study analyses the quantity of mast cell infiltration into colon tissues identified with different pathologies, including colonic polyps, well-differentiated colonic adenocarcinoma and poorly-differentitated colonic adenocarcinoma. The analysis of mast cell infiltration aimed to understand the relationship between mast cell presence and the development of colorectal cancer. Bone Marrow mast cells were co-cultured with colon cancer cells for 24-48 hours and the increase in the rate of colon cancer cell proliferation in the co-cultutred group compared to a control group indicated that colon cancer cell proliferation is significantly promoted by mast cells. It was also identified that colon chance cell migration occurred quicker in the co-cultured group where mast cells were present. After confirming that mast cell play a significant role in colon cancer cell proliferation and migration, both in vivo and in vitro, regulatory pathways of this process were analysed. It was demonstrated that mast cells promote colon cancer cell invasion and angiogenesis through MAPK/Rho-GTPase/STATs pathways. Finally, it was determined that colon tumour development can be significantly controlled via Fcε-PE40 chimeric toxin, killing mast cells without inducing degranulation and anaphylactic reaction. 
The major benefit and relevance of this article to the sub-section of the role of mast cells in disease, is that it demonstrates and explains an example of the negative role of mast cells in the pathogenesis of a disease. This study provides an interesting perspective on the role of mast cells in disease as they are typically thought to be cells that aid the hosts defence system rather than a stimulant of the pathogen. This article also provides an explanation of the clinical significance on their findings and suggests a possible treatment in reducing colon tutor development.
In this study, the underlying mechanisms of extracellular anti-microbal activity and mechanisms of mast cells was analysed using the bacteria S. pyogenes to exclude influence of mast cell phagocytic function. Results demonstrated that extracellular anti-microbal activity was carried out through the production of extracellular traps. It was observed that S. pyogenes growth was inhibited by human mast cells when in close proximity in a co-culture, but phagocytosis of the pathogen did not occur. Fluorescent staining of the human mast cell DNA, S. pyogenes and cathelicidin LL-37 (release by mast cells) depicted the entrapment of the pathogen in a highly defined structure containing DNA. This structure was associated with the extracellular presence of LL-37. Histones and tryptase were also recognised to be other structural components of the mast cell extracellular trap. Mast cell extracellular trap formation was demonstrated to be a result of mast cell death, a process dependent on the production of reactive oxygen species which indicated that mast cell extracellular trap formation was an active and controlled process in response to specific stimuli. This study is the first to demonstrate the formation of extracellular traps by immune cells other than neutrophils. 
This article is beneficial to the understanding of the role of mast cells in disease because it provides information on additional ways that mast cells influence immune response. The study outlines the formation of extra-cellular traps, a mechanism initially thought to be exclusion to neutrophils, and their role in the response to pathogens. Furthermore, it broadens the knowledge and understanding of the physiology of mast cells by presenting it as a complex cell with many mechanisms in the immune response.
The effect of histamine release, by mast cells, on the maturation of immature dendritic cells and the subsequent differentiation of naive CD4+ T cells into either Th1 or Th2 phenotypes and cytokine release was analysed in the above study. It is already known that histamine plays a major role in atopic diseases such as allergy, anaphylaxis and even asthma, however, this study demonstrates that histamines direct action on immature dendritic cells can influence the development of adaptive responses. This was supported by the observation that dendritic cells matured in a histamine rich culture polarised naive CD4+ T cells towards the Th2 phenotype. It was observed that the histamine secretion by mast cells was able to regulate the secretion of cytokines and chemokines, particularly down regulating the production of IL-12, a cytokine crucial for the development of Th1 responses. The data collected in the study also demonstrated that histamine can upregulate the expression of CD86 within dendritic cells (a component necessary for Th2 phenotype responses). Therefore, this study proposes that elevated levels of IgE and Th2 cells often present in atopic diseases could be established by a positive feedback loop of mast cell histamine release promoting Th2 phenotype differentiation and therefore IgE production, ultimately resulting in further histamine production and the positive feedback loop. 
Similarly to the above article, this study produces another mechanism that mast cells utilise to aid in the body's response to pathogens. This article is particularly interesting because it presents mast cells as a complex mediator of T cell maturation (towards the Th2 phenotype) through the establishment of a positive feedback loop of histamine secretion.
