Talk:2013 Group 5 Project

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Revision as of 19:28, 26 May 2013 by Z3331556 (talk | contribs)

2013 Projects: Group 1 | Group 2 | Group 3 | Group 4 | Group 5 | Group 6 | Group 7

  1. Do not remove this notice {{2013 Project discussion}} from the top of the discussion page.
  2. Newest student comments should be entered at the top of this current page under the subheading "Student Discussion Area" (you cannot edit the sub-heading title).
  3. All comments should begin with your own signature button, that will automatically enter student number date/time stamp.
  4. Do not use your full name here in discussion, if absolutely necessary you may use first names only.
  5. Do not remove or edit other student comments.
  6. Use sub-headings if you want to add other draft information, images, references, etc.
  7. Only your own group members should edit this page, unless directed otherwise by the course co-ordinator.

Group Assessment Criteria

  1. The key points relating to the topic that your group allocated are clearly described.
  2. The choice of content, headings and sub-headings, diagrams, tables, graphs show a good understanding of the topic area.
  3. Content is correctly cited and referenced.
  4. The wiki has an element of teaching at a peer level using the student's own innovative diagrams, tables or figures and/or using interesting examples or explanations.
  5. Evidence of significant research relating to basic and applied sciences that goes beyond the formal teaching activities.
  6. Relates the topic and content of the Wiki entry to learning aims of cell biology.
  7. Clearly reflects on editing/feedback from group peers and articulates how the Wiki could be improved (or not) based on peer comments/feedback. Demonstrates an ability to review own work when criticised in an open edited wiki format. Reflects on what was learned from the process of editing a peer's wiki.
  8. Evaluates own performance and that of group peers to give a rounded summary of this wiki process in terms of group effort and achievement.
  9. The content of the wiki should demonstrate to the reader that your group has researched adequately on this topic and covered the key areas necessary to inform your peers in their learning.
  10. Develops and edits the wiki entries in accordance with the above guidelines.

Week 2 Project topic selection, preliminary researching on the topic.

Week 3 By the next practical class (after the mid-session break) there should be sub-headings and content on your actual project page and interactions between individual group members on this discussion page.

Week 4 Each group member should now have selected 4 papers relevant to their section of the project. These, or any other papers, can now be used to generate content (text, images and tables) within the project page. Students can also work on additional sub-headings on the project page.

Week 8 Peer assessment of group project work.

  • Each student will carry out an assessment of all Group projects other than their own.
  • This written assessment should then be pasted on the actual project discussion page and your own individual student page.
  • The peer assessment for each project should be concise and include both positive and negative critical analysis of the current project status.
  • The actual assessment criteria (shown above) can be used if you like.
  • Each student assessment should be your own work and be completed before the next Lab.

--Z3331556 (talk) 19:27, 26 May 2013 (EST)(KJ) oh and guys we need to fix the references, the double-ups and the blanks. Have a look at the referencing in my sections so u can copy the code. For the blanks they're gonna have to be inserted manually if they don't work. Let me know if you're having trouble. Also I think we could find good links to add to the page? and with the abnormalities section do you think you can add a small description of each disease and how the nucleus or envelope is involved?? I know Mark talked about some abnormalities in his Nucleus lecture, so you may want to look at that

--Z3331556 (talk) 19:16, 26 May 2013 (EST) (KJ) Yep need to work on those images and the glossary. AV with the glossary what's usually done is that the words in the body of the page are linked to the glossary so the definitions would need to be on the page. I'll start linking some of the terms and you guys can copy the code for your sections. Sound good? Also AV I've realised that the end of my section overlaps with the beginning of yours. I end with the absorption of the nuclear envelope components into the ER... what should we do?

--Z3377769 (talk) 12:02, 26 May 2013 (EST) (AV) hey, just a thought about the glossary. Is it possible or worth like creating a internal links to the glossary terms. so if someone comes across NPCs or something they can click on the link which would take them straight to a definition as opposed to scrolling through the rest of that page?

just a thought what do y'all think?

--Z3376100 (talk) 19:19, 25 May 2013 (EST)(FN) remember that we can use one wiki image as well, but lets try and find an EM or something (not a cartoon)yeah?

--Z3376100 (talk) 18:36, 25 May 2013 (EST)(FN) Hey everyone, it appears that people have conflicting opinions in regards to certain aspects of our wiki page. For e.g. some people think the introduction is good whilst others think it's too long. I guess it's upto us to decide on what we should do. Reading some of the comments, it appears that we need to add some more pictures, finish the glossary etc. I will certainly add 1 or 2 images for my section and I will work on the glossary as well. I'll add some info. about the nuclear laminar etc. But I will add these stuff on Tuesday as I have lots of assessment tasks due this week. Also, NS I think you wanted to draw a student image, right?

Peer Assessment

Group 5:

This page is very informative and it can be seen that the group members have done extensive research on this topic. However, the introduction section seems too elaborate and too long; this may make readers lose interest in the page. The use of pictures is good but perhaps this group can include more images to balance out the page. There can be more use of subheadings and structuring of paragraphs to make the page more comprehendible. Certain sections such as the Breakdown of the Nuclear Envelop and glossary section appear to be incomplete.

--Z3331321 (talk) 16:29, 23 May 2013 (EST) Group 5 Really well done guys! You have an appropriate amount of information and isn't overwhelming at first glance. I like your use of subheadings, they show a good understanding of your topic and breaks down the info really well. You could use a few more images throughout the page. I really like your history table, it's concise and gets to the point. You could maybe simplify a couple of the sections (breakdown of nuclear envelope) but apart from that I really enjoyed your page!

--Z3451879 (talk) 15:58, 23 May 2013 (EST)

Group 5

Introduction - Awesome diagram. I like how detailed the intro is.

Historical background - really nice. everything looks to be in order. Nice formatting and good referencing here.

Structure - Nice, except for the section on the outer nuclear membrane. It’s very short, I feel like there’s more than one sentence worth of information available here.

NE at the onset of mitosis - Good section. could use a photo, but since the section is so short, it’s not terribly necessary.

Breakdown of nuclear envelope - Well researched section, nice referencing. My only problem was that some of the sections are very heavy and dense. If the information could be shortened it would make a better read, but not a big problem. You have a couple of blank sections at the end...?

Mitotic functions - No complaints. Well done here.

Reformation of NE - NIce sub-heading breaks. Well written and referenced.

Open vs closed mitosis - could use with a little formatting/ editing but the information is there and well written.

Abnormalities - awesome, I feel like a photo would be nice and not too hard to find for this section.

--Z3330795 (talk) 14:41, 23 May 2013 (EST)

Group 5 This group has the key points relating to the topic simply described, this group also shows an excellent format of layout and content with an extermely in-depth analysis of their topic. Content is impressively cited and referenced. The common problem is evident again with the wiki element lacking a good balance between text and other means of information. There is an amazing amount of research relating to basic and applied sciences that goes beyond requirements. Group does effectively relates the topic and content of the Wiki entry to learning aims of cell biology. In summary this group is a stand out in terms of depth of information however more emphasis should be on breaking up the large amount of text.

Group 5

  • Starts off well, first 2 paragraphs are informative without being too detailed.
  • However overall, a bit long for an intro. I feel that the 3rd paragraph could be considered more of ‘function’ rather than part of an intro and could possibly find a place somewhere else on the page.
  • Good picture. Relevant and eye-catching.
  • Last paragraph is good at introducing the whole rest of the page. Could afford to be more succinct though.

Historical background

  • Nice colours – Neutral and pleasing to the eye.
  • Good use of referencing
  • Good amount of significant dates and information. Not overly detailed (which is a good thing). This is a good section.


  • First thing I noticed was some overlap of information between this section and the introduction. Take information out of one of the sections (preferably intro) to make more succinct
  • Outer nuclear membrane – This is very short. Could do with more detail. What is the endoplasmic reticulum? Why is it continuous with the membrane? Why is it located so close to the nucleus?
  • Inner nuclear membrane and nuclear pore complexes – Well written, well referenced. Good amount of information.

