Difference between revisions of "Talk:2013 Group 4 Project"

From CellBiology
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Note: there may be some overlap between the structure and function subtopics. We'll have to discuss further about this.
 
Note: there may be some overlap between the structure and function subtopics. We'll have to discuss further about this.
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 +
 +
'''The following articles are related to the functions of several components that contribute to spindle formation:'''
 +
 +
'''Article 1:''' This article searches the roles of actin filaments (F-actin) and F-actin-based motors (myosins) which are required components of mitotic spindles. In their research, they found out that myosin-10 (Myo10) is important for assembly of meiotic spindles. In more detail, Myo10 set themselves to mitotic spindle poles and is very important for proper spindle anchoring, normal spindle length, spindle pole integrity as well as progression through metaphase. They also found out the antagonistic relationship between F-actin and Myo10 in maintenance of spindle length and that they work independently.<ref><pubmed>18606852</pubmed></ref>
 +
Actin filaments (F-actin) and F-actin-based motors (myosins) are essential components in the proper functioning of spindle apparatus. They are required for correct positioning of the spindle towards the anchor point.
 +
 +
 +
'''Article 2:''' Their finding found out the function of the long-tailed class-1 myosin myosin-1C from Dictyostelium discoideum during mitosis. They use the data obtained as back up, suggested that myosin-1C binds to microtubules and play parts in maintenance of spindle stability during chromosome separation and that the association of myosin-1C with microtubules is mediated through the tail domain. Further data has leaded to another suggestion that myosin-1C tail can inhibit kinesin motor activity, strengthen the stability of microtubules as well as forming crosslinks between microtubules and F-actin. <ref><pubmed>21712373</pubmed></ref>
 +
Myosin-1C motor and tail-domain-mediated MT-F-actin are required for the relocalization of certain protein from the cell periphery to the spindle. Therefore, both contribute to the formation and stability of spindle apparatus in considerable amount.
 +
 +
'''Article 3:''' This article states thoroughly for the process of spindle assembly, spindle positioning and separation of the nascent spindle poles in relation to cortical dynein-based pulling on astral microtubules, and kinesin-based sliding of polar microtubules.<ref><pubmed>21920311</pubmed></ref> They talked about the motors and microtubule binding proteins at kinetochores which provide attachment sites for microtubule to the chromosomes. They also states that there is a complicated mechanism that which perform pushing and pulling action to chromosomes that puts them in metaphase plate position. Kinetochore motors and microtubule binding proteins can also give signal to the cell cycle regulatory machinery for on time advance passing the cell cycle phrases. <ref><pubmed>21920311</pubmed></ref>
 +
Dynein-based pulling and kinesin-based sliding of microtubules is very important in spindle assembly and positioning. Motors and microtubule binding proteins will aid spindle for its function to separate sister chromatids.
 +
 +
 +
'''Article 4:''' By combine the use of force-calibrated needles, high-resolution microscopy, and biochemical perturbations, the researcher analyze the vertebrate metaphase spindle and found that spindle viscosity is dependent on microtubule density and cross-linking. Spindle elasticity are said to be relating to kinetochore and non-kinetochore microtubule rigidity, and also to spindle pole organization by kinesin-5 and dynein. <ref><pubmed>21703450</pubmed></ref>
 +
The data obtain in their research provides micromechanics modal insight of this cytoskeletal architecture and provide insight into how structural and functional stability is maintained for proper control of spindle function.
 +
 +
 +
'''References'''
 +
<references/>

Revision as of 13:17, 4 April 2013

2013 Projects: Group 1 | Group 2 | Group 3 | Group 4 | Group 5 | Group 6 | Group 7

  1. Do not remove this notice {{2013 Project discussion}} from the top of the discussion page.
  2. Newest student comments should be entered at the top of this current page under the subheading "Student Discussion Area" (you cannot edit the sub-heading title).
  3. All comments should begin with your own signature button, that will automatically enter student number date/time stamp.
  4. Do not use your full name here in discussion, if absolutely necessary you may use first names only.
  5. Do not remove or edit other student comments.
  6. Use sub-headings if you want to add other draft information, images, references, etc.
  7. Only your own group members should edit this page, unless directed otherwise by the course co-ordinator.

