Difference between revisions of "Talk:2013 Group 5 Project"

From CellBiology
Line 1: Line 1:
 
{{2013 Project discussion}}
 
{{2013 Project discussion}}
 +
 +
--[[User:Z3377769|Z3377769]] ([[User talk:Z3377769|talk]]) 19:41, 29 April 2013 (EST)
 +
(AV) i too have been cruely given the flu by some1 but not 2 worry ill get my sections done and try help out a bit with history too. personally im having a little trouble with the abnormallities section. im sure ill be able to provide information but im not sure how well it will go with the title. not to worry we can sort that a little later
  
 
--[[User:Z3331556|Z3331556]] ([[User talk:Z3331556|talk]]) 22:03, 28 April 2013 (EST) (KJ) hey guys, hope everything's going alright with your sections. Haven't been able do as much as I wanted to do for the project this weekend, have come down with the flu so hopefully will get better and get some stuff done before thursday. Just wanted to remind you that we have the class critique of the pages this Thursday, if i heard correctly?? not too sure but i know that mark's going to be looking at them in class so if we could have most of our sections with some content, that would be ideal :)
 
--[[User:Z3331556|Z3331556]] ([[User talk:Z3331556|talk]]) 22:03, 28 April 2013 (EST) (KJ) hey guys, hope everything's going alright with your sections. Haven't been able do as much as I wanted to do for the project this weekend, have come down with the flu so hopefully will get better and get some stuff done before thursday. Just wanted to remind you that we have the class critique of the pages this Thursday, if i heard correctly?? not too sure but i know that mark's going to be looking at them in class so if we could have most of our sections with some content, that would be ideal :)

Revision as of 20:42, 29 April 2013

2013 Projects: Group 1 | Group 2 | Group 3 | Group 4 | Group 5 | Group 6 | Group 7

  1. Do not remove this notice {{2013 Project discussion}} from the top of the discussion page.
  2. Newest student comments should be entered at the top of this current page under the subheading "Student Discussion Area" (you cannot edit the sub-heading title).
  3. All comments should begin with your own signature button, that will automatically enter student number date/time stamp.
  4. Do not use your full name here in discussion, if absolutely necessary you may use first names only.
  5. Do not remove or edit other student comments.
  6. Use sub-headings if you want to add other draft information, images, references, etc.
  7. Only your own group members should edit this page, unless directed otherwise by the course co-ordinator.

Group Assessment Criteria

  1. The key points relating to the topic that your group allocated are clearly described.
  2. The choice of content, headings and sub-headings, diagrams, tables, graphs show a good understanding of the topic area.
  3. Content is correctly cited and referenced.
  4. The wiki has an element of teaching at a peer level using the student's own innovative diagrams, tables or figures and/or using interesting examples or explanations.
  5. Evidence of significant research relating to basic and applied sciences that goes beyond the formal teaching activities.
  6. Relates the topic and content of the Wiki entry to learning aims of cell biology.
  7. Clearly reflects on editing/feedback from group peers and articulates how the Wiki could be improved (or not) based on peer comments/feedback. Demonstrates an ability to review own work when criticised in an open edited wiki format. Reflects on what was learned from the process of editing a peer's wiki.
  8. Evaluates own performance and that of group peers to give a rounded summary of this wiki process in terms of group effort and achievement.
  9. The content of the wiki should demonstrate to the reader that your group has researched adequately on this topic and covered the key areas necessary to inform your peers in their learning.
  10. Develops and edits the wiki entries in accordance with the above guidelines.

Week 2 Project topic selection, preliminary researching on the topic.

Week 3 By the next practical class (after the mid-session break) there should be sub-headings and content on your actual project page and interactions between individual group members on this discussion page.

Week 4 Each group member should now have selected 4 papers relevant to their section of the project. These, or any other papers, can now be used to generate content (text, images and tables) within the project page. Students can also work on additional sub-headings on the project page.

Week 8 Peer assessment of group project work.

  • Each student will carry out an assessment of all Group projects other than their own.
  • This written assessment should then be pasted on the actual project discussion page and your own individual student page.
  • The peer assessment for each project should be concise and include both positive and negative critical analysis of the current project status.
  • The actual assessment criteria (shown above) can be used if you like.
  • Each student assessment should be your own work and be completed before the next Lab.

--Z3377769 (talk) 19:41, 29 April 2013 (EST) (AV) i too have been cruely given the flu by some1 but not 2 worry ill get my sections done and try help out a bit with history too. personally im having a little trouble with the abnormallities section. im sure ill be able to provide information but im not sure how well it will go with the title. not to worry we can sort that a little later

--Z3331556 (talk) 22:03, 28 April 2013 (EST) (KJ) hey guys, hope everything's going alright with your sections. Haven't been able do as much as I wanted to do for the project this weekend, have come down with the flu so hopefully will get better and get some stuff done before thursday. Just wanted to remind you that we have the class critique of the pages this Thursday, if i heard correctly?? not too sure but i know that mark's going to be looking at them in class so if we could have most of our sections with some content, that would be ideal :)

--Z3331556 (talk) 13:46, 24 April 2013 (EST) (KJ) I haven't found stuff on the history yet but think this article might be a start for 'The Nuclear Envelope At the Onset of Mitosis' section http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2713602/ (the no.2 section)

--Z3331556 (talk) 10:25, 24 April 2013 (EST) Hey NS I'll be sure to post up some links if i come across some historical info, maybe focus on the other sections if you're finding it the history difficult. We can work on it later :)

--Z3376101 (talk) 13:35, 18 April 2013 (EST)Hey guys its NS im finding it hard to find information on history any help would be awesome.