NE at the onset of mitosis

  • Well written, good information. Well cited.
  • A good read, this section is quite good. A picture could help break up the text but not 100% necessary

Breakdown of nuclear envelope

  • Opening paragraph is good. Opens this section well
  • Good picture
  • This had a lot of good information and was once again well written. However there was a lot of information and was a bit much to take in. I feel this needs to be edited to be said in less words and cut out anything that’s not fully necessary. Pictures could also help break up the text and make the section more palatable.

Mitotic functions

  • Good section – Well written and succinct!

Reformation of NE

  • Same as above – well written and not too long.
  • Good information, well cited. A picture could help make this more aesthetically pleasing.

Open vs closed mitosis

  • Good section, interesting topic. Picture looked good, drew my attention and was relevant to info.
  • Information looked (and read) like one big ‘chunk’. Subheadings could help break up this section.


  • A good section. A picture to the left would look nice and break it up from the section above and below it.

Current and future research

  • Good overall. Interesting and relevant information.
  • Could do with more citation. Seems like a lot of detail for the amount of references there.

Peer review

You have clearly done a lot of research on this page, however I think perhaps there is too much writing. Perhaps try and either cut down on your information or put some of it in bullet points to make it easier to read! The hisotry section is nice and brief and is well referenced! In regards to the structure of the nuclear envelope, is there any other information you need to include to the outer nuclear membrane as it seems rather short when comparing to the inner nuclear membrane. What you have written is really good, the only other suggestion I have for you is to add many more images which help explain the text and also breaks it up. Your glossary section is rather limited so I would possibly suggest that you add some more words into that which make it easier for us to understand more difficult words! Overall I think its a great page and if you cut down on some of the information then it will even better!

Group 5

The most impressive looking page so far.

Great introduction, concise, well structured, outlining structure and function briefly. I don’t think you need to mention Hetzer’s review article again ie. “Hetzer’s has pointed out in his review article (2010)” as you’ve mentioned it in your opening paragraph. A simple line such as Hetzer states, or leaving it out completely and referencing it at the end of the sentence will do.

Also “This page aims to explore the process of the breakdown and reassembly” could be reworded as: This page aims to explore the breakdown and reassembly processes of the nuclear envelope, and its role in cell division. For better flow.

‘Dat timeline, I could stare at those colours all day. Maybe an image of G.L Kite can be included here to break up the text a little bit?

Structure of the Nuclear Envelope – Well researched and referenced section, apart from outer nuclear membrane, still time though ;-) formatting of “Figure 1. Schematic view of model adopted for the NPC/NE system” as a thumb I think?

Breakdown of the Nuclear Envelope – Image included here is helpful, referenced properly. A lot of text in comparison to the previous sections in terms of text/image ratio. A lot of the terms used here, proteins and whatnot can be included in your glossary

Abnormalities - A bit more information on each of the diseases mentioned would be great. Could be room for another awe-inspiring table? o.O Room for accompanying images here also of some diseases. (Y)

Current and Future Research This is a nice section. Some links to the current papers would just finish it off.

In all, awesome work. A lot of research has gone into this page and it shows. It will look great once finished.

Peer assessment: Criteria: 1. The key points relating to the topic that your group allocated are clearly described. 2. The choice of content, headings and sub-headings, diagrams, tables, graphs show a good understanding of the topic area. 3. Content is correctly cited and referenced. 4. The wiki has an element of teaching at a peer level using the student's own innovative diagrams, tables or figures and/or using interesting examples or explanations. 5. Evidence of significant research relating to basic and applied sciences that goes beyond the formal teaching activities. 6. Relates the topic and content of the Wiki entry to learning aims of cell biology.

Your page is very nicely laid out, with the important points under neat headings and sub-headings(1) Diagrams complement the text nicely, however there are only 5 images for so much text? Perhaps you should try adding in a few more to break it up, and illustrate what you are explaining. The image layout, alternating on either side is a nice touch, the table is very nice and clear, with a lovely colour scheme - the entire page matches! This is nice because it gives a sense of continuity throughout the page. May I suggest you guys re-check the headings and subheadings? Words which do not need to be capitalized are, not a major issue but it just seems more professional(2) Information seems to be correctly referenced but there are many duplicates in the reference list at the bottom, some are even triplicates!!! Also I suggest you could try moving the references from the end of the sentences to be included in the sentence where relevant, seems more logical rather than just at the end of the sentence/paragraph(3) Your page seems appropriate for people wanting to learn more about your topic, whether they be familiar with it or not so well done on presentation and structure, informative diagrams and interesting ideas discussed!(4) It is clear that a lot of effort has been put into the page, and a lot of reading has been done, but I strongly suggest you guys consider including something else rather than cartoon-ish diagrams, I'd like to see more actual photographs, a time lapse would be fantastic!(5) The nuclear envelope is a nice choice of topic and very relevant to our larger topic of cell division, since its both important and interesting. Having learned about it in class a bit I hoped to see some new ideas/theories, and you guys have done just that, well done!(6)

Group 5 Feedback

The introduction gives a detail overview of the topic "nuclear envelope during cell division". May be if it is possible to fill the gap between 1967 and 1989 in the timeline. The content in this topic is represented well and in detail, however it looks like there are more texts but not enough diagrams to support it. For example a picture of the inner or outer nuclear membrane would be helpful to include. Some of the subheadings are quite long to read, how about turning some of them into question style? And may be finishing of the glossary. other than that, Referencing is all done well, group discussion and communication seems obvious in this project. Overall, great work guys!

z3374507 assessment - Group 5

The key points are accurately and thoroughly addressed.

This page presents a very detailed explanation of the nuclear envelope throughout cell division.

The formatting of the headings, images and text is good.

The referencing of images and text is well done.

Overall the entire page demonstrates that the group has done a significant amount of research and translated it in a way that the viewer can clearly understand it.

The images could be improved by adding a statement describing the image and linking it to the processes it is illustrating. Also there is a section of the page which is very text heavy.

Adding a few more images to supplement the text may make the page more enjoyable to read.

Peer Review

Group 5

Intro: Good comprehensive introduction to the nuclear membrane as well as its structure and function. Diagram also works well to complement the information

History: Starts from the discovery and description of the nuclear envelope and goes through until almost present so it seems to also be pretty comprehensive. Perhaps a picture from a historical paper would go well in this section also.

Stucture: the outer nuclear membrane section looks to be unfinished. But if it is finished, does one sentence need a sub-heading? An electron micrograph picture might go nicely in this section.

Breakdown during cell division: Lots of good information here that could be supported really well by adding some pictures.

Overall: I think almost every sub-heading has “nuclear envelope” included. The page is about the nuclear envelope so I think you could get away with having headings such as “Structure” instead of being repetitive.

Group 5 – Nuclear Envelope

The introduction section is very good and detailed, with appropriate referencing. I also like the image, which also has the correct referencing.

The history section is a reasonably good start, with appropriate referencing for the discoveries. You need to add a few more years and descriptions of the discoveries in those years. Perhaps adding some images to support some of the discoveries would make this section look more interesting. The table format is a good idea. However the table is going off the page on the right side, you need to fix that.

Structure of the nuclear envelope section is very detailed with appropriate referencing. However I only see 1 line for the outer nuclear membrane. It would be good to add a little bit more information. There is only 1 image in this whole section, and although it has the correct referencing, the thumbnail image does not have a description. I noticed you have the 1 line description at the bottom of the section. You need to add that under the thumbnail. It would be good to also add another image in this section to support the text to make it easier to understand. The Nuclear Envelope At the Onset of Mitosis section is also very detailed with appropriate referencing. However there are no images in this section. It would be good to add an image in this section to support the text to make it more interesting and easier to understand.

Breakdown of the Nuclear Envelope section is also very detailed with appropriate referencing. There is only 1 image in this whole section, and it has the correct referencing. It would be appropriate to add some more images to support the text as there is a lot of text to read but insufficient image to support it. There are also two subheadings “The Disassociation of the Nuclear Envelope From Chromatin” and “The Dispersal of Nuclear Envelope Components into the Endoplasmic Reticulum” with no content under it. You need to add some content under those subheadings.

"Mitotic Functions of Nuclear Envelope Components" and "Reformation of the Nuclear Envelope" sections are very detailed with appropriate referencing. However there are no images in this section. It would be appropriate to add some images to support the text as there is a lot of text to read but no image to support it.

