Talk:2015 Group 2 Project
Group Assessment Criteria
- The key points relating to the topic that your group allocated are clearly described.
- The choice of content, headings and sub-headings, diagrams, tables, graphs show a good understanding of the topic area.
- Content is correctly cited and referenced.
- The wiki has an element of teaching at a peer level using the student's own innovative diagrams, tables or figures and/or using interesting examples or explanations.
- Evidence of significant research relating to basic and applied sciences that goes beyond the formal teaching activities.
- Relates the topic and content of the Wiki entry to learning aims of cell biology.
- Clearly reflects on editing/feedback from group peers and articulates how the Wiki could be improved (or not) based on peer comments/feedback. Demonstrates an ability to review own work when criticised in an open edited wiki format. Reflects on what was learned from the process of editing a peer's wiki.
- Evaluates own performance and that of group peers to give a rounded summary of this wiki process in terms of group effort and achievement.
- The content of the wiki should demonstrate to the reader that your group has researched adequately on this topic and covered the key areas necessary to inform your peers in their learning.
- Develops and edits the wiki entries in accordance with the above guidelines.
Does anyone have any ideas for a topic?
--Z3466260 (talk) 18:45, 24 March 2015 (EST) hi guys, hope everyone is ready for this assignment :) just wondering, did we have any preferences as to what part of the ECM we will be doing our assignment on? maybe we can do something like...communication of cells? im not sure what Mark is looking for :P]
- cell migration
- formation of the ECM
- Why is the ECM essential for healing
Only problem with these is im not sure if there would be enough information for this assignment. Any other suggestions?
--Z3466260 (talk) 20:47, 25 March 2015 (EST)oh, im really really interested in the "why ECM is essential for healing" ! that sounds like an awesome topic to do! does anyone else agree, or can suggest any other? im keen with anything really :)
--Z3466260 (talk) 17:23, 27 March 2015 (EST)hey guys, ive encountered a pretty big problem in terms of disease for integrins, there arent any diseases that are directly related to it, or any diseases caused by a loss of function between integrins and the ECM, i need a new topic asap to research....
--Z3466260 (talk) 13:13, 29 March 2015 (EST)well 1, people aren't really checking this as often as I am at least lol...and even if we change topic we can't let them know efficiently enough. I could try synthesis..ill let you know
--Z5049401 (talk) 14:20, 30 March 2015 (EST)hey, I've found a couple of articles that talk about how integrins are a contributing factor to epidermolysis bullosa in humans and mice, http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8673141
--Z3466260 (talk) 11:20, 1 April 2015 (EST) Hey guys just an update for you - unless I find definitive info on diseases related to integrins, I'll be submitting the lab assessment as an intro - so I'll be doing general research and also connecting the function of integrins with the ECM :) hope thats okay - though a warning is that we may need to change topics depending on if I can find something to do...its hardly fair if i just do an intro, so we'll discuss this tomorrow in the lab :)
Integrin traffic – the Update
This article discusses the complex topic of integrin trafficking and the important role it plays in the endocytic and exocytic maintenance and recycling of integrin-ECM adhesions that anchor the ECM to the plasma membrane. It also identifies the role that focal adhesions play in maintaining connections to the ECM. The role that cholesterol plays in regulating these focal adhesions is also discussed.
Static stretch affects neural stem cell differentiation in an extracellular matrix-dependent manner
This article tackles the role that integrin-laminin interactions play in the ECM and how external mechanotransduction influences the fate of stem cell differentiation. It also discusses the role that integrin play as mechanosensors for the cell, and how static stretch plays a influential role in the differentiation of stem cells. The paper concludes with stating that further research into the role that laminin integrin and laminin serve as a mechanosensor.
Vascular Smooth Muscle Cell Stiffness and Adhesion to Collagen I Modified by Vasoactive Agonists
This article discusses how integrins, specifically collagen binding integrins, play a key role in the contraction of vascular smooth muscle cells. Furthermore, the researchers hypothesize that integrin-collagen adhesion is regulated by the initiation of contraction within vascular smooth muscle cells. The paper’s findings suggest that it is the integrin adhesion sites that provide sound stability for the contraction of vascular cells.