--Z3377769 (talk)

Paper 1

The Nuclear Envelope[1]

This review article discusses the nuclear envelope (NE) and its components. Specifically for our research page it has good depth concerning the mitotic functions of nuclear envelope [Ellenberg et al. 1997[1]; Anderson and Hetzer 2007[2]; Anderson and Hetzer 2008a[3]; Anderson et al. 2009a[4]; Lu et al. 2009[5]. In fact data discussed in this paper has postulated that reshaping the ER could be critical in NEBD (nuclear envelope breakdown (Voeltz et al 2006)[6]. The idea that NE components have a role in mitosis is still an idea being investigated but the article mentions research where this idea is becoming increasingly likely. This article briefly touched on lamins, these are “intermediate-filament proteins” and are a part of the nuclear lamina.

[1]Ellenberg J, Siggia ED, Moreira JE, Smith CL, Presley JF, Worman HJ, Lippincott-Schwartz J 1997. Nuclear membrane dynamics and reassembly in living cells: Targeting of an inner nuclear membrane protein in interphase and mitosis. J Cell Biology 138:1193–1206.

[2]Anderson DJ, Hetzer MW 2007. Nuclear envelope formation by chromatin-mediated reorganization of the endoplasmic reticulum. Nat Cell Biol 9:1160–1166

[3]Anderson DJ, Hetzer MW 2008a. Reshaping of the endoplasmic reticulum limits the rate for nuclear envelope formation. J Cell Biol 182:911–924

[4]Anderson DJ, Vargas J, Hisao J, Hetzer MW 2009a. Recruitment of functionally distinct membrane proteins to chromatin mediates nuclear envelope formation in vivo. J Cell Biol 186:183–191

[5]Lu L, Ladinsky MS, Kirchhausen T 2009. Cisternal organization of the endoplasmic reticulum during mitosis. Mol Biol Cell 15:3471–3480

[6]Voeltz GK, Prinz WA, Shibata Y, Rist JM, Rapoport TA 2006. A class of membrane proteins shaping the tubular endoplasmic reticulum. Cell 124:573–586

Paper 2

Diseases of the Nuclear Envelope[2]

This review paper outlines diseases that effect the nuclear envelope (NE). A major topic of this paper are mutations of the LMNA gene which codes for the type A nuclear lamins. These are filament proteins of the nuclear envelope. Dysfunctional version of these proteins or mutations of the gene have been linked to a wide variety of diseases from dilated cardio-myopathy to muscular dystrophy. Collectively these diseases are known as Laminopathies or Nuclear Envelopathies. While the exact role of these proteins in Laminopathies is not known the article collates strong evidence that the filament proteins have more of a role than just structural support. Abnormalities in the lamina proteins could perhaps affect cytoskeleton structure according to Crisp et al 2006 [1]. This paper related well to abnormalities in nuclear breakdown as it discusses the potential role of lamin proteins in the pathogenesis of multiple diseases.

[1][1.] Crisp M, Liu Q, Roux K, Rattner JB, Shanahan C, Burke B, Stahl PD, Hodzic D 2006. Coupling of the nucleus and cytoplasm: Role of the LINC complex. J Cell Biol 172:41–53.

Paper 3

A New Model for Nuclear Envelope Breakdown[3]

This article used fluorescent 70-kDa dextran dye in order to investigate their hypothesis. While this technique has been used previously this new report postulated that in the second phase of nuclear breakdown the permeability of the neuron pores changed. Immediately before the germinal vesicle (nuclear) breakdown (GVDB). The magnitude of permeability increased from .04 micro m/s to .15 micro m/s. This increase of magnitude allowed the 70-kDa dextran to enter the nuclear pore which it would not normally be able to do. This discovery indicates that disassembly of the nuclear pore happens further before breakdown that previously understood. At the end of the paper they propose a new model for nuclear envelope breakdown in three stages as opposed to the previous model of two. This article related mainly to breakdown of the nuclear envelope but also to current and future research.