Open vs. Closed/Semi-closed Mitosis section is also very detailed with appropriate referencing. The image is also relevant and has appropriate referencing.

“Abnormalities in Nuclear Envelope Breakdown and Reformation” section does not have much information. It would be good to list a few more complications and their descriptions.

Current and Future research section is very good so far. It would be good to add one or two more images from the research papers you were discussing, to support the text.

The glossary section is significantly lacking in words.

Overall the project is excellent so far.

Peer Marking Assessment

The topic of the nuclear envelope during cell division was explained first with an introduction. The diagram was helpful but the text already did a good job at providing an overview of the topic. The timeline presented in a table, though short, did provide important events leading up to the current understanding of the nuclear envelope. It could use some pictures as it talks about interesting studies such as octagonal structure which would have cool pictures. This carries on into the structure section. Despite being divided into three sections, there is only one diagram. The description is very clear and concise but diagrams would make it easier to understand. The following subheadings took a long time to read mainly because it just seemed to be walls of text. It would benefit greatly from diagrams here or at least breaking up the text better in more paragraphs. I would recommend doing that before proceeding with finishing the last two subheadings. Aside from the lack of diagrms, the information seems to very clear and detailed. Since there are many complex terms used, I would recommend bolding them just to make it easier to read. Glossary needs to be completed, but referencing is all done well. Significant discussion is done including posting written text on this page before posting on Wiki. This is a good idea as members can comment about it without the incomplete text being on the main wiki page. A very impressive effort by this group.

z3374087 assessment

First off from the very outset I can see that this is an extremely detailed and extensive group project however pictures are lacking significantly and in particular throughout the middle of the page. The introduction is extensive detailing all necessary aspects of the nuclear envelope during cell division including the structure, function, a brief history and a reference to what the project is going to talk about. The history is sharp and succinct with all references relating to the project. The description of the “structure” is great however more information is needed regarding the outer membrane structure. Although there is not much information detailing the structure one sentence is not sufficient to address it properly. Pictures are needed especially in this section ASAP because the reader has to face this enormous amount of information without any visual aid to maintain their interest in the information. You cannot expect the reader to just real giant slabs of information. Again the “nuclear envelope” and “breakdown of nuclear envelope” sections have great and solid information regarding these topics with some interesting references but pictures are required because it just looks like information piled on top of information. Break it up with pictures every 500-600 words. The same can be said for the rest of the project up to the “glossary”. It seems very boring to read due to the mass amounts of information and I am sure Mark Hill is not going to be very impressed sitting at his computer and looking at this vast amount of content without any visual stimulus. The glossary needs extensive work and is too short. The references are absolutely outstanding. I can tell alot of information has gone into researching and extracting all necessary information for this project. Overall this is worth a HD if much more pictures are added and the glossary is lengthened. Great work.

Peer Assessment There are too much text. Maybe use diagrams to explain or use bullet points. The introduction is well written but there seems to be some repetition. Maybe just state the key points, will help to reduce a lot of words. The historical background is good. I like the way the table is presented (colour contrast, short summary, good time line). Overall, the project is well written just need to simply or used other method to present the facts.

Group 5


  • Very simple and clear introduction.
  • Probably don't need to reference Hetzer(2010) as it is a review article which isn't the best. Just not mentioning it would be fine.
  • I had a little issue with the topic "The Nuclear Envelope During Cell Division" but I can understand that the whole purpose was to explain the tie-in with cell division.

Historical Background

  • I like the colours used for the table.
  • The dates are nice and spread out.
  • Maybe provide a picture of one of the main scientists that made a landmark discovery.

Structure of the Nuclear Envelope

  • Outer Nuclear Membrane only has one sentence. Looking at the actual wikipedia of Nuclear Envelope, it actually has 2 sentences. There should be more info included under this sub-heading.
  • Put the last line, Figure 1. Schematic view of model adopted for the NPC/NE system, underneath the picture.
  • Again with the intro, don't write mention review articles. Really should be using research articles if you are going to mention a name. The simple wiki reference format will suffice.

Cell Division

  • There is a lot of text in this section. Admittedly, I did not manage to finish reading the whole section cause I am overwhelmed at the amount of info. Maybe, structure the headings differently. If I wanted to learn about nuclear envelope during cell division I think a simple heading of Cell Division would be better. From there, you can talk about what happens before, during and after under that section. At the moment, we have Mitotic Functions in the middle and it breaks the flow.

Open vs. Closed/Semi-closed Mitosis

  • You don't need to start with the definition of mitosis. This wiki page is to cater to university level and this would be assumed knowledge.
  • This section maybe should be higher. It's a well done section and is very important because this is a real link to nuclear envelope and cell division but can't help it feels out of place down the bottom.

Abnormalities in Nuclear Envelope Breakdown and Reformation

  • Is there any more abnormalities associated with nuclear envelope? Is it possible that different abnormalities happen during breakdown compared to reformation?

Formatting Issues

  • Some of the references are not done properly. Looking at the line used for example, <ref name=PMID834491><pubmed>PMID834491</pubmed></ref> should just look like <ref name=PMID834491><pubmed>834491</pubmed></ref>. Can be easily fixed.
  • Repeated references in the "References" section. It looks like some people in the group know how to fix this.
  • You need at least one student drawn picture.

"Note that the group project requires the inclusion of at least one student drawn image (from the group)."

Refer to this part of the website for tips:

  • For all images you should put it in a thumb picture so you can provide a quick explanation and also use the reference line after that description. It should look like this:

[[File:picture.jpg|thumb|short description of picture being displayed<ref><pubmed>XXXXX</ref></pubmed>]]

  • All references should be directly after the full stop (it's a little format issue but will be noticed).
  • Needs more images, I know it can be hard finding images with copyright being the main issue but there are other ways to get some relevant pictures.

--Z3293267 (talk) 19:56, 22 May 2013 (EST)

Group 5 Lots of text! Well written though, Introduction is well written and thought out, explains a bit about whats to come, Time line is nice and simple, i like simple. Structure is broken down into easy to read sections and well written at a students level. The body is seperated into nice sections on when the cell division is occuring and what is happening to the membrane and what parts are affected. Really really well written but please! more pictures! I feel that the open closed part is super text heavy. There are huge paragraphs, and it really isn't nice to even attempt to read it. I feel you could put more in about diseases rather than list them. Glossary needs to be updated as does the references because some are disappearing. This page was almost an information overload, alot of effort has gone in, but possibly simplify it.

Group Discussion

--Z3376100 (talk) 18:39, 25 May 2013 (EST) (FN) KJ thanks for answering my question.

--Z3331556 (talk) 14:42, 25 May 2013 (EST) (KJ) It was The Journal of Cell Biology. Guys so what we need to work on is finishing off the research and start looking for Images!!, good links, definitions (need to get onto that glossary) and the student drawn image anything else im missing??

--Z3376100 (talk) 16:31, 22 May 2013 (EST) Hey KJ, what was the name of the Journal where we can use any of their images (after 6 months has passed from the initial publishing date)? Thanks.

--Z3377769 (talk) 19:30, 19 May 2013 (EST) (AV) hey KJ and NS thanks for the articles, i think we said this on thursday but ill wait on feedback before updating

--Z3331556 (talk) 16:50, 16 May 2013 (EST) (KJ)here it is

--Z3376101 (talk) 12:52, 16 May 2013 (EST)(NS) Hey KJ im afraid that doesnt help as it doesnt have any in-text citations or any specific dates but thank you :). But i found appropriate stuff for history however i need to see if ive missed anything (which i undoubtedly have). I didnt find the review Mark was talking about but ill talk to him and check my work with the review. Also let me know if you need help with the rest of NEBD. Also AV i found [1]when i was researching history.

--Z3331556 (talk) 23:57, 15 May 2013 (EST) (KJ) NS don't know if you've come across this article but it may help with the history section and there's a schematic that you can add, it is the one he used in one of the lectures but if you don't find another image this one could do

--Z3331556 (talk) 23:04, 15 May 2013 (EST) (KJ) Yep alright no problem,sounds good to me. Also, i don't remember who's doing the abnormalities part but this may help (The nuclear envelopathies and human diseases)

--Z3376101 (talk) 22:55, 15 May 2013 (EST) (NS) Yep im happy with what you've integrated :). Put it up and ill add the RAN protein stuff up to it. Its a very minor detail however as there isnt much to discuss at the onset i thought minor details would be appropriate.