Tumor Angiogenesis in the Absence of Fibronectin or Its Cognate Integrin Receptors
This articlediscusses the possible role that integrin and fibroconectin binding to the ECM could contribute to cell growth, and cancer growth specifically. The researchers studied the critical roles that integrin and their association with ECM fibronectin proteins play in mouse embryo development. The researchers concluded that integrin interactions are completely necessary for tumor angiogenesis in mice.
--Z3466260 (talk) 12:35, 3 April 2015 (EST)nice work :) i found something to do with integrins and their interactions with the ECM to determine the movements of cancer :D sound good? Integrins and cancer: regulators of cancer stemness, metastasis, and drug resistance.
- 1 Integrins and cancer: regulators of cancer stemness, metastasis, and drug resistance (Review) 
- 2 Variety in the tumor microenvironment: integrin splicing regulates stemness 
- 3 Tissue mechanics modulate microRNA-dependent PTEN expression to regulate malignant progression. 
- 4 Integrin activation controls metastasis in human breast cancer. 
- 5 Structure of Integrins
- 6 References
Integrins and cancer: regulators of cancer stemness, metastasis, and drug resistance (Review) 
This article shows the interactions between the integrins on cell surfaces with the environment - the extracellular matrix and their role in cancer and their metastasis. Integrins have multiple types of receptors derived from various combinations of their alpha and beta units, and tumour initiating cells present integrins like alpha 6, beta 1 and 3 on their cells, which are usually only present on stem cells. This means that they can self regulate proliferation and even differentiation. However different integrins being expressed on the cancer cells also allow them to survive in areas which are usually out of bounds, i.e. outside of the ECM, and this provides some understanding as to how cancer cells survive and proliferate during dissemination in the blood and metastasis. Integrins assist in tumour progression and drug resistance through their interaction with the ECM, where the ECM can regulate cell sensitivity to therapies.
Variety in the tumor microenvironment: integrin splicing regulates stemness 
This article focuses on the findings of expression in integrin subunits α6B and α6A and its relationship with the development of triple negative breast cancer. It is implied that ESRP1 (epithelial splicing regulatory protein) levels affect the expression of integrin α6B, which possibly promotes anchorage independent growth of tumours, resulting in metastases. The important of integrin expression is reinforced in this article, and current research targets the genes that make TICs or the general population express TIC like features.
Tissue mechanics modulate microRNA-dependent PTEN expression to regulate malignant progression. 
MiRNA affects integrin dependent adhesion, and the stiffness of the ECM subsequently affects the levels of mature MiRNA in a cell. In particular, it is discussed the MiRNAs play an essential role in tumour mechanics, where integrins are the facilitators of change in expression. Specifically in mouse breast cancer, we see that miR-18a regulates the maligancy of breast cancer by targetting the tumour suppressor PTEN. The effect of the ECM in regards to the metastatic potential of a tumour can be seen to interact with the actions of integrins on cancer cells.
Integrin activation controls metastasis in human breast cancer. 
It is seen in breast cancer cells that integrins can bind to platelets in the bloodstream, therefore alluding to the possibility of metastasis. The activated αvβ3 integrin allows for breast cancer cells to do so, and therefore the expression of this integrin on cancer cells indicate the potential for metastasis. It is not however a definitive factor for metastasis, but has an essential role in cancer cells metastasising through blood dissemination.
Structure of Integrins
<pubmed>25606594</pubmed> This article discusses the influence of Integrins in the development of mammary tissue, and particular, its role in the co-functioning with the ECM.
<pubmed>25837254</pubmed> Integrins are involved in the identification of RGD motifs, which are essential for ECM function. The article discusses the clincal relevance of this in relation to Helicobacter Pylori infection in the stomach.
<pubmed>25754646</pubmed> This article discusses how Talin (an intracellular protein) is an important factor in the linkage of Integrins and ECM to the actin cytoskeleton.
<pubmed>25368556</pubmed> Discussion of how Integrins (and other proteins) interact with ECM to influence synaptic plasticity in neurons.
The Role of integrins in the trabecular meshwork
This paper is about the role of integrins and how they can control the function of the trabecular meshwork. Integrins are known to promote adhesion to the ECM however they are not just adhesion receptors they act as conduits to convey information about the ECM. This signalling regulates many processes of the trabecular meshwork such as growth factor and cell death. There are many different types of integrins in the trabecular meshwork, and this paper found that they are likely to have unique and specialised functions.