Group Assessment Criteria

  1. The key points relating to the topic that your group allocated are clearly described.
  2. The choice of content, headings and sub-headings, diagrams, tables, graphs show a good understanding of the topic area.
  3. Content is correctly cited and referenced.
  4. The wiki has an element of teaching at a peer level using the student's own innovative diagrams, tables or figures and/or using interesting examples or explanations.
  5. Evidence of significant research relating to basic and applied sciences that goes beyond the formal teaching activities.
  6. Relates the topic and content of the Wiki entry to learning aims of cell biology.
  7. Clearly reflects on editing/feedback from group peers and articulates how the Wiki could be improved (or not) based on peer comments/feedback. Demonstrates an ability to review own work when criticised in an open edited wiki format. Reflects on what was learned from the process of editing a peer's wiki.
  8. Evaluates own performance and that of group peers to give a rounded summary of this wiki process in terms of group effort and achievement.
  9. The content of the wiki should demonstrate to the reader that your group has researched adequately on this topic and covered the key areas necessary to inform your peers in their learning.
  10. Develops and edits the wiki entries in accordance with the above guidelines.

Week 2 Project topic selection, preliminary researching on the topic.

Week 3 By the next practical class (after the mid-session break) there should be sub-headings and content on your actual project page and interactions between individual group members on this discussion page.

Week 4 Each group member should now have selected 4 papers relevant to their section of the project. These, or any other papers, can now be used to generate content (text, images and tables) within the project page. Students can also work on additional sub-headings on the project page.

Week 8 Peer assessment of group project work.

  • Each student will carry out an assessment of all Group projects other than their own.
  • This written assessment should then be pasted on the actual project discussion page and your own individual student page.
  • The peer assessment for each project should be concise and include both positive and negative critical analysis of the current project status.
  • The actual assessment criteria (shown above) can be used if you like.
  • Each student assessment should be your own work and be completed before the next Lab.

The following articles are related to the structure the spindle apparatus:

Article 1: As reviewed in Glotzer (2009), the spindle apparatus is made from a combination of microtubules, motors and microtubule associated proteins (MAPs). [1] This review article is mainly concerned with the central spindle that coordinates cytokinesis. Microtubules that make up spindles are cylindrical polymers that are assembled from dimers of alpha-tubulin and beta-tubulin. They are polar filaments that have a fast-growing plus end and a slow-growing minus end that is often capped by the gamma-tubulin ring complex, a ring-shaped microtubule nucleator. During metaphase, the mitotic spindle is comprised of kinetochore fibres, astral microtubules and interpolar microtubules. The fusiform shape of the spindle is the result of the microtubule minus ends focusing at the poles and by cross-linking interpolar microtubules in an overlapping region situated in the midzone. At the beginning of anaphase, the kinetchore fibres shorten ( delivering sister chromatids to the poles) and astral microtubules elongate. The region between the two poles is called the spindle midzone and the microtubules that populate this region are called midzone microtubules. The term central spindle refers to the structure at the centre of the midzone, where the plus ends of the microtubules interdigitate. The microtubules of the central spindle eventually lose their interaction with the spindle poles. As the formation of the cleavage furrow progresses, the central spindle becomes compacted dense structure known as a the midbody.

Article 2: In the spindle, kinetochore microtubules have their plus ends embedded in the kinetochores of the sister chromatids and their minus ends at the spindle pole. This study shows that kinesins are important to maintain spindle bipolarity. [2] The simulataneous KinI induced disassembly at both the plus and minus ends may result in the poleward driving forces. Upon disassembly, chromosome associated kinetochore microtubules are driven back to their poles. Centromere-associated KinI proteins act to disassemble the plus end, causing the spindles to shorten during anaphase.