Paper 4

Structural organization of the human gene encoding nuclear lamin A and nuclear lamin C[4]

The researchers have discovered the section of the human genome that encodes for nuclear lamin proteins. These proteins are being increasingly studied in order to understand their role in nuclear replication and their links to diseases like cancer. Also referencing another reviewed work these lamins have been linked with nuclear spindle defects during the mitotic cycle. The lamins are then linked to specific cell proteins and functions because of the way they are alternatively spliced, indicating they can be modified to achieve specific needs of the nuclear envelope or cell. There is also evidence to suggest that all lamins have a common ancestor as their structures were found to be very similar in other species


--Z3376101 (talk) 00:01, 11 April 2013 (EST) Paper 1

Transient nuclear envelope rupturing during interphase in human cancer cells [5]

The research article ‘Transient nuclear envelope rupturing during interphase in human cancer cells’ explores the rupturing of the nuclear envelope in cancer cells using various techniques such as cell culture, siRNA transfection as well as live and confocal imaging and the use of the electron microscope. Cancer cells can be diagnosed by the presence of nuclear envelope invaginations and extrusions. However despite this clinical pattern it is unclear why changes in structure of the nuclear envelope is present in cancer cells. The findings of the paper illustrate that the nuclear lamina, intermediate filaments that provide support to the nuclear envelope, was not properly formed in cancer cells that had ruptured nuclear envelopes. Furthermore it was found that nuclear envelope rupture occurred when there was an entrapment of cytoplasmic in the nuclear interior. This research article is relevant to the sub-topic of 'nuclear envelope at the onset of mitosis' as it looks at the rupturing of the nuclear envelope during interphase in cancer cells furthermore it can also be used for the sub topic 'current research'. As there is a clinical correlation between abnormal nuclear envelope and cancer cells it is important to gain an understanding into the causation of this relationship.


Paper 2

The SUN Protein Mps3 Is Required for Spindle Pole Body Insertion into the Nuclear Membrane and Nuclear Envelope Homeostasis [6]

The article 'The SUN Protein Mps3 Is Required for Spindle Pole Body Insertion into the Nuclear Membrane and Nuclear Envelope Homeostasis' explores the mechanism of spindle pole body (SPB) into the nuclear membrane in budding yeast cells. The research paper states that the action of integral membrane proteins facilitate changes in the nuclear envelope. The investigators looked at an SPB component called Mps3. By observing a mutant of Mps3 known as MPS3-G186K through the means of an electron microscope it was revealed that Mps3 directly affects lipid homeostasis. As the nuclear envelope is composed of lipids the paper suggested that Mps3 mediates the insertion of SPBs in the nuclear membrane. Previous studies suggested that Mps3 was involved in the intiation of SPB duplication however this study broadens this concept by revealing that it is responsible for membrance homeostasis which constitutes insertion of SPB into the nuclear envelope. This study is important in not only understanding the the nuclear envelope during spindle formation but also reveals a certain direction current ressearch is heading. Hence it is useful for the subheading 'current research'.


Paper 3

Formation of the postmitotic nuclear envelope from extended ER cisternae precedes nuclear pore assembly [7]

The article by Lei Lu and peers deal with formation of the postmitotic nuclear envelope. The study mentions two models, the insertion model and the prepore model. The insertion model suggests that the nuclear pore complexes are embedded in the nuclear envelope after the formation while the prepore model suggests that the nuclear pore complexes aggregate on the chromatin as nucleoporins before the nuclear envelope formation. Through the use of techniques and intruments such as Live-cell imaging and electron microscope tomography the study concludes that the assembly of the nuclear envelope originates from ER cisternae. The study furthermore supports the insetion model to a degree as it concludes that nuclear pore complexes accumulate on the already formed nuclear envelope. This article is relevant to the sub-topic of 'current research' as it looks at the origination of nuclear envelope reformation it can also be used for the sub topic 'reformation of the nuclear envelope'. Overall while this article does not offer significant information to our project it still provides relevant information.


Paper 4

Nuclear envelope structural defects cause chromosomal numerical instability and aneuploidy in ovarian cancer [8]


The study 'Nuclear envelope structural defects cause chromosomal numerical instability and aneuploidy in ovarian cancer' explores the expression of nuclear envelope proteins lamin A/C in ovarian cancer. The investigation uses teachniques such as siRNA and immunofluorescence microscopy to look at nuclear morphology in conjuction with flow cytometry to inveatigate cellular DNA content. The study found that the proteins lamin A/C are absent in 47% of ovarian cancer cells which indicates that there may be an underlying relationship between the absence of these proteins and the occurance of ovarian cancer. The study concludes that the loss of protiens lamin A/C may lead to a morphological change in the nuclear envelope this then leads to the diagnostic characteristic of cancer. This article is relevant for the sub-topic of 'current research' as it looks at the nuclear envelope in cancer cells which is a future and current topic that is being investigated.

--Z3376101 (talk) 20:43, 9 April 2013 (EST) Sorry guys ive had some family issues...ill talk to Mark about it anyway ive put my intials down for the ones im up for doing and im open to doing more to make up for my absence. Sorry once again


--Z3331556 (talk) 10:54, 9 April 2013 (EST) (KJ) ok well so she knows who's doing what...