Molecular Biology of the Cell. 4th edition.
This book  talks in general about what integrins are, structure, signalling and how they interact with the cytoskeleton.
RGD and other recognition sequences for integrins (review)
This review  looks at how the discovery RGD by ruoslahti has lead to a large number of pharmaceutical applications explaining how it binds and the importance of cell adhesion.
The emergence of integrins: a personal and historical perspective
This article  discusses what lead to the discovery of intergrins. Serveral investigations help lead to its discovery including; the investigation of fibronectin structure, monocolonal antibodies that had been raised against chicken myoblasts. The investigation of the fibronectn lead to a small fragment of fibronectin that promotes cell adhesion which is RGDS. The monocolonal antibodies lead to CSAT and JG22 being discovered which interfered with myoblast adhering to the matrix. From this Hynes deduced that the CSAT and JG22 antigen was the molecule which links the myoblast to the matrix.
http://sciencewatch.com/nobel/predictions/cell-adhesion This article is on the history of integrins. It states that Richard Hynes and his group discovered and named the protein 'intergrin' which connected fibronectin to actin in the cell wall. While Ruoslahti identified RGD peptide (a small fragment containing a sequence of 3 amino acids) which is a vital recognition sequence in the integrin family. Both are accredited for its discovery.
This review  which provides the basic facts about integrins hence why I dot pointed for future reference when we do the actual page :)
- cell adhesion receptors
- The name integrin was given to indicate the importance of these receptors for maintaining the integrity of the ECM.
- RGDS peptides enabled us to see that functional receptors of intergrins are heterodimers
- composed of alpha and beta subunits which are non-colvalently associated
- grouped based on ligand binding properties
- alpha subunit determines which ligand it binds
- alphaI domain - inserted domain ~200 amino acids
- Beta subunit connects to cytoskeleton
- integrins can exist in a compact bent conformation
- links ECM and cytoskeleton, mostly actin cytoskeleton
- by-directional signaling receptors
This picture shows the structure of an integrin on both sides
--Z3459592 (talk) 11:21, 22 April 2015 (EST) we need to start doing work for this assignment guys, pretty sure he is checking it either this week or next week and he can't really check it if nothing is there :/
--Z3415735 (talk) 17:52, 23 April 2015 (EST) Hey guys, sorry I could not make it to the lab today. I did go to my morning classes, but I've been sick the past few days and had to go home early today. I uploaded work on the structure of Integrins last week before our last lab. I will definitely be there next week, and I'll keep updating my section of the wiki page over the weekend.
what mark said in lab 6
- something interesting at top of page
- balance between text/visuals (videos,pictures,tables)
- when you use references on project page - it must refer to the research article, you can use review just ensure you say "in the review" but the original research article is preferable
- graphical rep. of number of research on the topic comparing years of how many
- where research is going - read current research
- all text about a figure does not need to be on the page, he will go through all photos to make sure you have all the correct information
- request for reuse
- lots of pretty pictures
--Z3415735 (talk) 19:40, 26 April 2015 (EST) Here's a great article I found on Integrin structure and function. I'll have a read of it tomorrow and will see if we can use any of the info on it for our page http://www.springer.com/cda/content/document/cda_downloaddocument/9781441908131-c1.pdf?SGWID=0-0-45-867678-p173905705
--Z3466260 (talk) 11:30, 28 April 2015 (EST)well, we really got to get a wriggle on guys. I hope by next lab (please check this page every day) that we get some substantial work done - im going to be spending my day doing this, so i would REALLY like to see more in the function and structure area >< especially the one with just a picture...
--Z3459592 (talk) 13:08, 29 April 2015 (EST) guys if you find any major events which has happened for integrins such as integrins discovered, structure understood post it under timeline and i can make a picture for it :)
--Z3459592 (talk) 14:01, 29 April 2015 (EST) does anyone have any ideas why the structure subheading and its picture is going underneath the two graphs i just posted? i tried to increase the gap between but its still not happy :( thoughts?
