Talk:2016 Group 4 Project

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Revision as of 10:56, 10 May 2016 by Z3463953 (talk | contribs)
2016 Projects: Group 1 | Group 2 | Group 3 | Group 4 | Group 5 | Group 6 | Group 7
Group Projects - Blood Cell Biology - Updated 21 April  
This year's main topic is Blood Cell Biology. Each group should discuss with group members the specific sub-topic that will be covered by their project.

Here is a list of some of the cell types (Structure and Function)

PuMed citations PuMed Central citations PuMed Central note
Note - that while full publications are available online at PuMed Central, not all these publications allow reuse. You should still always identify the copyright statement within the actual article that allows reuse. Many research labs that receive government grants are required to make their published research available on PMC, this does not mean that the publicly available copy content can be used in your projects.

Remember - No easily identifiable statement usually means that you cannot reuse.


Examples from Megakaryocyte references on PubMed Central

Embryology - content cannot be reused but a useful resource about cell development.

Histology - images these can be reused in your projects.

Group Assessment Criteria  

Group Assessment Criteria

  1. The key points relating to the topic that your group allocated are clearly described.
  2. The choice of content, headings and sub-headings, diagrams, tables, graphs show a good understanding of the topic area.
  3. Content is correctly cited and referenced.
  4. The wiki has an element of teaching at a peer level using the student's own innovative diagrams, tables or figures and/or using interesting examples or explanations.
  5. Evidence of significant research relating to basic and applied sciences that goes beyond the formal teaching activities.
  6. Relates the topic and content of the Wiki entry to learning aims of cell biology.
  7. Clearly reflects on editing/feedback from group peers and articulates how the Wiki could be improved (or not) based on peer comments/feedback. Demonstrates an ability to review own work when criticised in an open edited wiki format. Reflects on what was learned from the process of editing a peer's wiki.
  8. Evaluates own performance and that of group peers to give a rounded summary of this wiki process in terms of group effort and achievement.
  9. The content of the wiki should demonstrate to the reader that your group has researched adequately on this topic and covered the key areas necessary to inform your peers in their learning.
  10. Develops and edits the wiki entries in accordance with the above guidelines.

Group 4: User:Z5020356 | User:Z3463895 | User:Z3376502 | User:Z3423497 | User:Z5021149

peer review

z3463953

Looks pretty good, but many sections unfinished, here are soem notes: - History is not extensive - Receptor image must be made larger - Receptor section is unfinished - In structure section, the 3 ways that NK identification can be grouped could be bolded. This would make it more distinct. - Some claims are not referenced, i.e.: Recent studies speculate that NK cells also play a role in regulation of dendritic cells, macrophages, T cells and endothelial cells o You cannot tell the reader what recent studies speculate then not reference which you are referring to. - Rheumatoid section is 90% unreferenced. A footnote is meant to be used at the end of each piece of information that was used from that source. Theres only one footnote used in the 8 paragraphs. - Diabetes and lupus sections are unfinished. - The current research section has good content, but doesn’t flow well. And needs to be reread for several small errors, (i.e. there is a random “-“ symbol half way through 2nd paragraph and some of the sentences could be restructured to read better. - No glossary

Topics to cover

Please add suggestions for topics

Images

Please add links to relevant images

Article Links

Please post relevant articles here

History

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/6375859 (http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2FBF00048565)

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1086218

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/810282

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7430655 (http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/0022175980901337)

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/806545 (http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/ijc.2910150409/abstract)

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/299761

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1080480 (http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/ijc.2910160205/abstract)

http://file.scirp.org/pdf/JIBTVA20120300001_96104545.pdf

http://www.nature.com/onc/journal/v27/n45/full/onc2008267a.html

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7895426

Structure

Z3376502 (talk) 15:54, 6 April 2016 (AEST)

Ex-vivo expanded human NK cells express activating receptors that mediate cytotoxicity of allogeneic and autologous cancer cell lines by direct recognition and antibody directed cellular cytotoxicity [1]

The article is about whether it is a viable possibility to use self-transplanted (autologous) natural killer (NK) cells in fighting solid tumours. The article highlights four issues including the basic limit on the number of NK cells in blood, the requirement to activate the NK cells in order to fight the tumour, issues with commercial or large scale production of compliant cells as well as issues faced by autologous implantation. The article has several remedies for these issues. In relation to structure (my subsection) the article outlines specifically how the structure of the NK cells is relevant to the ability to be able to fight solid tumours such as the overcoming of inhibitory signals from the cell which are used to prevent cytotoxicity. This is done by downgrading inhibitory receptors such as DNAM-1 and enhancing activating receptors in the cell such as KLDR1.[1]