--Z3331556 (talk) 22:48, 15 May 2013 (EST) (KJ) Well if you think it contributes to the section then by all means add it, but yes you're right it's probably a very succinct section. Been reading up on it quite a bit and its hard to draw the line at where the actual breakdown begins. So are you happy with what I've written? Should I pop it on the page and then you can add the stuff you found?

--Z3376101 (talk) 21:14, 15 May 2013 (EST)Hey KJ, thank you however i found more information to do with the formation of spindle asters. I am not sure it is needed as it is a specific protein (Ran) that contributes to the formation of spindles. Correct me if im wrong but there isnt much to talk about during the onset as it is immediately followed by the processes of NEBD.

--Z3331556 (talk) 13:37, 15 May 2013 (EST) (KJ) Hey NS so i have done my best to try and integrate your section with what i have written and i have come up with this:

Once the cell reaches the M phase of interphase mitotic activity takes place. At the onset of mitosis the nuclear envelope begins to undergo processes that eventually lead to NEBD. This involves centrosome migration and NE tearing. Preparation for the breakdown of the nuclear envelope occurs in prophase and involves an early structural deformation at particular sites of the nuclear envelope.

The review by Guttinger explains that the indentations which form around the centrosomes (microtubule organising centre) are induced by the pulling forces of the microtubules that have attached to the outer surface of the nuclear envelope. These stretching forces lead to the development of fenestrations on the distal side of the nucleus and are observed in the fragmentation of the nuclear lamina.

The microtubule (MT) motor protein, dynein is required to participate in this process and it associates with the NE at the end of the G2 stage of interphase. The interactions of the MT with the NE facilitate NEBD as well as the rupturing of NE.

Observations made in a particular study give evidence as to the involvement of microtubules at the entry into mitosis, this includes: the placement of sister chromosomes and microtubule asters directly at two indentations of the nuclear envelope during early and mid-prophase, the correlation between microtubule growth toward the nuclear envelope and the deepening of the nuclear indentations that ultimately lead to the fenestrations in the nuclear envelope, and lastly the absence of focal nuclear indentations in cells with experimentally induced disassembled microtubules.

Moreover chromatin condensation occurs before NEBD and the rate of condensation increases by three-fold after the NE is made permeable. This supports that changes in the nuclear envelope constitute changes of other factors of cell division.

I know you've been having trouble with the history so I thought I'd help out and integrate our work for your section. What I've written can be expanded on in my section of the breakdown so i think it works ok. Let me know if it's alright with you and I can add it to the page with all the references

--Z3376101 (talk) 10:27, 15 May 2013 (EST)Hey KJ can u add in here and I can refine it and put it into my own words?

--Z3331556 (talk) 16:31, 13 May 2013 (EST) (KJ) hi guys, so ive been working on the breakdown section all day today and have just realised that a part of my section overlaps with the 'Nuclear Envelope At the Onset of Mitosis'. NS i think this is your section and I have read through it and think it may need a bit of refining... I don't know if I should add what I have to your section or keep it in mine. If it works out better do you think it's ok if I just add it to your section??

--Z3376101 (talk) 22:55, 8 May 2013 (EST)Thankx AV. Yep im adding more to the current and future research just want to group it as best i can instead of pasting info on random articles.

--Z3377769 (talk) (AV). yeh i rekon it probably would be a good idea to have a cell cyce sub heading, just so we can explain when nuclear replication takes place and put the nuclear envelope in context with the rest of the cell. FN thats for the article, i really need to beef up my sections. also NS if u need more info for current and future research. Paper 3 that i uploaded, is on a new model of nuclear replication. could be helpful but ur section is pretty good already

--Z3376101 (talk) 01:51, 2 May 2013 (EST)Yep shall. Also i think we need a brief overview of the cell cycle on our page. What do you guys think?

--Z3331556 (talk) 22:00, 1 May 2013 (EST) (KJ) that's fine NS, maybe focus on the other sections and we can work on the history later.

--Z3376101 (talk) 10:11, 1 May 2013 (EST)Hey guys, thats ok FN i talked to Mark and he said id have to look around refferences its just taking a while and i dont know where to stop but i guess itll be a working progress.

--Z3376100 (talk) 08:01, 1 May 2013 (EST) (FN) Hi KJ, thanks for the confirmation :) I will certainly upload the image later this week or ealry next week- I think its very helpful for that section. I think it's a very good idea if you draw a diagram as well- I know what you mean with the copyriht issue. Also, You've done a really good job with your section :) i'll see you on thursday.

AV I've found this article for the abnormality section- have a look at it as it may be useful to you. Wilson, K.L. (2000) The nuclear envelope, muscular dystrophy and gene expression. Trends Cell Biol. 10, 125–129.

Sorry NS I don't have any articles to help you out with the history part- just do your best and see how you go :)

--Z3331556 (talk) 21:58, 30 April 2013 (EST) (KJ) Hey FN, the great job on the reassembly section, I know what you mean my section has been hard work too, so many papers!! it's all good we can always add more to our sections as we go. As for the image, that clearance statement is perfect, you can upload that image :) Oh and I could also draw up an image for one of my sections too, it can be really hard to find images with copyright clearances and there have been really good diagrams that i have wanted to use but cant cause its under copyright. I guess we can always link any good diagrams/images to our page

--Z3376100 (talk) 14:42, 30 April 2013 (EST) (FN) KJ I wanted to an image from this article that's in pubmed. It says the follwoing: Open Access

This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits any use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author(s) and the source are credited

from what it says I am allowed to upload an image...right? Thanks

--Z3376100 (talk) 14:37, 30 April 2013 (EST)(FN) So I just finished adding my information on NE reformation. Any feedback is appreciated :) Also, I will be adding an image from an aarticle and since we have to draw a picture ourselves 'student picture', I may be able to do one of thses images as well-> probably on how the nuclear envelope etc. looks.

--Z3376100 (talk) 10:26, 30 April 2013 (EST)(FN) Hi all! So sorry I've been so busy with so many other thinngs- But don't worry I am almost finsihed with the Nuclear reformation section- I've honestly had a difficult time trying to find information on it. There is just too much research out there but it is still not clear how the nuclear envelope reforms itself after mitosis. I did my best to cover the parts that I though were important/relevant, but if you guys think I shoudl add/delete info. then please let me know. Also, AV If i get time then I may be able to help you with the abnormality section because some of the articles that I was reading referred to some of the problems that can arise with improper NE formation etc.

--Z3377769 (talk) 19:41, 29 April 2013 (EST) (AV) i too have been cruely given the flu by some1 but not 2 worry ill get my sections done and try help out a bit with history too. personally im having a little trouble with the abnormallities section. im sure ill be able to provide information but im not sure how well it will go with the title. not to worry we can sort that a little later

--Z3331556 (talk) 22:03, 28 April 2013 (EST) (KJ) hey guys, hope everything's going alright with your sections. Haven't been able do as much as I wanted to do for the project this weekend, have come down with the flu so hopefully will get better and get some stuff done before thursday. Just wanted to remind you that we have the class critique of the pages this Thursday, if i heard correctly?? not too sure but i know that mark's going to be looking at them in class so if we could have most of our sections with some content, that would be ideal :)

--Z3331556 (talk) 13:46, 24 April 2013 (EST) (KJ) I haven't found stuff on the history yet but think this article might be a start for 'The Nuclear Envelope At the Onset of Mitosis' section (the no.2 section)

--Z3331556 (talk) 10:25, 24 April 2013 (EST) Hey NS I'll be sure to post up some links if i come across some historical info, maybe focus on the other sections if you're finding it the history difficult. We can work on it later :)

--Z3376101 (talk) 13:35, 18 April 2013 (EST)Hey guys its NS im finding it hard to find information on history any help would be awesome.