  • Introduction=KJ
  • History= NS
  • Structure of the Nuclear Envelope=FN
  • The Nuclear Envelope At the Onset of Mitosis= NS
  • Breakdown of the Nuclear Envelope=KJ
  • Mitotic Functions of Nuclear Envelope Components or Regulation of Nuclear envelope breakdown=AV
  • Reformation of the Nuclear Envelope=FN
  • Remodeling of the Nuclear Envelope During Interphase= ?
  • Open vs. Closed/Semi-closed Mitosis=KJ
  • Abnormalities in Nuclear Envelope Breakdown and Reformation=AV
  • Current and Future Research= NS


--Z3376100 (talk) 08:55, 9 April 2013 (EST)(FN)Hi, NS said she will be checking the discussion page soon.

--Z3331556 (talk) 18:39, 8 April 2013 (EST) (KJ) And here's my 4th and final research article:

Paper 4: A mechanism for asymmetric segregation of age during yeast budding

This article investigates the translocation of pre-existing nuclear pore complexes (NPC) from mother yeast cell to its bud during cell division and how this contributes to the aging of yeast cells. Shcheprova and peers (2008) used fluorescent tags and photobleaching to track the movement of cellular components including nucleoporins within the nuclear envelope. They observed that NPCs moved freely throughout the nuclear envelope, however, when part of the nucleus penetrated into the bud, NPC movement was restricted to the part of the nuclear envelope within the mother cell as a diffusion barrier was created at the neck of the bud. They established that NPCs are prevented from moving from the mother to the bud during cell division. They also observed that no new NPCs were inserted in the nuclear envelope of the mother and that the pre-existing NPCs remained in the mother, but there was evidence of new NPC (not from the mother) insertion in the bud. They concluded that the division of the yeast nucleus is asymmetric when considering the age of the pores with pre-existing material being preferentially segregated to the mother. [9]

This article is relevant to the “Open vs. Closed Mitosis” section as it addresses the fate of NPC during closed mitosis and highlights the fact they are not broken up like in open mitosis.


--Z3331556 (talk) 14:00, 8 April 2013 (EST) (KJ) Hey all, here's my third paper for the open and closed mitosis section:

Paper 3: Cell Cycle Regulated Transport Controlled by Alterations in the Nuclear Pore Complex

In this study, Makhnevych et.al (2003) revealed a new mechanism for regulating transport into the nuclear compartment during closed mitosis in yeast. This mechanism involved specific molecular rearrangements in the nuclear pore complex (NPC). Karyopherins (kaps) are soluble transport factors that facilitate the transport of distinct cargo molecules into the nucleus by binding to NPCs. This transport can be regulated so as to conduct changes in gene transcription, DNA replication and chromosome segregation. Previous studies identified posttranslational modifications to the cargo molecules (including phosphorylation and acetylation), resulting in an increased or decreased affinity to their kap transporters, as a way of inhibiting or enhancing their transport into the nucleus. A mechanism which is less commonly examined as a form of import regulation of cargo molecules is the alteration of the kaps transport machinery and one of these mechanisms is explored in this paper. Makhnevych and peers specifically analysed the control of Kap121p related cargo molecules into the nucleus. They observed that Kap121p –mediated import is active in interphase but inhibited during mitosis and this was not due to changes in cargo binding to Kap121p. They found that by structurally rearranging the NPC during mitosis, a masked binding site for Kap121p would be revealed on one of its nucleoporins, Nup53p. When Kap121p was bound to this site, movement of Kap121p and its cargo into the nucleus was slowed and it triggered the release of the cargo into the cytoplasm. Hence, Nup53p was considered a transport inhibitory nup (iNUP). They concluded that the regulation of Kap121p-mediated import through the presence of Nup 53p played an important role in the progression through mitosis, showing that increased levels of Nup53p inhibited progression through mitosis. [10]

This research paper is relevant to the subheading “Open vs Closed/semi-closed Mitosis” as it provides a model of closed mitosis and examines a mechanism used to regulate transport of molecules into the nucleus during mitosis which therefore shows the continuous presence of NPCs and hence highlighting the fact that the nuclear envelope stays intact during closed mitosis in lower eukaryotes such as yeast.


--Z3331556 (talk) 10:52, 7 April 2013 (EST) (KJ) Thanks AV, I think FN has the structure covered but yeah by all means if you find anything that may help her put it up. Ok great but if there's limited info on on the mitotic functions then we can change that subheading to the control of the nuclear envelope breakdown here are articles that may help:

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2829960/

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9552370


--Z3377769 (talk). (AV) Hey ive been looking into structure of the nuclear envelope which looks pretty good so ill probably slow down on that but if i find something interesting ill pop it up for discussion. Also im having a go at the Abnormalities subheading and might have a look at mitotic functions as well. will upload some reviews tomorrow. cheers

--Z3376100 (talk) 20:25, 6 April 2013 (EST)(FN) yeah I'll certainly let you know. Btw I've just added a diagram to the actual page- hope its ok.