Sub-Topic: Mast Cell Pathology
Article Source: Blockade of Mast Cell Activation Reduces Cutaneous Scar Formation Chen L, Schrementi ME, Ranzer MJ, Wilgus TA, DiPietro LA (2014) Blockade of Mast Cell Activation Reduces Cutaneous Scar Formation. PLoS ONE 9(1): e85226. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0085226
This research article explores the role of Mast cells in tissue repair, and particularly their influence on the formation of scar tissue. Mast cells are among the first cells to respond to any trauma to the body and initiate an immune response. They are present in scar tissue and the activated cells can cause excess inflammation and scar tissue to develop. This study used mice to demonstrate the effect of Mast cells on scar tissue formation. The mice were injected with a Mast cell inhibitor called disodium cromoglycate (DSCG). They were injected shortly before receiving a small 3mm incisional wound, and then given additional doses after the wounding. The results showed that the DSCG treated mice showed a reduced scar width compared to the control group. The wound breaking strength was not affected by DSCG as both the DSCG treated group and the control group displayed similar wound strength. There was less wound inflammation in the DSCG treated mice but the Mast cell inhibitor DSCG did not affect re-epithelialisation. These results suggest that Mast cell blockade has an affect on the formation of scar tissue as it reduces scar tissue formation but does not weaken the healed wound. This article is quite relevant to my topic sub-section ‘Mast cell pathology’ as it examines the role of Mast cells in tissue repair and concludes that these cells do in fact have an effect on tissue repair and scar formation. Mast cells are often seen as important in hypersensitivity reactions, so it is nice to get information on their role in other processes such as inflammation and repair.
Article Source: Mast Cells Modulate Acute Toxoplasmosis in Murine Models Huang B, Huang S, Chen Y, Zheng H, Shen J, et al. (2013) Mast Cells Modulate Acute Toxoplasmosis in Murine Models. PLoS ONE 8(10): e77327. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0077327
This study examines the role of Mast cells in the pathogenesis of the disease Toxoplasmosis. The researchers infected mice with toxoplasma gondii and injected them with either a Mast cell inhibitor or a Mast cell activator, and then compared the levels of inflammation and parasite burden in the subjects. The results of the study revealed all of the infected mice died within 9-10 days regardless of what treatment they were given. Interestingly, the infected control mice showed severe inflammation and necrosis in the liver, but even more severe inflammation and necrosis was detected in the infected mice treated with the Mast cell activator. Conversely, the mice treated with the Mast cell inhibitor showed only mild inflammation and less necrosis. The infected mice treated with the Mast cell activator showed increased levels of parasite burden whereas the infected mice treated with the Mast cell inhibitor showed a decrease in parasite burden. These results suggest that Mast cells play an important role in parasite clearance and the inflammatory process associated with Toxoplasmosis. This indicates that Mast cells could be a potential topic for further research into controlling Toxoplasmosis.
This article is relevant to the pathology of mast cells as it demonstrates the role they play in defence against parasites. This shows that Mast cells can be quite diverse in function. It is interesting to have an article that explores the role of Mast cells in parasite defence because it shows they have a different function to the previous article that was summaries, which described their role in tissue repair. 
Article Source: Familial Occurrence of Systemic Mast Cell Activation Disease Molderings GJ, Haenisch B, Bogdanow M, Fimmers R, Nöthen MM (2013) Familial Occurrence of Systemic Mast Cell Activation Disease. PLoS ONE 8(9): e76241. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0076241
This article focuses on systemic Mast cell activation disease (MCAD) and particularly whether it can be inherited or not. Prior to this study, knowledge of familial occurrence of MCAD was very limited, but now it is thought that it may be more frequent than anticipated. The study analysed 84 patients who have MCAD and tested their first-degree relatives for the disease. The results showed that 74% of the patients had at least one relative who also had the disease. The study suggests that the prevalence of MCAD is higher among families who contain a MCAD sufferer than just the general population. This could point to a genetic link to familial occurrence as opposed to just an environmental link. This study could be a stepping stone to more research into inheritance of MCAD. This article is relevant as it explains a disorder associated with Mast cells and provides a possible explanation of how to disease is contracted. It could be interesting for the group project to include information about MCAD as it explores the effects of Mast cells on the body when they are not functioning properly. 