--Z3415735 (talk) 22:16, 29 April 2015 (EST) Hey guys, I've updated my section (Structure). I've put the image on the right in a thumbnail which makes the section a bit clearer and easier to navigate. I've also added some basic textual information on the structure and interactions of Integrin. I still need to add the reference for this information (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK6259/#A64068). I plan on going into more detail for structure, probably adding another 1 or 2 images to show the exact structure. The structure is quite complex though, I'm not entirely sure how much detail I should go into, because to be honest, we could do the whole project on structure alone! In addition I'll talk briefly about the discovery of Integrins and what techniques were used i.e. Xray crystallography
--Z3415735 (talk) 16:41, 30 April 2015 (EST) article on structure of integrins http://www.bloodjournal.org/content/102/4/1155.long?sso-checked=true
- how are integrins produced? dna, ER, Golgi, how is the expression of some integrins controlled? do all cells express all integrins?...what functional differences?
- how integrins get into the membrane
- integrin - actin interaction
- integrin RGDS ? whats that
- functionally important to put all these together :D
--Z3466260 (talk) 15:18, 3 May 2015 (EST)I was wondering if i should integrate e-cadherin dysfunctionalities - basically e cadherin does the cell-cell adhesions, but it interacts with integrin-ECM adhesions to induce tumour like properties...too much?
--Z3466260 (talk) 14:35, 5 May 2015 (EST)hey guys, i know we're all busy with uni, but i'd REALLY, like to see some work getting done. this page hasnt changed since last lab, nothing but what ive added to my research
--Z3415735 (talk) 18:51, 6 May 2015 (EST) yep, I will update some of our page now for structure. I found this article, which seems to explain the role of specific integrin alpha4beta1 in fibronectin assembly and cell motility. I think this was one of the things Dr. Hill was talking to us about last lab. http://jcs.biologists.org/content/108/2/821.long I'll see what I can add to my structure section from the article, but it could also work in the function section
--Z3415735 (talk) 19:20, 6 May 2015 (EST) ok guys, I updated my section (structure). I've split the heading into 3 sub headings (for now) and will continue to add more information during the week and weekend. I also added a 3rd image on structure which shows the exact biochemical structure of Integrin. What i'll probably work on next is to use a specific Integrin as an example, and go through its structure in detail, as each Integrin has its own unique structure apart from the general structure that all Integrins share
--Z3415735 (talk) 16:45, 7 May 2015 (EST) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1302484/pdf/11751331.pdf i'm going to be using alpha4beta1 integrin as my example for structural analysis http://journal.frontiersin.org/article/10.3389/fimmu.2012.00242/full
- <pubmed>Alberts B, Johnson A, Lewis J, et al. New York: Garland Science; 2002.</pubmed>
Group 2 peer review
Good use of hand drawn image to show how the integrins interact with the other proteins, however maybe make it a bit bigger so it is clearer and could have been better if there was a bit of colour in it to make it more eye catching. It corresponds with the adjacent text which is also informative and provides a good introduction to the topic. For the history section, you have used text to describe the events but instead it may be better presented as a drawn timeline or as a table so it is clearer and much easier to follow, but it seems as though you guys are in the process of making a timeline with dates anyway which looks good. Also good graph showing the levels of interest in integrins, really good to visualise.
Good diagram in the structures section, but maybe give reference to it i.e. figure 1, when talking about the fact there is an a and b subunit in the text, because you’ve referenced it when talking about the different configurational states which is good. Also, really good use of the animation but maybe some reference to it would be good. The diagram of the 3D structure of integrin is good but maybe moved up a bit in the structure section. The section on structure is the most eye catching and has good amounts of diagrams and lots of information which isn’t in block text which is good! For the final section about disease, it appears that there is lots of information there which is good however it is in block text and a few diagrams/images/images should be inserted here or use subheadings to split it up and keep the reader’s attention.
Overall, so far the page looks good, just requires touching up and a few more diagrams/images which I’m sure will be put in!
Group 2 peer review
The page is looking very well so far. However, I think there is still quite a lot of information that needs to be added for example in the time line section and future research. I also think that maybe you should consider joining the ‘discovery’ subtopic with the ‘timeline’. It might be more coherent that way. Some of the referencing is lacking for example in the ‘structure’ section but that can be added in later.
It is good that you drew a picture of how integrin react with other proteins. The diagram is well done and easy to understand. The introduction also does provide a brief overview of what integrins are which is helpful when you start browsing the page. The addition of the video is also very helpful in understanding integrin’s interaction with the ECM.