--Z3331556 (talk) 19:05, 6 April 2013 (EST) (KJ)No worries FN. The section looks great so far, should be fine, no rush it's a start. Yeah i agree, let me know if she replies


--Z3331556 (talk) 17:56, 6 April 2013 (EST) (KJ) Here is my second paper which I have summarised

Paper 2: A role for gp210 in mitotic nuclear-envelope breakdown

This paper explores the importance of the Nuclear Pore Complex (NPC) transmembrane nucleoporin, gp210, in the breakdown of the nuclear envelope. Galy and his colleagues subjected Caenorhabditis elegans (worm) egg extracts to RNAi-mediated deletion or mutation of the gp210 nucleoporin which resulted in the prevention of lamin depolymerisation, a late event which aids in the breakdown of the nuclear envelope. The prevention of lamin depolarisation results in the inability of the nuclear envelope to breakdown and also blocks pronulclear chromosome mixing that ultimately leads to the formation of two nuclei after mitosis. This implied that gp210 was key in nuclear envelope breakdown.

The block of gp210 phosphorylation which is conducted by cyclin-B-cdc2 (proposed to be an important trigger for the initiation of mitosis) was also explored. Depletion of the cyclin-B-cdc2, achieved through RNAi, resulted in the inability of the gp210 nucleoporin to be phosphorylated and achieve nuclear envelope breakdown. Hence, this provided further evidence that gp210, particularly its phosphorylation, was indeed an early step in the breakdown of the nuclear envelope.

This research article is relevant to the subheading Nuclear Envelope Breakdown as it suggests one of the nucleoporins involved in the breakdown of the nuclear envelope. [11]


--Z3376100 (talk) 17:52, 6 April 2013 (EST)(FN) thanks a lot KJ for your help. I managed to add some info. to one of the subsections that I am doing.Though I need to research a little more on the outer nuclear membrane. Btw guys feel free to be critical of the info. that I have pasted on our Page and tell me if I have missed anything etc. Btw KJ i think I should message NS, and see how she is going because we haven't heard of her yet. Btw thanks for your help again.

--Z3331556 (talk) 11:35, 6 April 2013 (EST) (KJ) oh that's weird, are you using the right code? It's [12] (click on edit to see the code)and replace the PMID. The ref parts places the reference under the reference heading. Some of the review papers have PMC before the number so paste it with that. Let me know how you go. If it doesn't work out then just add the info with normal referencing (e.g. Brooke et.al, 2013)and email mark to tell him about the problem, hope this helps


--Z3376100 (talk) 10:43, 6 April 2013 (EST)(FN) Thanks KJ, when I tried adding some information to the subsection "structure of the NE", it affected the referencing so I had delete the infomration that I put up otherwise it would have affected the referncing for the intro. do you know how I can overcome this problem? Thanks.


--Z3331556 (talk) 21:50, 5 April 2013 (EST) (KJ) Thanks FN for the article, and do whatever you can as long as we have something on the page by Thursday its all good. As for the image you may have to email Mark about that and ask him to remove it for you, i have no clue on how to do that. Thanks again


--Z3376100 (talk) 19:19, 5 April 2013 (EST)(FN) Guys, I've uploaded an image for the structure of NE with the wrong title (NE system), do you know how I can delete or re-name the image without having to upload the same one again with a different name? I think we can delete it if we click on the triangle next to 'view history'...though I am still not sure how it works, thanks.

--Z3376100 (talk) 16:06, 5 April 2013 (EST)(FN) Here is my fourth paper: <pubmed>9922450</pubmed>

The following primary research article “Temporal Differences in the Appearance of NEP-B78 and an LBR-like Protein during Xenopus Nuclear Envelope Reassembly Reflect the Ordered Recruitment of Functionally Discrete Vesicle Types” examines the structure and dynamics of nuclear envelope reformation in the Xenopus cell-free system via the use of various reagents such as mBA against two proteins of the endoplasmic reticulum and outer membrane, known as NEP-B78 and p65. They also investigate antibodies against the inner nuclear membrane protein lamin B receptor. One of their results illustrates the differences in the duration of the employment of membrane proteins to the surface of deondensing chromatin. The differences suggest the existence of 2 different vesicle types that are important for nuclear envelop formation. The procedure concerning the vesicles being recruited to the chromatin is a controlled process and NEP-B78 has an important role in assisting the vesicles to the surface of the chromatins etc. The research article also provides a brief summary of what occurs during the breaking and regeneration of the nuclear envelope in cell division which is quite useful for the our topic.

KJ since you are doing the disassembly of the nuclear envelope, then you may find this research paper useful. Btw I have realised that with the sub-topic nuclear reformation, there is a lot of complex information to digest and apparently there is some uncertainly about how it 'really occurs'. So it is going to take a good part of my time to write up some stuff. However, i will shortly post some text under the sub-topic: Structure of the NE on the actual page.