--Z3377769 (talk)

Paper 1

The Nuclear Envelope[1]

This review article discusses the nuclear envelope (NE) and its components. Specifically for our research page it has good depth concerning the mitotic functions of nuclear envelope [Ellenberg et al. 1997[1]; Anderson and Hetzer 2007[2]; Anderson and Hetzer 2008a[3]; Anderson et al. 2009a[4]; Lu et al. 2009[5]. In fact data discussed in this paper has postulated that reshaping the ER could be critical in NEBD (nuclear envelope breakdown (Voeltz et al 2006)[6]. The idea that NE components have a role in mitosis is still an idea being investigated but the article mentions research where this idea is becoming increasingly likely. This article briefly touched on lamins, these are “intermediate-filament proteins” and are a part of the nuclear lamina.

[1]Ellenberg J, Siggia ED, Moreira JE, Smith CL, Presley JF, Worman HJ, Lippincott-Schwartz J 1997. Nuclear membrane dynamics and reassembly in living cells: Targeting of an inner nuclear membrane protein in interphase and mitosis. J Cell Biology 138:1193–1206.

[2]Anderson DJ, Hetzer MW 2007. Nuclear envelope formation by chromatin-mediated reorganization of the endoplasmic reticulum. Nat Cell Biol 9:1160–1166

[3]Anderson DJ, Hetzer MW 2008a. Reshaping of the endoplasmic reticulum limits the rate for nuclear envelope formation. J Cell Biol 182:911–924

[4]Anderson DJ, Vargas J, Hisao J, Hetzer MW 2009a. Recruitment of functionally distinct membrane proteins to chromatin mediates nuclear envelope formation in vivo. J Cell Biol 186:183–191

[5]Lu L, Ladinsky MS, Kirchhausen T 2009. Cisternal organization of the endoplasmic reticulum during mitosis. Mol Biol Cell 15:3471–3480

[6]Voeltz GK, Prinz WA, Shibata Y, Rist JM, Rapoport TA 2006. A class of membrane proteins shaping the tubular endoplasmic reticulum. Cell 124:573–586

Paper 2

Diseases of the Nuclear Envelope[2]

This review paper outlines diseases that effect the nuclear envelope (NE). A major topic of this paper are mutations of the LMNA gene which codes for the type A nuclear lamins. These are filament proteins of the nuclear envelope. Dysfunctional version of these proteins or mutations of the gene have been linked to a wide variety of diseases from dilated cardio-myopathy to muscular dystrophy. Collectively these diseases are known as Laminopathies or Nuclear Envelopathies. While the exact role of these proteins in Laminopathies is not known the article collates strong evidence that the filament proteins have more of a role than just structural support. Abnormalities in the lamina proteins could perhaps affect cytoskeleton structure according to Crisp et al 2006 [1]. This paper related well to abnormalities in nuclear breakdown as it discusses the potential role of lamin proteins in the pathogenesis of multiple diseases.

[1][1.] Crisp M, Liu Q, Roux K, Rattner JB, Shanahan C, Burke B, Stahl PD, Hodzic D 2006. Coupling of the nucleus and cytoplasm: Role of the LINC complex. J Cell Biol 172:41–53.

Paper 3

A New Model for Nuclear Envelope Breakdown[3]

This article used fluorescent 70-kDa dextran dye in order to investigate their hypothesis. While this technique has been used previously this new report postulated that in the second phase of nuclear breakdown the permeability of the neuron pores changed. Immediately before the germinal vesicle (nuclear) breakdown (GVDB). The magnitude of permeability increased from .04 micro m/s to .15 micro m/s. This increase of magnitude allowed the 70-kDa dextran to enter the nuclear pore which it would not normally be able to do. This discovery indicates that disassembly of the nuclear pore happens further before breakdown that previously understood. At the end of the paper they propose a new model for nuclear envelope breakdown in three stages as opposed to the previous model of two. This article related mainly to breakdown of the nuclear envelope but also to current and future research.

Paper 4

Structural organization of the human gene encoding nuclear lamin A and nuclear lamin C[4]

The researchers have discovered the section of the human genome that encodes for nuclear lamin proteins. These proteins are being increasingly studied in order to understand their role in nuclear replication and their links to diseases like cancer. Also referencing another reviewed work these lamins have been linked with nuclear spindle defects during the mitotic cycle. The lamins are then linked to specific cell proteins and functions because of the way they are alternatively spliced, indicating they can be modified to achieve specific needs of the nuclear envelope or cell. There is also evidence to suggest that all lamins have a common ancestor as their structures were found to be very similar in other species

--Z3376101 (talk) 00:01, 11 April 2013 (EST) Paper 1

Transient nuclear envelope rupturing during interphase in human cancer cells [5]

The research article ‘Transient nuclear envelope rupturing during interphase in human cancer cells’ explores the rupturing of the nuclear envelope in cancer cells using various techniques such as cell culture, siRNA transfection as well as live and confocal imaging and the use of the electron microscope. Cancer cells can be diagnosed by the presence of nuclear envelope invaginations and extrusions. However despite this clinical pattern it is unclear why changes in structure of the nuclear envelope is present in cancer cells. The findings of the paper illustrate that the nuclear lamina, intermediate filaments that provide support to the nuclear envelope, was not properly formed in cancer cells that had ruptured nuclear envelopes. Furthermore it was found that nuclear envelope rupture occurred when there was an entrapment of cytoplasmic in the nuclear interior. This research article is relevant to the sub-topic of 'nuclear envelope at the onset of mitosis' as it looks at the rupturing of the nuclear envelope during interphase in cancer cells furthermore it can also be used for the sub topic 'current research'. As there is a clinical correlation between abnormal nuclear envelope and cancer cells it is important to gain an understanding into the causation of this relationship.

Paper 2

The SUN Protein Mps3 Is Required for Spindle Pole Body Insertion into the Nuclear Membrane and Nuclear Envelope Homeostasis [6]

The article 'The SUN Protein Mps3 Is Required for Spindle Pole Body Insertion into the Nuclear Membrane and Nuclear Envelope Homeostasis' explores the mechanism of spindle pole body (SPB) into the nuclear membrane in budding yeast cells. The research paper states that the action of integral membrane proteins facilitate changes in the nuclear envelope. The investigators looked at an SPB component called Mps3. By observing a mutant of Mps3 known as MPS3-G186K through the means of an electron microscope it was revealed that Mps3 directly affects lipid homeostasis. As the nuclear envelope is composed of lipids the paper suggested that Mps3 mediates the insertion of SPBs in the nuclear membrane. Previous studies suggested that Mps3 was involved in the intiation of SPB duplication however this study broadens this concept by revealing that it is responsible for membrance homeostasis which constitutes insertion of SPB into the nuclear envelope. This study is important in not only understanding the the nuclear envelope during spindle formation but also reveals a certain direction current ressearch is heading. Hence it is useful for the subheading 'current research'.

Paper 3

Formation of the postmitotic nuclear envelope from extended ER cisternae precedes nuclear pore assembly [7]

The article by Lei Lu and peers deal with formation of the postmitotic nuclear envelope. The study mentions two models, the insertion model and the prepore model. The insertion model suggests that the nuclear pore complexes are embedded in the nuclear envelope after the formation while the prepore model suggests that the nuclear pore complexes aggregate on the chromatin as nucleoporins before the nuclear envelope formation. Through the use of techniques and intruments such as Live-cell imaging and electron microscope tomography the study concludes that the assembly of the nuclear envelope originates from ER cisternae. The study furthermore supports the insetion model to a degree as it concludes that nuclear pore complexes accumulate on the already formed nuclear envelope. This article is relevant to the sub-topic of 'current research' as it looks at the origination of nuclear envelope reformation it can also be used for the sub topic 'reformation of the nuclear envelope'. Overall while this article does not offer significant information to our project it still provides relevant information.

Paper 4

Nuclear envelope structural defects cause chromosomal numerical instability and aneuploidy in ovarian cancer [8]

The study 'Nuclear envelope structural defects cause chromosomal numerical instability and aneuploidy in ovarian cancer' explores the expression of nuclear envelope proteins lamin A/C in ovarian cancer. The investigation uses teachniques such as siRNA and immunofluorescence microscopy to look at nuclear morphology in conjuction with flow cytometry to inveatigate cellular DNA content. The study found that the proteins lamin A/C are absent in 47% of ovarian cancer cells which indicates that there may be an underlying relationship between the absence of these proteins and the occurance of ovarian cancer. The study concludes that the loss of protiens lamin A/C may lead to a morphological change in the nuclear envelope this then leads to the diagnostic characteristic of cancer. This article is relevant for the sub-topic of 'current research' as it looks at the nuclear envelope in cancer cells which is a future and current topic that is being investigated.