Identification, activation, and selective in vivo ablation of mouse NK cells via NKp46[2]

The article questions the phenotypic definition of what is a natural killer cell. Previously various cell surface expressions were used to define and stain NK cells in mice such as NK1.1 and C49b, however this was problematic due to not being specific to natural killer cells (some B and T cells also contain these surface expressions) as well as not being expressed by all strains of NK cells. this lead to the study of NKp46 which was found to be received by NK cells exclusively as well as by all strains of NK cells, early conclusions also show that this is true for all mammalian species suggesting that NKp46 is phenotypic of all mammalian NK cells. This is important in regards to my section as it explains definitely what it is that defines an NK cell and what separates them from the very similar NK T-cells.[2]

Association of Killer Cell Immunoglobulin- Like Receptor Genes in Iranian Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis[3]

This article is about the effects on NK cells on the pathenogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis. It questions the effect on various haplotypes of NK cells and their receptors and questions what role these receptors play on RA. The article is largely about the various types of NK cells splitting into two functionally different groups; activating and inhibitory. The other way to split NK cells is to split on a structural difference with there being a immunoglobin superfamily (including the pathologically important killer cell ig-like receptors) and killer cell lectin like recptors. For the purpose of this article there is a larger focus on Killer cell Ig-like recptors (KIR) with the authors finding that haplotypes of these receptors having a large impact on the etiology of rheumatoid arthritis.[3]

Can Selective MHC Downregulation Explain the Specificity and Genetic Diversity of NK cell Receptors[4] This articles highlights the evolutionary pathways behind NK cells specifically the effect viruses have played on diverse inhibitory natural killer receptor genes. To do this the authors looked at viruses which decrease expression of MHC-1 to escape responses from the host. It was found that downregulation of non-overlapping MHC-1 subsets does indeed drive the evolution of specific inhibitory natural killer receptor genes. This is important in relation to structure as I feel understanding the evolution of the cell helps understand the structures behind the cell.[4]

Abnormalities in Disease

Lab 3 Assessment : Summaries of Articles Regarding NK Cells Absnormalities in Diseases

1. Abnormalities of quantities and functions of natural killer cells in severe aplastic anemia

Severe aplastic anaemia (SAA) is a rare autoimmune disease caused by bone marrow failure, where it is unable to produce sufficient blood cells for the body. Natural Killer (NK) cells are lymphocytes that play an important role in the pathogenesis of autoimmune disease, which host defence against malignancies, viruses and allogenic cells. They either kill target cells directly or encourage production of cytokines and chemokines. This study aims to investigate the quantitative and functional changes of NK cell subsets in peripheral blood of SAA patients before and after immunosuppressive therapy (IST). Results showed that the percentage of NK cells and its subsets in peripheral blood lymphocytes was decreased in SAA patients, but increased dramatically after IST. However, the ratio of NK cells increased and restored to normal levels in patients after intensive immunosuppressive therapy. This study also found that the median expression of NKp46 on NK cells of newly diagnosed SAA patients was higher than that of healthy individuals. Similar, the expression of perforin in newly diagnosed SAA patients was also higher than of controls. The expression of CD158b and the median expression of granzyme B in NK cells however, had no statistical difference between two groups. The highly expressed of NKp46 and perforin on the NK cells from these patients might be the cause of hematopoiesis failure in SAA.


<pubmed>24661133</pubmed>[6]


2. Analysis of Natural Killer Cells in Patients with Aplastic Anemia

In humans, NK cells have been identified as large granular lymphocytes, and they bear the cell surface antigen markers Leu 7 and Leu 11. This study analysed NK cells in 43 patients with severe aplastic anemia using cytoxicity assays and microfluorometry with monoclonal antibodies, prior to and after treatment with antithymocyte globulin (ATG). Similar to the previous findings, the result also showed that the NK cells in the peripheral blood of patients with aplastic anemia is reduced compared to normal patients. NK cells in acute aplastic anemia patients was however not statically different to from chronic patients. Other than that, Nk cells in the bone marrow was also being measured in order to test the possibility of NK cells in mediating hematopoietic suppression in aplastic anemia. It is found that NK cells in aplastic bone marrow was decreased as compared with normal and to approximately the same degree as was observed in blood. These results indicated that high NK cells was not concentrated in the target organ of aplastic anemia. LGLs in aplastic anemia had defective NK cells. It is discussed that defective NK function is a consequences of the underlying bone marrow failure and therefore do not support the suggestion that hematopoietic suppression in aplastic anemia is mediated by NK cells.