Article Source: Apoptosis and Pro-inflammatory Cytokine Response of Mast Cells Induced by Influenza A Viruses Liu B, Meng D, Wei T, Zhang S, Hu Y, et al. (2014) Apoptosis and Pro-inflammatory Cytokine Response of Mast Cells Induced by Influenza A Viruses. PLoS ONE 9(6): e100109.doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0100109
The aim of this article is to investigate the role of Mast cells in response to Influenza A infection. The article notes that Mast cells are believed to contribute to the pathogenesis of Influenza A virus, and so the study seeks to understand their contribution in further detail. The results of the study revealed that the H1N1, H5N1 and H7N2 viruses could cause mast cell apoptosis. This study was the first to uncover this information. The researchers also found that different strains of the Influenza virus caused different levels of Mast cell apoptosis. The production of the virus was impaired when the apoptosis of Mast cells was inhibited. The results of this study shed light on the role of Mast cells in defending the body against influenza, in particular how apoptosis affects the pathogenesis of influenza. This article is relevant as it demonstrates apoptosis in Mast cells, which is a defence mechanism that the cells can use when the body is under the threat of a disease. It is also interesting to have information on how Mast cells behave when under the threat of the Influenza virus because it is such a prevalent disease in the world. 
Structure/ morphology of mast cells
Article Source: study of mast cells and granules from Primo Nodes using Scanning Ionic conductance microscopy
<pubmed> 26742911 </pubmed>
In this article, scanning ion conductance microscopy (SICM) is used to study the three dimensional structure of live mast cells, and the distribution of mast cell granules in each of their four developmental stages. This was done in the in the primo node (PN) of the primo vascular system from the surfaces of the large and small intestines, abdominal walls and bladder of rats, as mast cells are found to be in abundance here. Through the use of SICM, the mast cells were easily observed through the presence of their granule structures, and by the use of toludine blue stain. SICM methods were able to obtain a 3D image of these mast cells, with the surface of the cells densely covered with granules. Through this, it was able to be determined that the structure of the mast cell included 74 granules, with an average diameter of 1.2 micrometers. Upon further analysis, early stages of degranulation of the mast cell in stage 2 showed a granule-free region in the middle upper portion of the cell. In addition, the mast cell in stage 3 showed very sparse remnants of granules on the upper most parts of the cell surface. Here, SICM picked up the disintegrated boundary of the mast cell as having an appearance of laced patches, with a diameter of 1.6 micrometers. It was observed that the height of the mast cell progressively decreased with each stage, while the round shape and diameters of the granules remained the same.
This article was useful to the subtopic of mast cell structure, as it provided a detailed analysis of the structure and appearance of mast cells in their various developmental stages, with a focus on the mast cell granules during these stages. The graunles are an essential component of mast cell structure as these are secreted when mast cells are triggered, thus making it important to understand its structure. Hence, this article was useful in the research of the structure and morphology of mast cells. 
Article Source: A method for detailed analysis of the structure of mast cell secretory granules by negative contrast imaging
<pubmed> 26997316 </pubmed>
An essential aspect of mast cell structure is the large number of secretory granules (SG) found in the cytoplasm. These elicit inflammation through molecules including histamine and serotonin. Several models suggest that a single mast cell has a large number of different types of secretory granules, all in various stages of development. Secretory granules also contain lysosomal proteins and markers such as CD63, and are hence lysosomal granules.
In order properly study the structure of mast cells, this study aims to gain insight into the structure and organisation of SGs via negative contrast imaging (NCI). Within the mast cell, organelles such as SGs are separated from the cytoplasm by a lipid bilayer, and this method uses microscopy techniques in order to visualise negatively stained organelles. These NCI techniques highlight the presence of small outlines in the perinuclear region surrounded by large, spherical shapes. NCI usage in this study also identified key structures such as the cell body, nucleoli, nuclear membrane as well as the mitochondria. The structural appearance of mast cell SGs was found to be either single elongated structures or a cluster of multiple spherical structures strung together. Experimental data indicated SGs are cylindrical in shape, and fuse along the vertical axis, highlighting polarity in structure. Further, time lapse observation during the cell cycle showed that SGs increase in abundance with cell size, but are under continuous control to maintain size distribution. This data is important as mast cell proliferation in peripheral tissues is an issue of interest in allergy treatment.