--Z3376100 (talk) 10:52, 5 April 2013 (EST)(FN) so here is my third primary research article with a brief summary. <pubmed>17666429</pubmed>


After researching a lot of papers on NE reformation, I came across a great research paper titled:” NSF- and SNARE-mediated membrane fusion is required for nuclear envelope formation and completion of nuclear pore complex assembly in Xenopus laevis egg extracts”. In their study, Baur and colleagues initialy investigated whether NSF had a potential role in the formation of the Nuclear Envelope. They utilised three different approaches to address this question. These included various sophisticated methods that involved dominant-negative NSFE329Qvariant, as well as cloning and expressing Xenopus laevis NSF (xNSF) to raise antisera in rabbits and finally using antibody to immune-deplete NSF from cytosol. One of their crucial findings showed that NE formation decreased when treated membranes were placed with NSF depleted cytosol. The work of this study illustrated, along with other important findings, that the NSF and SNAREs mediate NE formation and that the SNARE proteins need to be activated by the NSF ATPase. This research paper not only provides some recent scientific findings in relation to NE formation, it also provides a reasonable overview of NE formation after mitosis. Thus, I can use this research paper for one of the sub-topics that I am responsible for finding information on (NE reformation in cell division).


--Z3376100 (talk) 10:50, 5 April 2013 (EST)(FN) thanks KJ, when I write up the information for Structure of NE etc. I will let you know if we should take out anything from the intorduction... so far now we should leave it as it is.


--Z3331556 (talk) 23:38, 4 April 2013 (EST) (KJ) FN yeah I thought i would do a bit of an overview of the nuclear envelope in the intro, that's what most articles do in their intros but if you want me to take some stuff out i can do that. I just thought i would briefly touch on it and you can elaborate, giving more detail on the components like the channels and the lamina. Let me know what you think and i can always change the intro :)

--Z3376100 (talk) 22:05, 4 April 2013 (EST)(FN) My second article is the following <pubmed> 22171326</pubmed>

My second research article titled “The C-terminal domain of Nup93 is essential for assembly of the structural backbone of nuclear pore complexes” illustrates the significant role that Nup93 plays in Nuclear Pore Complexes (NPCs). The NPCs are essential component of the Nuclear envelope because they control what enters/leaves the nuclear envelope (i.e.‘gatekeepers’ of the NEs). They are imperative in the movement of proteins and nucleic acids between the cytoplasm and nucleoplasm. This study through, various scientific techniques (such as nuclear assembly reactions, dextran exclusion, cloning & transmission electron microscopy), have further supported the concept that the role of subcomplex Nup93, is crucial for NPC formation and function in Xenopus egg extracts. Moreover, the addition of Nup93 by itself is sufficient to make up for the loss of the Nup188-Nup93 and Nup205-Nup93 complexes. I believe this article will be very helpful for the sub-topic: Structure of NEs because they investigate one of the major subcomplexes that is essential to the function and assembly of the NPCs which in turn are imperative to NEs.Thus, I find this article quite inetersting and it may even be useful for some of the other sections... so please have a look at it guys!


--Z3376100 (talk) 19:15, 4 April 2013 (EST)(FN)So far I have found one article that is useful to use for sub-topic that I will be doing for the group project- Structure of the Nuclear Envelope. Article 1:"Functional KV10.1 Channels Localize to the Inner Nuclear Membrane" <pubmed>21559285</pubmed>


The research article by Chen at al. (2011) provides a good overview of some of the important structures of the nuclear envelope and its function in the cell. It also highlights that Kv10.1 channels have important implication in cancer but may also play an important role in the nuclear membrane, namely the perinuclear and INM (of certain neurons). The location of this channel has been established through laboratory techniques such as immunostaining of neurons, transfected cells, as well as in vivo examination of KV.10 (through the use of fluorescent proteins).


--Z3376100 (talk) 19:04, 4 April 2013 (EST)(FN). Thanks KJ for the article, I've found some good articles as well and if I find them to be useful then I will certainly share it with you guys. One more thing, in the introduction you have talked about the structure of the Nuclear envelope a little, so when I do the sub-topic: Structure of the NE, there will be some overlap with what you've stated in the intro.


--Z3331556 (talk) 15:40, 4 April 2013 (EST) (KJ) FN I've come across a research article that is relevant to the structure of the nuclear envelope, hope it helps: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2223813/

--Z3331556 (talk) 11:38, 4 April 2013 (EST) (KJ) hey guys I've come across another possible subheading: Regulation of nuclear envelope breakdown that can maybe replace 'Mitotic Functions of Nuclear Envelope Components' if there is limited info on it. Let us know what you think. Also, AV let us know what subheadings you are going to take care of, oh and has anyone heard from Z3376101? Feels weird referring to people as a number but i have forgotten the initials haha

--Z3331556 (talk) 11:18, 4 April 2013 (EST) (KJ) well on the student page says 'write a brief description of their findings and relevance to the selected topic sub-section', I'm assuming it's research articles and not reviews because it says 'findings' but maybe email the lecturer just to make sure. Oh and as for the reformation of the nuclear envelope, here's two papers that may help, if you scroll down


--Z3376100 (talk) 22:04, 3 April 2013 (EST)(FN) KJ do you know if we can use review articles as well or do they all have to be research articles? Btw many thanks for tying up the topics on 'Page' :)


--Z3376100 (talk) 20:03, 3 April 2013 (EST)(FN) As long as I can find some information on the reformation part of the nuclear envelop, then I am happy to do that...if not then I will try and change the subheading a little (if that's ok).Thanks.