--Z3376101 (talk) 20:43, 9 April 2013 (EST) Sorry guys ive had some family issues...ill talk to Mark about it anyway ive put my intials down for the ones im up for doing and im open to doing more to make up for my absence. Sorry once again

--Z3331556 (talk) 10:54, 9 April 2013 (EST) (KJ) ok well so she knows who's doing what...

  • Introduction=KJ
  • History= NS
  • Structure of the Nuclear Envelope=FN
  • The Nuclear Envelope At the Onset of Mitosis= NS
  • Breakdown of the Nuclear Envelope=KJ
  • Mitotic Functions of Nuclear Envelope Components or Regulation of Nuclear envelope breakdown=AV
  • Reformation of the Nuclear Envelope=FN
  • Remodeling of the Nuclear Envelope During Interphase=
  • Open vs. Closed/Semi-closed Mitosis=KJ
  • Abnormalities in Nuclear Envelope Breakdown and Reformation=AV
  • Current and Future Research= NS

--Z3376100 (talk) 08:55, 9 April 2013 (EST)(FN)Hi, NS said she will be checking the discussion page soon.

--Z3331556 (talk) 18:39, 8 April 2013 (EST) (KJ) And here's my 4th and final research article:

Paper 4: A mechanism for asymmetric segregation of age during yeast budding

This article investigates the translocation of pre-existing nuclear pore complexes (NPC) from mother yeast cell to its bud during cell division and how this contributes to the aging of yeast cells. Shcheprova and peers (2008) used fluorescent tags and photobleaching to track the movement of cellular components including nucleoporins within the nuclear envelope. They observed that NPCs moved freely throughout the nuclear envelope, however, when part of the nucleus penetrated into the bud, NPC movement was restricted to the part of the nuclear envelope within the mother cell as a diffusion barrier was created at the neck of the bud. They established that NPCs are prevented from moving from the mother to the bud during cell division. They also observed that no new NPCs were inserted in the nuclear envelope of the mother and that the pre-existing NPCs remained in the mother, but there was evidence of new NPC (not from the mother) insertion in the bud. They concluded that the division of the yeast nucleus is asymmetric when considering the age of the pores with pre-existing material being preferentially segregated to the mother. [9]

This article is relevant to the “Open vs. Closed Mitosis” section as it addresses the fate of NPC during closed mitosis and highlights the fact they are not broken up like in open mitosis.

--Z3331556 (talk) 14:00, 8 April 2013 (EST) (KJ) Hey all, here's my third paper for the open and closed mitosis section:

Paper 3: Cell Cycle Regulated Transport Controlled by Alterations in the Nuclear Pore Complex

In this study, Makhnevych (2003) revealed a new mechanism for regulating transport into the nuclear compartment during closed mitosis in yeast. This mechanism involved specific molecular rearrangements in the nuclear pore complex (NPC). Karyopherins (kaps) are soluble transport factors that facilitate the transport of distinct cargo molecules into the nucleus by binding to NPCs. This transport can be regulated so as to conduct changes in gene transcription, DNA replication and chromosome segregation. Previous studies identified posttranslational modifications to the cargo molecules (including phosphorylation and acetylation), resulting in an increased or decreased affinity to their kap transporters, as a way of inhibiting or enhancing their transport into the nucleus. A mechanism which is less commonly examined as a form of import regulation of cargo molecules is the alteration of the kaps transport machinery and one of these mechanisms is explored in this paper. Makhnevych and peers specifically analysed the control of Kap121p related cargo molecules into the nucleus. They observed that Kap121p –mediated import is active in interphase but inhibited during mitosis and this was not due to changes in cargo binding to Kap121p. They found that by structurally rearranging the NPC during mitosis, a masked binding site for Kap121p would be revealed on one of its nucleoporins, Nup53p. When Kap121p was bound to this site, movement of Kap121p and its cargo into the nucleus was slowed and it triggered the release of the cargo into the cytoplasm. Hence, Nup53p was considered a transport inhibitory nup (iNUP). They concluded that the regulation of Kap121p-mediated import through the presence of Nup 53p played an important role in the progression through mitosis, showing that increased levels of Nup53p inhibited progression through mitosis. [10]

This research paper is relevant to the subheading “Open vs Closed/semi-closed Mitosis” as it provides a model of closed mitosis and examines a mechanism used to regulate transport of molecules into the nucleus during mitosis which therefore shows the continuous presence of NPCs and hence highlighting the fact that the nuclear envelope stays intact during closed mitosis in lower eukaryotes such as yeast.

--Z3331556 (talk) 10:52, 7 April 2013 (EST) (KJ) Thanks AV, I think FN has the structure covered but yeah by all means if you find anything that may help her put it up. Ok great but if there's limited info on on the mitotic functions then we can change that subheading to the control of the nuclear envelope breakdown here are articles that may help:

--Z3377769 (talk). (AV) Hey ive been looking into structure of the nuclear envelope which looks pretty good so ill probably slow down on that but if i find something interesting ill pop it up for discussion. Also im having a go at the Abnormalities subheading and might have a look at mitotic functions as well. will upload some reviews tomorrow. cheers

--Z3376100 (talk) 20:25, 6 April 2013 (EST)(FN) yeah I'll certainly let you know. Btw I've just added a diagram to the actual page- hope its ok.

--Z3331556 (talk) 19:05, 6 April 2013 (EST) (KJ)No worries FN. The section looks great so far, should be fine, no rush it's a start. Yeah i agree, let me know if she replies

--Z3331556 (talk) 17:56, 6 April 2013 (EST) (KJ) Here is my second paper which I have summarised

Paper 2: A role for gp210 in mitotic nuclear-envelope breakdown

This paper explores the importance of the Nuclear Pore Complex (NPC) transmembrane nucleoporin, gp210, in the breakdown of the nuclear envelope. Galy and his colleagues subjected Caenorhabditis elegans (worm) egg extracts to RNAi-mediated deletion or mutation of the gp210 nucleoporin which resulted in the prevention of lamin depolymerisation, a late event which aids in the breakdown of the nuclear envelope. The prevention of lamin depolarisation results in the inability of the nuclear envelope to breakdown and also blocks pronulclear chromosome mixing that ultimately leads to the formation of two nuclei after mitosis. This implied that gp210 was key in nuclear envelope breakdown.

The block of gp210 phosphorylation which is conducted by cyclin-B-cdc2 (proposed to be an important trigger for the initiation of mitosis) was also explored. Depletion of the cyclin-B-cdc2, achieved through RNAi, resulted in the inability of the gp210 nucleoporin to be phosphorylated and achieve nuclear envelope breakdown. Hence, this provided further evidence that gp210, particularly its phosphorylation, was indeed an early step in the breakdown of the nuclear envelope.

This research article is relevant to the subheading Nuclear Envelope Breakdown as it suggests one of the nucleoporins involved in the breakdown of the nuclear envelope. [11]

--Z3376100 (talk) 17:52, 6 April 2013 (EST)(FN) thanks a lot KJ for your help. I managed to add some info. to one of the subsections that I am doing.Though I need to research a little more on the outer nuclear membrane. Btw guys feel free to be critical of the info. that I have pasted on our Page and tell me if I have missed anything etc. Btw KJ i think I should message NS, and see how she is going because we haven't heard of her yet. Btw thanks for your help again.

--Z3331556 (talk) 11:35, 6 April 2013 (EST) (KJ) oh that's weird, are you using the right code? It's [12] (click on edit to see the code)and replace the PMID. The ref parts places the reference under the reference heading. Some of the review papers have PMC before the number so paste it with that. Let me know how you go. If it doesn't work out then just add the info with normal referencing (e.g. Brooke, 2013)and email mark to tell him about the problem, hope this helps

--Z3376100 (talk) 10:43, 6 April 2013 (EST)(FN) Thanks KJ, when I tried adding some information to the subsection "structure of the NE", it affected the referencing so I had delete the infomration that I put up otherwise it would have affected the referncing for the intro. do you know how I can overcome this problem? Thanks.