<pubmed>3083891</pubmed>[7]


3. NKG2A expression and impaired function of NK cells in patients with new onset of Graves' disease.

Graves’s disease (GD)is an organ-specific autoimmune disease. It was said that the role that NK cells play in the pathogenesis of Graves’s disease (GD) is still remain unclear. This study explored the presence of activated and inhibitory receptors if NK and NKT cells in the peripheral blood of patients with new GD onset. The result of this study showed the significant decrease of NK cells in the peripheral blood of untreated GD patients. It is concluded that a lower number of activated NK cells may participate in the pathogenesis of GD but whether impaired function of NK cells leads to the onset of GD or the onset of GD leads to impaired function of NK cells still remains unclear.


<pubmed>25281394</pubmed>[8]


4. The characteristics of NK cells in Schistosoma japonicum-infected mouse spleens

Schistosomiasis japonica is an parasitic disease, where during infection the deposition of its eggs can lead to immunopathological reactions, such as granuloma and fibrosis formation, which are the main contributors to the host lesions. By using mice that are infected with Schistosoma japonicum , this study aim to study the charactheristics of NK cells in affected mice. The result showed no significant different in NK cell percentages between the normal and infected groups but NK cell numbers significantly increased after infection. It is found that NK cells from C57BL/6 mouse spleens were activated and produced more specific cytokines like IL-2, IL-4, IL-10 and IL-17 and less IFN- γ during the host defense process against S.japonicum infection.


<pubmed> 26319521</pubmed>[9]

Discussion

Z5021149 (talk) 18:18, 22 March 2016 (AEDT)Hey guys, totally not sure if this is where we are supposed to discuss! Does anyone have an idea of what they would like to do for a topic? I was thinking just the red blood cell as there is probably lots of research and info about it out there. Its about structure and function and RBCs have such a recognizable shape that facilitates their function. What do you guys think?

Z5020356 (talk) 01:05, 23 March 2016 (AEDT) Hi guys! I'm up for doing any of the topics really, but I do agree RBCs will probably be the most straightforward. Looking forward to seeing you all in lab on Thursday!

Z3376502 (talk) 09:03, 23 March 2016 (AEDT)Yeah I'm happy with RBC Also any of the lymphocytes would have a lot of literature from pathology and the like. So if we can't do RBC (That may already be taken) I'd be happy to do lymphocytes.

Z5021149 (talk) 19:35, 23 March 2016 (AEDT) Looks like another group chose RBC :( how does everyone feel about NK cells?

Z5021149 (talk) 10:36, 24 March 2016 (AEDT) Im going to put up NK cells as our topic as we were supposed to choose one before the lab. We can change it later.

Z5020356 (talk) 11:44, 24 March 2016 (AEDT) A pretty interesting article we can use for current research: Killer Cell Immunoglobulin-Like Receptor Alleles Alter HIV Disease in Children

Z3423497 (talk) 11:49, 24 March 2016 (AEDT) I've added a few headers on the project page, some of the topics that we should target. We should decide on what sections we would like to do. Also add the relevant links to articles and images on the discussion pages, so we can collectively review some of the stuff before we upload it on the page.

Z5020356 (talk) 11:51, 24 March 2016 (AEDT) Yep, sounds good!

Z5020356 (talk) 12:28, 24 March 2016 (AEDT) Happy to take Current Research

Z3423497 (talk) 21:15, 26 March 2016 (AEDT) I will be doing the history

Z3376502 (talk) 10:51, 29 March 2016 (AEDT) Hey guys, just going over all the literature now and most of the articles relating to the structure of the NK cells are review articles not research articles... I think i'm going to have to go pretty far back to get many research articles on structure.

References

  1. 1.0 1.1 <pubmed>20937115</pubmed>
  2. 2.0 2.1 <pubmed>17360655</pubmed>
  3. 3.0 3.1 <pubmed>26658904</pubmed>
  4. 4.0 4.1 <pubmed>26136746</pubmed>
  5. <pubmed>25688241</pubmed>
  6. <pubmed>24661133</pubmed>
  7. <pubmed>3083891</pubmed>
  8. <pubmed>25281394</pubmed>
  9. <pubmed>26319521</pubmed>