Thus, this article was beneficial in facilitating knowledge in the sub topic of mast cell morphology as it sheds light on the structure of mast cell SGs, including their organelle volume, size and number using NCI techniques. These methods can ultimately provide more information on the detailed molecular mechanisms of SG biogenesis in mast cells. 
Article Source: Phospholipase D2: A Pivotal Player Modulating RBL-2H3 Mast Cell Structure
<pubmed> 22344748 </pubmed>
This article examines the role of PLD2 in mast cell structure maintenance. It is thought that PLD plays a key role in mast cell degranulation, and PLD2 is essential in maintaining the structure of mast cells. The study examined if differences in PLD2 expression reflected upon alternations in morphology of the mast cells, with different cell lines being used, and was found that the inactive form of PLD2 has a dramatic effect on the morphology of these cells. The morphology of secretory granules was also determined, with these granules being heterogeneous in some cell lines include PDL2Ca, but having an electron lucid content in others. It was thus found through this study that the overexpression of the inactive form of PLD2 has a dramatic effect on the structure of mas cells, thus suggesting that the production of PA by PLD2 assists in the structural maintenance of the cytoskeleton, golgi complex as well as influencing the distribution of lysosomes and secretory granules in mast cells.
This article is hence relevant to the sub topic of mast cell structure as it highlights the specific role of PLD2 in the maintenance of the structure and morphology of the mast cell, as well as the structures within the cell. Thus, this article is beneficial as it provides a background knowledge regarding the way in which the specific structure of the cell is maintained. 
Article Source: NOD1 and NOD2 Interact with the Phagosome Cargo in Mast Cells: A Detailed Morphological Evidence
<pubmed> 25502289 </pubmed>
This article analyses the detailed structure of the mast cell, and in particular, the mast cell phagosome, as it has key functions in triggering the inflammatory process and has phagocytic properties. The mast cells express NOD1 and NOD2 proteins whose role is to recognize intracellular foreign components and initiate cytokine synthesis. In this study, five experiments were conducted in which mast cells were incubated with E. coli and at least 100 cells were analysed in order to determine the main morphology in each cell population. The maturation of the paghosome structure of the mast cells was also followed closely, and the outside leaflet of the mast cell plasma membrane was able to be distinguished. As structure was analysed, it was seen that many granules were interacting with the phagosome, with the phagosome membrane structure undergoing remodeling over time. It was also established that the phagosome membrane is interrupted in places in direct contact with the granule components, and these interruptions were observed at sites of granule-phagosome interaction. Additionally, NOD1 and NOD2 were found to be associated with granule surface or the granule matrix of the mast cell. The article was thus useful for this particular subtopic as it analyses the structure and morphology of the various components of the mast cell, such as the phagosome. It is beneficial to gain some perspective on the structure of the phagosome that is heavily involved in inflammatory processes, which is a key function of the mast cell. 
1- Mast cell activation syndrome: a newly recognized disorder with systemic clinical manifestations
Matthew J Hamilton, Jason L Hornick, Cem Akin, Mariana C Castells, Norton J Greenberger Mast cell activation syndrome: a newly recognized disorder with systemic clinical manifestations. J. Allergy Clin. Immunol.: 2011, 128(1);147-152.e2 PubMed 21621255 
File:Histology of intestine, staining for mast cells.jpg Summary: People who suffer from systemic mastocytosis have clinical manifestations that are characteristic of mast cell mediator release. A similar disorder called monoclonal mast cell activation sydrome (MCAS) has an unclarified clinical manifestation. Unlike mastocytosis the patient doesn’t have abnormally high levels of mast cells (MCs), rather, the MCs they have express chemical mediators excessively. The aim of the study was to determine the clinical manifestations of MCAS and to compare it against the recently proposed diagnostic criteria. The authors of the paper ruled out clonal MC disease and found lab data indicative of MC activation. Further, the patients responded to anti-MC therapy. This was part of the classification used in this experiment to include patients as MCAS sufferers (this criteria was pre-established by previous research). The clinical manifestations and diagnostic criteria were consistent with one another. Almost all patients had abdominal pain, dermatographism or flushing. The research suggested that MCAS should have a more significant clinical profile due to its excellent response to anti-MC mediators. There were, however, some limitations such as: it was a nonblind study and there is no consensus as to a reference standard for number of mucosal mast cells in GIT.