I would suggest that you add a couple of pictures to the ‘role in diseases’ possibly illustrating the clinical manifestations of the disease. It might make it more interesting. In general, I think there is still some parts to edit over and fix up but overall I think is a very good start.
Group 2 Peer Review
Overall, I thought this was a very strong web page. There was a good amount of in-depth information on your topic and most of it was well-written. The Structure section was well analysed and the photo provided a good visual aid. I am interested in understanding the rest of integrin specificity when it is finished. I thought the video was a good addition, however, it moved through the process very quickly and the words weren't up on the screen long enough to read. I had to re-watch it to see what was written. Plus, there was no sound. I'm not sure if that was intentional or it could just be my computer. Nevertheless, I think sound would be beneficial.
There were grammatical errors throughout the webpage, as well as, issues with sentence structure. Re-reading through the webpage would be beneficial. Also, there were multiple times that the word, integrin, was capitalized where it was not the beginning of the sentence. I do not think that capitalization is needed in these cases.
Additional info on integrin relationships with fibronectin, collagen, and laminin would be beneficial for the reader to gain a better understanding about the functions of integrins with other ECM components. The Role of Integrins in Disease section was well-written and gave significant information about each role of integrins. This section was the strongest in my opinion.
Group 2 Peer Review
Overall well structured and presented page so far.
Key points clearly described: From what I read on your page, the key points appear to have been clearly described. If I was reading about something, that I was not sure of, I could easily find a description or definition elsewhere on your page.
Understanding? Content, headings, sub – headings, diagrams, tables, graphs? Teaching at peer level? Own innovative diagrams, tables or figures, Interesting examples or explanations?: I like how you’ve set out the page, breaking down the information, and explaining it as you go along in a logical sequence. Content and sub – headings are well chosen, and provide a good background to integrins. The diagram under the ‘Integrins’ heading, ‘A simple diagram of … cytoskeleton to the ECM’, helps the reader visual the process. Possibly though, tidy up the diagram (and scan it (I don’t think it’s a ‘scanned’ image) for better quality) by ensuring that the different parts of the diagram are in correspondence with each other, e.g. the plasma membrane is not uniform in shape and size. Furthermore, to maintain professionalism, maybe the labels should all be in capitals (so that it looks neater) or typed. The graph is well chosen. So are the other images on the page and their corresponding labels. However, why were the integrin structure images next to the ‘Function’ section of the page? I found this to be odd – placed. If it was intended to be for ‘Functional Structure’, you should relocate the images accordingly to avoid the confusion. Alternatively (and possibly for the other images as well), have references to the images, within the text, e.g. under ‘general structure’ you have (iii.) referring to the diagram – include ‘see figure 1’, or something similar to make it clearer. Also, I thought the video was a fantastic idea! It really helps visualise the integrin interaction.
Content correctly cited and referenced:The content appeared to be correctly cited. There are random citations and links here and there - I understand it’s still a work in progress; just don’t forget to fix this up!
Evidence of significant research / Adequate research: There appears to be a good deal of research, as when you read through the page, the different elements tie up well together. However, I don’t feel that this research is necessarily ‘adequate’. I feel you need to read a couple more articles and reference them on your page, rather then referencing the same article 2 – 3 times throughout the text. The more articles you use, the more supported and accurate your page will be, and the concepts will be better worded/ explained.
Other: Knowing that the page is still in progress, make sure you go over and correct and spelling, punctuation and grammatical errors (I noticed quite a few). Some of your sentences are too long and wordy – work on sentence structure. Under ‘general function’, the sentence reads ‘two main cellular functions’ – what are they? List them or point them out. You also need to add paragraphs to this same section (gen. function). It’s too clumped and difficult to read when together. I also think you need a paragraph explaining why you’ve listed ‘integrin trafficking, fibronetin, collagen, laminin etc’ under ‘interaction with the extracellular matrix’. Just a sentence saying what role those components play in interaction should be sufficient, so that the viewer knows why they are reading about all those other components and how they fit in with ‘integrins’. Initiation of metastasis and interaction with ECM components and stiffening of the ECM are two very, very long paragraphs. Ensure the paragraph breaks are more obvious and add pictures. When you read scientific papers/ wikis/ articles, you find yourself distracted when you have to read long lengthy paragraphs. In particular if scientific terminology is used that you’re not familiar with – you dread it! If you separate the text into more obvious paragraphs, it will give the reader a break and help them absorb what they read. Glossary is a fantastic idea. Possibly even list any terminology that those who are not in the scientific field, may not understand.