--Z3331556 (talk) 21:50, 5 April 2013 (EST) (KJ) Thanks FN for the article, and do whatever you can as long as we have something on the page by Thursday its all good. As for the image you may have to email Mark about that and ask him to remove it for you, i have no clue on how to do that. Thanks again

--Z3376100 (talk) 19:19, 5 April 2013 (EST)(FN) Guys, I've uploaded an image for the structure of NE with the wrong title (NE system), do you know how I can delete or re-name the image without having to upload the same one again with a different name? I think we can delete it if we click on the triangle next to 'view history'...though I am still not sure how it works, thanks.

--Z3376100 (talk) 16:06, 5 April 2013 (EST)(FN) Here is my fourth paper: <pubmed>9922450</pubmed>

The following primary research article “Temporal Differences in the Appearance of NEP-B78 and an LBR-like Protein during Xenopus Nuclear Envelope Reassembly Reflect the Ordered Recruitment of Functionally Discrete Vesicle Types” examines the structure and dynamics of nuclear envelope reformation in the Xenopus cell-free system via the use of various reagents such as mBA against two proteins of the endoplasmic reticulum and outer membrane, known as NEP-B78 and p65. They also investigate antibodies against the inner nuclear membrane protein lamin B receptor. One of their results illustrates the differences in the duration of the employment of membrane proteins to the surface of deondensing chromatin. The differences suggest the existence of 2 different vesicle types that are important for nuclear envelop formation. The procedure concerning the vesicles being recruited to the chromatin is a controlled process and NEP-B78 has an important role in assisting the vesicles to the surface of the chromatins etc. The research article also provides a brief summary of what occurs during the breaking and regeneration of the nuclear envelope in cell division which is quite useful for the our topic.

KJ since you are doing the disassembly of the nuclear envelope, then you may find this research paper useful. Btw I have realised that with the sub-topic nuclear reformation, there is a lot of complex information to digest and apparently there is some uncertainly about how it 'really occurs'. So it is going to take a good part of my time to write up some stuff. However, i will shortly post some text under the sub-topic: Structure of the NE on the actual page.

--Z3376100 (talk) 10:52, 5 April 2013 (EST)(FN) so here is my third primary research article with a brief summary. <pubmed>17666429</pubmed>

After researching a lot of papers on NE reformation, I came across a great research paper titled:” NSF- and SNARE-mediated membrane fusion is required for nuclear envelope formation and completion of nuclear pore complex assembly in Xenopus laevis egg extracts”. In their study, Baur and colleagues initialy investigated whether NSF had a potential role in the formation of the Nuclear Envelope. They utilised three different approaches to address this question. These included various sophisticated methods that involved dominant-negative NSFE329Qvariant, as well as cloning and expressing Xenopus laevis NSF (xNSF) to raise antisera in rabbits and finally using antibody to immune-deplete NSF from cytosol. One of their crucial findings showed that NE formation decreased when treated membranes were placed with NSF depleted cytosol. The work of this study illustrated, along with other important findings, that the NSF and SNAREs mediate NE formation and that the SNARE proteins need to be activated by the NSF ATPase. This research paper not only provides some recent scientific findings in relation to NE formation, it also provides a reasonable overview of NE formation after mitosis. Thus, I can use this research paper for one of the sub-topics that I am responsible for finding information on (NE reformation in cell division).

--Z3376100 (talk) 10:50, 5 April 2013 (EST)(FN) thanks KJ, when I write up the information for Structure of NE etc. I will let you know if we should take out anything from the intorduction... so far now we should leave it as it is.

--Z3331556 (talk) 23:38, 4 April 2013 (EST) (KJ) FN yeah I thought i would do a bit of an overview of the nuclear envelope in the intro, that's what most articles do in their intros but if you want me to take some stuff out i can do that. I just thought i would briefly touch on it and you can elaborate, giving more detail on the components like the channels and the lamina. Let me know what you think and i can always change the intro :)

--Z3376100 (talk) 22:05, 4 April 2013 (EST)(FN) My second article is the following <pubmed> 22171326</pubmed>

My second research article titled “The C-terminal domain of Nup93 is essential for assembly of the structural backbone of nuclear pore complexes” illustrates the significant role that Nup93 plays in Nuclear Pore Complexes (NPCs). The NPCs are essential component of the Nuclear envelope because they control what enters/leaves the nuclear envelope (i.e.‘gatekeepers’ of the NEs). They are imperative in the movement of proteins and nucleic acids between the cytoplasm and nucleoplasm. This study through, various scientific techniques (such as nuclear assembly reactions, dextran exclusion, cloning & transmission electron microscopy), have further supported the concept that the role of subcomplex Nup93, is crucial for NPC formation and function in Xenopus egg extracts. Moreover, the addition of Nup93 by itself is sufficient to make up for the loss of the Nup188-Nup93 and Nup205-Nup93 complexes. I believe this article will be very helpful for the sub-topic: Structure of NEs because they investigate one of the major subcomplexes that is essential to the function and assembly of the NPCs which in turn are imperative to NEs.Thus, I find this article quite inetersting and it may even be useful for some of the other sections... so please have a look at it guys!

--Z3376100 (talk) 19:15, 4 April 2013 (EST)(FN)So far I have found one article that is useful to use for sub-topic that I will be doing for the group project- Structure of the Nuclear Envelope. Article 1:"Functional KV10.1 Channels Localize to the Inner Nuclear Membrane" <pubmed>21559285</pubmed>

The research article by Chen at al. (2011) provides a good overview of some of the important structures of the nuclear envelope and its function in the cell. It also highlights that Kv10.1 channels have important implication in cancer but may also play an important role in the nuclear membrane, namely the perinuclear and INM (of certain neurons). The location of this channel has been established through laboratory techniques such as immunostaining of neurons, transfected cells, as well as in vivo examination of KV.10 (through the use of fluorescent proteins).

--Z3376100 (talk) 19:04, 4 April 2013 (EST)(FN). Thanks KJ for the article, I've found some good articles as well and if I find them to be useful then I will certainly share it with you guys. One more thing, in the introduction you have talked about the structure of the Nuclear envelope a little, so when I do the sub-topic: Structure of the NE, there will be some overlap with what you've stated in the intro.

--Z3331556 (talk) 15:40, 4 April 2013 (EST) (KJ) FN I've come across a research article that is relevant to the structure of the nuclear envelope, hope it helps:

--Z3331556 (talk) 11:38, 4 April 2013 (EST) (KJ) hey guys I've come across another possible subheading: Regulation of nuclear envelope breakdown that can maybe replace 'Mitotic Functions of Nuclear Envelope Components' if there is limited info on it. Let us know what you think. Also, AV let us know what subheadings you are going to take care of, oh and has anyone heard from Z3376101? Feels weird referring to people as a number but i have forgotten the initials haha

--Z3331556 (talk) 11:18, 4 April 2013 (EST) (KJ) well on the student page says 'write a brief description of their findings and relevance to the selected topic sub-section', I'm assuming it's research articles and not reviews because it says 'findings' but maybe email the lecturer just to make sure. Oh and as for the reformation of the nuclear envelope, here's two papers that may help, if you scroll down

--Z3376100 (talk) 22:04, 3 April 2013 (EST)(FN) KJ do you know if we can use review articles as well or do they all have to be research articles? Btw many thanks for tying up the topics on 'Page' :)

--Z3376100 (talk) 20:03, 3 April 2013 (EST)(FN) As long as I can find some information on the reformation part of the nuclear envelop, then I am happy to do that...if not then I will try and change the subheading a little (if that's ok).Thanks.