2- John D Brannan, Johan Bood, Ahmad Alkhabaz, David Balgoma, Joceline Otis, Ingrid Delin, Barbro Dahlén, Craig E Wheelock, Parameswaran Nair, Sven-Erik Dahlén, Paul M O'Byrne The effect of omega-3 fatty acids on bronchial hyperresponsiveness, sputum eosinophilia, and mast cell mediators in asthma. Chest: 2015, 147(2);397-405 PubMed 25321659 
File:Data of PD15 (15% dec in FEV(1)) after 3 weeks of dietary Omega 3 PUFA.png Summary: Poly-unsaturated fatty acids, such as some mast cell mediators, are involved in inflammation. Bronchial hyper-responsiveness (BHR) is a state of heightened sensitivity to bronchospasm that can occur as a result of mast cell mediator release in asthma and COPD. This study aimed to investigate whether dietary omega-3 PUFAs could inhibit mannitol-induced BHR. Mannitol induction of BHR mimics mast cell activation. The study was a randomize, double-blind, placebo controlled and crossover trial design. Patients suffered from asthma, did not smoke, and took omega-3s for 3 weeks. The omega 3 supplementation did not change the levels of mast cell pro-inflammatory mediator release. It is likely that it is more difficult to change the metabolic profile of mast cells than just by dietary intervention as the mast cell probably still has a significant reserve of pro-inflammatory lipids.
3- Daniel Smrz, Glenn Cruse, Michael A Beaven, Arnold Kirshenbaum, Dean D Metcalfe, Alasdair M Gilfillan Rictor negatively regulates high-affinity receptors for IgE-induced mast cell degranulation. J. Immunol.: 2014, 193(12);5924-32 PubMed 25378594 
File:MTOR and RICTOR in LAD2 cells in different environments.gif Summary:
'Rapamycin-insensitive companion of mammalian target of rapamycin' (RICTOR) is a protein that regulates cell growth as a result of the presence nutrients and growth factors. This study showed that RICTOR can function as a negative regulator in igE induced mast cell degranulation, independent of other regulatory proteins like mTOR or mTOR2. They further showed at what stages in the molecular pathways the regulation took place. By analysing Ca2+ mobilisation and cytoskeletal rearrangement with confocal microscopy they were able to hypothesise that there was phosphorylation of certain proteins (LAT and PLCy1). They compared their results with a RICTOR knock-down model and found a decrease in igE induced degranulation
4- Zhuo Zhao, Hao Wang, Marina Lin, Leanne Groban GPR30 decreases cardiac chymase/angiotensin II by inhibiting local mast cell number. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.: 2015, 459(1);131-6 PubMed 25712524 
File:Cardiac angiotensin (Ang) II levels in the left ventricles of sham-operated and ovariectomized (OVX) female rats.jpg Summary: Estrogen seems to have protective effect on heart cells. It likely interacts via the receptor GPR30 which is expressed in the heart. Estrogen may even regulate components of hormone systems associated with the heart like the renin-angiotensin pathway. This study aimed to investigate whether the cardioprotective effects observed as a result of estrogen occur via GPR30. GPR30 has important regulatory roles in cardiac mast cell activity and proliferation. This experiment will be looking at the latter. The findings suggested that the effects of estrogen on cardiac mast cells/chymase/Ang II occur specifically through activation of GPR30 to decrease cardiac mast cell number. However, further investigations are needed for the exact mechanisms by which GPR30 affects cardiac mast cell number in vivo. Investigation in the mast cell GPR30/chymase/angII pathway could have therapeutic uses in postmenopausal women at risk of cardiovascular disease
hey guys this review gives a great in depth background knowledge of mast cells and has great links to other primary research