--Z3331556 (talk) 14:21, 3 April 2013 (EST) (KJ) here's my first summary of an article:

Paper 1: Nuclear envelope breakdown in starfish oocytes proceeds by partial NPC disassembly followed by a rapidly spreading fenestration of nuclear membranes

Lenart and co-workers(2003)examined the breakdown of the nuclear envelope in live starfish oocytes using various techniques involving fluorescently labeled dextrans (polysaccharides), membrane dyes and green fluorescently tagged proteins (GFP-tagged proteins), in conjunction with confocal time-lapse microscopy and electron microscopy which allowed them to view the changes in the oocyte nuclear envelope. Through the use of different sized fluorescently labelled dextran fractions experimenters were able to analyse the changes in the permeability of the nuclear envelope in maturing starfish oocytes. They firstly observed a sequential entry of dextran molecules, beginning with the smaller molecules entering the nucleus followed by larger molecules with diameters up to 40nm. The use of GFP-tagged nucleoporins revealed a corresponding gradual loss of peripheral nucleoporins from Nuclear Pore Complexes (NPC) (selective aqueous channels that span both nuclear membranes, connecting the nucleus with the cell cytoplasm) which resulted in the dilation of these channels from 10 to 40nm and a gradual release of import substrates. It was clearly noted, however, that the core of NPCs remained intact. Another key observation which was made was that the nuclear envelope structure remained unaffected. Next a rapid complete permeabilisation of the nuclear envelope that spread throughout the nuclear surface was noted, allowing macromolecules of diameters up to 100nm to enter the nucleus, this proposed the complete removal of the remaining core of the NPCs. It was also found that at the electron microscope level the nuclear envelope was fenestrated in the end. These experimenters therefore concluded that the breakdown of the nuclear envelope occurred in two distinct sequential phases:

-Phase 1 involves the gradual disassembly of the NPCs, which coincides with an increase in nuclear membrane/envelope permeability allowing for some macromolecules to enter the nucleus and nuclear import substrates to leave. At the end of this first phase the nuclear envelope remains intact.

-Phase 2 is characterised by an increase and rapid spreading nuclear envelope permeability as well as apparent fenestration of the nuclear envelope and hence its breakdown resulting from the removal of the core of NPCs. [13]

This research paper is relevant to the nuclear envelope breakdown section as it provides an experiment which clearly shows evidence of how the nuclear envelope gradually breaks down and explores the role of NPCs in this.


--Z3331556 (talk) 14:21, 3 April 2013 (EST) (KJ) That's all good. Yep that's right, there is way more information out there for the nuclear envelope and as for the subheadings, I came up with a rough idea of what they could be and i posted it below and on the actual project page. Hope this topic is fine with you. I'm currently researching the breakdown of the nuclear envelope and the Open vs. Closed/Semi-closed Mitosis subheadings as well as the intro. I think FN is doing the structure part and possibly the reformation of the nuclear envelope.. So just have a look at the rest of the subheadings, see what you want to do or if you come across something else that could be a subheading let us know.


--z3377769 (talk)(AV) hey guys sorrry for being a useless team member ive been out of internet range for the last few days. What up how are we going with these sub headings? am i reading it right that we are thinking bionary fission is a bit ambitious? and we are now looking at nuclear breakdown? Also, who is doing what subtitle? Let me know what i can do and ill be on to it.

cheers and apologies again for my lack of work thus far. AV

--Z3331556 (talk) 11:30, 2 April 2013 (EST) (KJ) That's alright, I just thought we should get something solid down so we're not rushing last minute. Ok great glad you're on board. I have kinda got a start on the Breakdown of the Nuclear envelope, so if it's fine with you would you mind doing the reformation of the nuclear envelope?? Alright so the rest, are you fine with this? Shall I put the topic on the actual page?


--Z3376100 (talk) 10:47, 2 April 2013 (EST)(FN) Thank you very much, I prefer the nuclear enevelop topic as well. I didn't have much luck with the binary fission either- the main thing which the article that I came across talked about was in regards to the ftsz proetin in binary fission. I can do the Structure of the Nuclear Envelope: what its made from, associations with the ER etc as well as Breakdown of the Nuclear Envelope:' (Prophase) mechanisms, proteins involved etc. I hope you guys are ok with this- if not then please let me know. KJ thank you once again for coming up with this topic :)

--Z3331556 (talk) 14:55, 1 April 2013 (EST) (KJ) Alright, so i have been doing a lot of research on the Nuclear Envelope and it's looking like a solid topic to do! I have taken the time to come up with a rough idea of the subheadings:

  • Introduction: What the nuclear envelope (NE) is, what is it's function and maybe a very brief summary on what happens to it during cell division
  • History: when and who discovered the nuclear envelope, timeline of the knowledge obtained on its involvement in cell division
  • Structure of the Nuclear Envelope: what its made from, associations with the ER etc.
  • The Nuclear Envelope At the Onset of Mitosis: G2 stage of the cell cycle
  • Breakdown of the Nuclear Envelope: (Prophase) mechanisms, proteins involved etc.
  • Mitotic Functions of Nuclear Envelope Components
  • Reformation of the Nuclear Envelope
  • Remodeling of the Nuclear Envelope During Interphase
  • Open vs. Closed/Semi-closed Mitosis: differences between the two, what happens to the NE in both
  • Abnormalities in Nuclear Envelope Breakdown and Reformation
  • Current and Future Research
  • Glossary
  • Images
  • References

ok so this is a start, we can add, remove or rename the subheadings as we go depending on what we find. I'm happy to do the intro, the breakdown and the open and closed mitosis comparison :) Hope this is alright with everyone. Please let me know ASAP so I can add this to the actual page and no one can steal our topic cause i really think its a good one


--Z3331556 (talk) 12:05, 1 April 2013 (EST) (KJ) nuclear envelope during cell division: here's what I already found, looks like this may be easier to do. There seems to be a lot more research and review articles on this topic..

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2713602/

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19234477

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10651254

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9552370

and there's heaps more. Please let me know what you think


--Z3331556 (talk) 11:49, 1 April 2013 (EST) (KJ) ok so both the golgi and mitochondria have been taken, I'm going to look into the nuclear envelope. Please let me know if any of you are having any luck with binary fission


--Z3331556 (talk) 23:31, 31 March 2013 (EST) (KJ) hey guys! so I've been trying to do some research on binary fission to come up with some subheadings and it's looking like there is not that much info on it in terms of research articles. My searches have come up with very simplistic descriptions, I don't know if I'm searching hard enough but I think it's going to be hard for us to go in depth with this topic. I think I might be leaning towards maybe looking into the Golgi? Let me know if you guys have had any luck with the topic, we really do need to knuckle down on this and decide ASAP!!!


--Z3376101 (talk) 16:35, 28 March 2013 (EST)http://www.enotes.com/cell-cycle-prokaryotic-genetic-regulation-reference/cell-cycle-prokaryotic-genetic-regulation horizontal gene transfer.


--Z3376100 (talk) 16:20, 28 March 2013 (EST)Role of cyclins and CDKs


--Z3376101 (talk) 16:14, 28 March 2013 (EST) Interphase seems the easiest to do....we can talk about G1,S and G2 stages


--Z3376101 (talk) 16:04, 28 March 2013 (EST)Hi guys check this out http://www.emc.maricopa.edu/faculty/farabee/BIOBK/BioBookmito.html


--Z3331556 (talk) 22:36, 27 March 2013 (EST) I have found some good info to start off with for the cell-cycle control system topic Components of the Cell-Cycle Control System. I was also brainstorming some topics we can discuss in this topic, was thinking maybe:

  • Introduction: where we can summarise the parts of the cell cycle and what it is
  • Historical Background: where we can discuss when and who developed it, how it was developed, how it's been modified during the years etc.
  • summary of each of the phases of the cell cycle
  • detail on the check points
  • abnormalities that can arise if cell cycle isn't controlled
  • recent/current research into the cell cycle

That's all I can think of so far


--Z3331556 (talk) 00:07, 26 March 2013 (EST) Hi all! I think both those topics are great! And yes they definitely will cross into cancer so that's something to explore. I think I'm leaning towards the cell-cycle control system because there should be plenty info on that, we can look into the check points in cell-cycle, what the repercussions are when control mechanisms fail and talk about some of the abnormalities that may arise, we can also compare the cycles of prokaryotes with that of eukaryotes etc etc.

I might just add the topic to the student project page to make sure we have something up there and that no one takes it, we can always change it whenever, hope that's ok with you guys

ill see you on Thursday :)


--Z3376100 (talk) 15:30, 22 March 2013 (EST) Hi everyone (FN)! So I had a look under the Cell division content and I came across the following sub-topics: The cell-cycle control system S Phase M phase control of Cell number and cell size Apoptosis (falls under control of cell number and cell size).

I personally find the following 2 interesting (as they probably have important implication in cancer):

The cell-cycle control system AND control of cell number and cell size

So what do you guys suggest we should do?


References

  1. <pubmed>2829960</pubmed>
  2. <pubmed>2828284</pubmed>
  3. <pubmed>11179431</pubmed>
  4. <pubmed>8344919</pubmed>
  5. <pubmed>22567193</pubmed>
  6. <pubmed>PMC3219597</pubmed>
  7. <pubmed>PMC3153650</pubmed>
  8. <pubmed>PMC3072346</pubmed>
  9. <pubmed>18660802</pubmed>
  10. <pubmed>14697200</pubmed>
  11. <pubmed>18216332</pubmed>
  12. <pubmed>PMC2172766</pubmed>
  13. <pubmed>PMC2172766</pubmed>