--Z3331556 (talk) 14:21, 3 April 2013 (EST) (KJ) here's my first summary of an article:

Paper 1: Nuclear envelope breakdown in starfish oocytes proceeds by partial NPC disassembly followed by a rapidly spreading fenestration of nuclear membranes

Lenart and co-workers(2003)examined the breakdown of the nuclear envelope in live starfish oocytes using various techniques involving fluorescently labeled dextrans (polysaccharides), membrane dyes and green fluorescently tagged proteins (GFP-tagged proteins), in conjunction with confocal time-lapse microscopy and electron microscopy which allowed them to view the changes in the oocyte nuclear envelope. Through the use of different sized fluorescently labelled dextran fractions experimenters were able to analyse the changes in the permeability of the nuclear envelope in maturing starfish oocytes. They firstly observed a sequential entry of dextran molecules, beginning with the smaller molecules entering the nucleus followed by larger molecules with diameters up to 40nm. The use of GFP-tagged nucleoporins revealed a corresponding gradual loss of peripheral nucleoporins from Nuclear Pore Complexes (NPC) (selective aqueous channels that span both nuclear membranes, connecting the nucleus with the cell cytoplasm) which resulted in the dilation of these channels from 10 to 40nm and a gradual release of import substrates. It was clearly noted, however, that the core of NPCs remained intact. Another key observation which was made was that the nuclear envelope structure remained unaffected. Next a rapid complete permeabilisation of the nuclear envelope that spread throughout the nuclear surface was noted, allowing macromolecules of diameters up to 100nm to enter the nucleus, this proposed the complete removal of the remaining core of the NPCs. It was also found that at the electron microscope level the nuclear envelope was fenestrated in the end. These experimenters therefore concluded that the breakdown of the nuclear envelope occurred in two distinct sequential phases:

-Phase 1 involves the gradual disassembly of the NPCs, which coincides with an increase in nuclear membrane/envelope permeability allowing for some macromolecules to enter the nucleus and nuclear import substrates to leave. At the end of this first phase the nuclear envelope remains intact.

-Phase 2 is characterised by an increase and rapid spreading nuclear envelope permeability as well as apparent fenestration of the nuclear envelope and hence its breakdown resulting from the removal of the core of NPCs. [13]

This research paper is relevant to the nuclear envelope breakdown section as it provides an experiment which clearly shows evidence of how the nuclear envelope gradually breaks down and explores the role of NPCs in this.

--Z3331556 (talk) 14:21, 3 April 2013 (EST) (KJ) That's all good. Yep that's right, there is way more information out there for the nuclear envelope and as for the subheadings, I came up with a rough idea of what they could be and i posted it below and on the actual project page. Hope this topic is fine with you. I'm currently researching the breakdown of the nuclear envelope and the Open vs. Closed/Semi-closed Mitosis subheadings as well as the intro. I think FN is doing the structure part and possibly the reformation of the nuclear envelope.. So just have a look at the rest of the subheadings, see what you want to do or if you come across something else that could be a subheading let us know.

--z3377769 (talk)(AV) hey guys sorrry for being a useless team member ive been out of internet range for the last few days. What up how are we going with these sub headings? am i reading it right that we are thinking bionary fission is a bit ambitious? and we are now looking at nuclear breakdown? Also, who is doing what subtitle? Let me know what i can do and ill be on to it.

cheers and apologies again for my lack of work thus far. AV

--Z3331556 (talk) 11:30, 2 April 2013 (EST) (KJ) That's alright, I just thought we should get something solid down so we're not rushing last minute. Ok great glad you're on board. I have kinda got a start on the Breakdown of the Nuclear envelope, so if it's fine with you would you mind doing the reformation of the nuclear envelope?? Alright so the rest, are you fine with this? Shall I put the topic on the actual page?

--Z3376100 (talk) 10:47, 2 April 2013 (EST)(FN) Thank you very much, I prefer the nuclear enevelop topic as well. I didn't have much luck with the binary fission either- the main thing which the article that I came across talked about was in regards to the ftsz proetin in binary fission. I can do the Structure of the Nuclear Envelope: what its made from, associations with the ER etc as well as Breakdown of the Nuclear Envelope:' (Prophase) mechanisms, proteins involved etc. I hope you guys are ok with this- if not then please let me know. KJ thank you once again for coming up with this topic :)

--Z3331556 (talk) 14:55, 1 April 2013 (EST) (KJ) Alright, so i have been doing a lot of research on the Nuclear Envelope and it's looking like a solid topic to do! I have taken the time to come up with a rough idea of the subheadings:

  • Introduction: What the nuclear envelope (NE) is, what is it's function and maybe a very brief summary on what happens to it during cell division
  • History: when and who discovered the nuclear envelope, timeline of the knowledge obtained on its involvement in cell division
  • Structure of the Nuclear Envelope: what its made from, associations with the ER etc.
  • The Nuclear Envelope At the Onset of Mitosis: G2 stage of the cell cycle
  • Breakdown of the Nuclear Envelope: (Prophase) mechanisms, proteins involved etc.
  • Mitotic Functions of Nuclear Envelope Components
  • Reformation of the Nuclear Envelope
  • Remodeling of the Nuclear Envelope During Interphase
  • Open vs. Closed/Semi-closed Mitosis: differences between the two, what happens to the NE in both
  • Abnormalities in Nuclear Envelope Breakdown and Reformation
  • Current and Future Research
  • Glossary
  • Images
  • References

ok so this is a start, we can add, remove or rename the subheadings as we go depending on what we find. I'm happy to do the intro, the breakdown and the open and closed mitosis comparison :) Hope this is alright with everyone. Please let me know ASAP so I can add this to the actual page and no one can steal our topic cause i really think its a good one

--Z3331556 (talk) 12:05, 1 April 2013 (EST) (KJ) nuclear envelope during cell division: here's what I already found, looks like this may be easier to do. There seems to be a lot more research and review articles on this topic..

and there's heaps more. Please let me know what you think

--Z3331556 (talk) 11:49, 1 April 2013 (EST) (KJ) ok so both the golgi and mitochondria have been taken, I'm going to look into the nuclear envelope. Please let me know if any of you are having any luck with binary fission

--Z3331556 (talk) 23:31, 31 March 2013 (EST) (KJ) hey guys! so I've been trying to do some research on binary fission to come up with some subheadings and it's looking like there is not that much info on it in terms of research articles. My searches have come up with very simplistic descriptions, I don't know if I'm searching hard enough but I think it's going to be hard for us to go in depth with this topic. I think I might be leaning towards maybe looking into the Golgi? Let me know if you guys have had any luck with the topic, we really do need to knuckle down on this and decide ASAP!!!

--Z3376101 (talk) 16:35, 28 March 2013 (EST) horizontal gene transfer.

--Z3376100 (talk) 16:20, 28 March 2013 (EST)Role of cyclins and CDKs

--Z3376101 (talk) 16:14, 28 March 2013 (EST) Interphase seems the easiest to do....we can talk about G1,S and G2 stages

--Z3376101 (talk) 16:04, 28 March 2013 (EST)Hi guys check this out

--Z3331556 (talk) 22:36, 27 March 2013 (EST) I have found some good info to start off with for the cell-cycle control system topic Components of the Cell-Cycle Control System. I was also brainstorming some topics we can discuss in this topic, was thinking maybe:

  • Introduction: where we can summarise the parts of the cell cycle and what it is
  • Historical Background: where we can discuss when and who developed it, how it was developed, how it's been modified during the years etc.
  • summary of each of the phases of the cell cycle
  • detail on the check points
  • abnormalities that can arise if cell cycle isn't controlled
  • recent/current research into the cell cycle

That's all I can think of so far

--Z3331556 (talk) 00:07, 26 March 2013 (EST) Hi all! I think both those topics are great! And yes they definitely will cross into cancer so that's something to explore. I think I'm leaning towards the cell-cycle control system because there should be plenty info on that, we can look into the check points in cell-cycle, what the repercussions are when control mechanisms fail and talk about some of the abnormalities that may arise, we can also compare the cycles of prokaryotes with that of eukaryotes etc etc.

I might just add the topic to the student project page to make sure we have something up there and that no one takes it, we can always change it whenever, hope that's ok with you guys

ill see you on Thursday :)

--Z3376100 (talk) 15:30, 22 March 2013 (EST) Hi everyone (FN)! So I had a look under the Cell division content and I came across the following sub-topics: The cell-cycle control system S Phase M phase control of Cell number and cell size Apoptosis (falls under control of cell number and cell size).

I personally find the following 2 interesting (as they probably have important implication in cancer):

The cell-cycle control system AND control of cell number and cell size

So what do you guys suggest we should do?


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