Project 2 Overall, the Integrins wiki is looking quite nice. The biggest thing you need to do going forward is try to eliminate content duplication (ie stuff from one paragraph appearing again later in the page), which will be a matter of checking each other’s work.
There’s a bit of formatting stuff that needs to be cleaned up, also. For example, there’s a random sciencedirect link that I guess is meant to be part of a reference tag at the end of the first section. You also need to decide whether you place the ref tag after the full stop (as in ) or before (as in ). The timeline in the history section obviously needs some work.
The hand drawn integrins diagram is very well drawn but you really need to scan it rather than taking a photo with a phone. It looks terribly out-of-place as it is at the moment.
Overall, the fact that I need to nit-pick this so much probably means you’re doing a good job so far! Your notes indicate that you know where you need to go next – continue to work hard and you should have a good product at the end!
Group 2 Peer Review
Group 2, the keypoints seem to be well described, as well as the content, headings and subheadings. The association between integrins and other ECM compounds was very creative and gave extra good information. When it comes to the disease topic, I think you guys explored it well, giving good explanation on a more specific way, interrelating cancer subjects with cell biology ones accurately.
The images, graphic and the video feet just perfect, showing on a simple but easy to understand way. However, I think the general structure lacks a bit more of fluidity; you could organize some topics into dot points, for example, and regarding the disease topic, I think some info can be more summarized as it is a very long topic.
Group 2 Peer Review
In general, your project looks very good, congratulations! It has not only good and beautiful images, but also a clear and comprehensive text. The organization and the appearance of the page are also pretty good!
The introduction is very clear, comprehensive and concise, which helps the reader to understand the following parts. The history section, however, seems to lack information, because it only says how the integrins were discovered, but it does not say what happened later. The diagram that shows how integrins relates to other proteins is very good and clear, and it shows that the one who draw it has potential to be an artist.
The structure part is very good, but the text in this section starts with information that should be present in other sections, such as introduction and function. Anyway, this section has a clear and rich text, and the images provided helps a lot in the understanding of the integrin’s structure.
The remaining parts look pretty good, but I think you guys should improve the look of the disease section: maybe putting some images there would be a very good thing to do. And the idea of putting a glossary at the end shows that you guys are interested in creating a clear and understandable project. Cheers!!!
group 2 peer review
Group 2, the keypoints seem to be well described, as well as the content, headings and subheadings. The association between integrins and other ECM compounds was very creative and gave extra good information. When it comes to the disease topic, I think you guys explored it well, giving good explanation on a more specific way, interrelating cancer subjects with cell biology ones accurately. The images, graphic and the video feet just perfect, showing on a simple but easy to understand way. However, I think the general structure lacks a bit more of fluidity; you could organize some topics into dot points, for example, and regarding the disease topic, I think some info can be more summarized as it is a very long topic.
Group 2: Pros: You guys seem to be on top of things. It is evident that you guys know where you want to go with this topic. This is shown through your choice of content, headings, sub-headings, diagrams and graphs. Good job with finding a video for your topic! There is use of the student’s own diagrams. There is adequate information in all subheadings of the topic – which shows you guys have really researched thoroughly. Cons/improvements: Im not sure as a reader where you are going with the section underneath the glossary? The last section is a bit too lengthy as well.
Group 2 peer review
The page is very well organized so far. However, there are some important information about future research that can be added, since interns are very relevant proteins with a lot of functions in the human body.
The structure section is still lacking some contents on synthesis and regulation, however so far the provided information is well-explained and easy to understand. The posted image, combined with the text, allows a clear comprehension on the general structure of the integrins.
Regarding the role of interns in disease, the association between cancer metastasis and the extracellular matrix is something that captures our attention due to cancer's prevalence and incidence. For this reason, I think it would be interesting to add some pictures to this section relating integrins and cancer, providing an even better understanding of this association.
Overall, I believe the page is well-organized so far, but some edit can still be made when regarding future researches, synthesis, regulations and clinical manifestations.