Article 3: In most animal cells microtubules are nucleated at the centrosomes found at the spindle poles. However, it has been observed that spindles can still form in cells lacking centrosomes. The results show that non-centrosomal microtubules contribute to to spindle formation even in cells with centrosomes. These cells expressed GFP-alpha-tubulin. [3]

Article 4: For sister chromatids to be correctly segragated between daughter cells, the kinetochore forms bivalent attachments with the spindle microtubules and the kinteochores position themselves correctly with respect to the division plane of the cell. Bivalent attachment of the sister chromatids to the spindle is achieved when the plus ends of the microtubules emanating from each pole interacts with the kinetochores of each sister pair and then becomes embedded. It is well established that CLIP-170/Tip1 localizes to the kinetochore.The plus-end microtubule binding proteins ( +TIP) play a significant role in the regulation of microtubule stability and cell polarity during interphase. In this study, they investigated the role of +TIP proteins during mitotic progression and provide evidence suggesting that the +TIP protein Tip1 affects directly or indirectly the movement of the chromosomes towards to the poles during anaphase [4] .


References

  1. <pubmed>19197328</pubmed>
  2. <pubmed>14681690</pubmed>
  3. <pubmed>14588246</pubmed>
  4. <pubmed>20498706</pubmed>


Note: there may be some overlap between the structure and function subtopics. We'll have to discuss further about this.


The following articles are related to the functions of several components that contribute to spindle formation:

Article 1: This article searches the roles of actin filaments (F-actin) and F-actin-based motors (myosins) which are required components of mitotic spindles. In their research, they found out that myosin-10 (Myo10) is important for assembly of meiotic spindles. In more detail, Myo10 set themselves to mitotic spindle poles and is very important for proper spindle anchoring, normal spindle length, spindle pole integrity as well as progression through metaphase. They also found out the antagonistic relationship between F-actin and Myo10 in maintenance of spindle length and that they work independently.[1] Actin filaments (F-actin) and F-actin-based motors (myosins) are essential components in the proper functioning of spindle apparatus. They are required for correct positioning of the spindle towards the anchor point.


Article 2: Their finding found out the function of the long-tailed class-1 myosin myosin-1C from Dictyostelium discoideum during mitosis. They use the data obtained as back up, suggested that myosin-1C binds to microtubules and play parts in maintenance of spindle stability during chromosome separation and that the association of myosin-1C with microtubules is mediated through the tail domain. Further data has leaded to another suggestion that myosin-1C tail can inhibit kinesin motor activity, strengthen the stability of microtubules as well as forming crosslinks between microtubules and F-actin. [2] Myosin-1C motor and tail-domain-mediated MT-F-actin are required for the relocalization of certain protein from the cell periphery to the spindle. Therefore, both contribute to the formation and stability of spindle apparatus in considerable amount.

Article 3: This article states thoroughly for the process of spindle assembly, spindle positioning and separation of the nascent spindle poles in relation to cortical dynein-based pulling on astral microtubules, and kinesin-based sliding of polar microtubules.[3] They talked about the motors and microtubule binding proteins at kinetochores which provide attachment sites for microtubule to the chromosomes. They also states that there is a complicated mechanism that which perform pushing and pulling action to chromosomes that puts them in metaphase plate position. Kinetochore motors and microtubule binding proteins can also give signal to the cell cycle regulatory machinery for on time advance passing the cell cycle phrases. [4] Dynein-based pulling and kinesin-based sliding of microtubules is very important in spindle assembly and positioning. Motors and microtubule binding proteins will aid spindle for its function to separate sister chromatids.


Article 4: By combine the use of force-calibrated needles, high-resolution microscopy, and biochemical perturbations, the researcher analyze the vertebrate metaphase spindle and found that spindle viscosity is dependent on microtubule density and cross-linking. Spindle elasticity are said to be relating to kinetochore and non-kinetochore microtubule rigidity, and also to spindle pole organization by kinesin-5 and dynein. [5] The data obtain in their research provides micromechanics modal insight of this cytoskeletal architecture and provide insight into how structural and functional stability is maintained for proper control of spindle function.


References

  1. <pubmed>18606852</pubmed>
  2. <pubmed>21712373</pubmed>
  3. <pubmed>21920311</pubmed>
  4. <pubmed>21920311</pubmed>
  5. <pubmed>21703450</pubmed>