Talk:2013 Group 3 Project

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Revision as of 16:11, 29 April 2013 by Z3330409 (talk | contribs)

2013 Projects: Group 1 | Group 2 | Group 3 | Group 4 | Group 5 | Group 6 | Group 7

  1. Do not remove this notice {{2013 Project discussion}} from the top of the discussion page.
  2. Newest student comments should be entered at the top of this current page under the subheading "Student Discussion Area" (you cannot edit the sub-heading title).
  3. All comments should begin with your own signature button, that will automatically enter student number date/time stamp.
  4. Do not use your full name here in discussion, if absolutely necessary you may use first names only.
  5. Do not remove or edit other student comments.
  6. Use sub-headings if you want to add other draft information, images, references, etc.
  7. Only your own group members should edit this page, unless directed otherwise by the course co-ordinator.

Group Assessment Criteria

  1. The key points relating to the topic that your group allocated are clearly described.
  2. The choice of content, headings and sub-headings, diagrams, tables, graphs show a good understanding of the topic area.
  3. Content is correctly cited and referenced.
  4. The wiki has an element of teaching at a peer level using the student's own innovative diagrams, tables or figures and/or using interesting examples or explanations.
  5. Evidence of significant research relating to basic and applied sciences that goes beyond the formal teaching activities.
  6. Relates the topic and content of the Wiki entry to learning aims of cell biology.
  7. Clearly reflects on editing/feedback from group peers and articulates how the Wiki could be improved (or not) based on peer comments/feedback. Demonstrates an ability to review own work when criticised in an open edited wiki format. Reflects on what was learned from the process of editing a peer's wiki.
  8. Evaluates own performance and that of group peers to give a rounded summary of this wiki process in terms of group effort and achievement.
  9. The content of the wiki should demonstrate to the reader that your group has researched adequately on this topic and covered the key areas necessary to inform your peers in their learning.
  10. Develops and edits the wiki entries in accordance with the above guidelines.

Week 2 Project topic selection, preliminary researching on the topic.

Week 3 By the next practical class (after the mid-session break) there should be sub-headings and content on your actual project page and interactions between individual group members on this discussion page.

Week 4 Each group member should now have selected 4 papers relevant to their section of the project. These, or any other papers, can now be used to generate content (text, images and tables) within the project page. Students can also work on additional sub-headings on the project page.

Week 8 Peer assessment of group project work.

  • Each student will carry out an assessment of all Group projects other than their own.
  • This written assessment should then be pasted on the actual project discussion page and your own individual student page.
  • The peer assessment for each project should be concise and include both positive and negative critical analysis of the current project status.
  • The actual assessment criteria (shown above) can be used if you like.
  • Each student assessment should be your own work and be completed before the next Lab.

507 - Smu
150 - Jorge
681 - Joey
409 - Pat

--Z3330409 (talk) 16:11, 29 April 2013 (EST) Hi all. Our wiki page is slowly getting there but i think its high time we start really buckling down on getting this done :) i've added my parts now. If you haven't yet done so, please start adding in whatever your designated subheadings were.

Also, im struggling to figure out how to reference on our page. For now, ive just put numbers where my references will go. This thursday, could one of you please run through with me how you go about it? :)

See you guys later this week!

--Z3330409 (talk) 15:20, 18 April 2013 (EST) Hey guys, i can see the page has been updated with subheadings and some information under a couple! Coming along great :) ive now added my 'structure and location' info and am working on the segregation of GA now. I only need to add my references although I may need some help! I will ask for your assistance in the lab this afternoon.

Anyway, now that things are up, i think it will be a good idea for all of us to read stuff that others have submitted so we can proof read as well as add or edit any information that we might have :)

Cyas later!

--Z3330409 (talk) 21:51, 11 April 2013 (EST) Here are my 4 articles

1) Fragmentation and partitioning of the Golgi apparatus during mitosis in HeLa cells

HeLa cells are a type of human cell used in scientific research obtained from cervical cancer cells in 1951. These cells were used to observe the activity of the Golgi apparatus when they divide. It has been concluded that animal cells contain only one copy of the Golgi apparatus and they are unable to be synthesised de novo. The Golgi must divide when the cell divides and involves breaking down into fragments. By using osmium to stain the Golgi, Lococq and Warren were able to demonstrate the division of the organelle through twisting and turning in a ribbon form.

Lucocq JM, Warren G (1987) Fragmentation and partitioning of the Golgi apparatus during mitosis in HeLa cells. The EMBO Jounal 6(11)

2) Active ADP-ribosylation Factor-1 (ARF1) is required for Mitotic Golgi Fragmentation.

Although it has been established that animal cell Golgi apparatuses undergo division and disassembly during mitosis, the mechanism for the way this occurs is still not clear. Xiang Y et. al. investigated how ARF1 may dictate the division of the Golgi. ARF1 is a GTPase that is necessary for the forming of vesicles from the Golgi and is associated with Golgi vesicles created in vitro as well as in mitotic cells. When the Golgi was treated with ARF1, it was converted to vesicles. However depletion of ARF1 meant the Golgi failed to fragment.

Xiang Y et. al. (2007) Active ADP-ribosylation Factor-1 (ARF1) is required for Mitotic Golgi Fragmentation. Journal Of Biological Chemistry 282(30)

3) The Golgi-associated protein GRASP65 regulates spindle dynamics and is essential for cell division

It is found that that the protein known as GRASP65 (a Golgi-associated protein) is significant in the in Golgi fragmentation during mitosis. GRASP65 is required for the stacking of Golgi cisternae in vitro and is phospohrylated during mitosis to cause unstacking during mitosis. The study showed that depletion of GRASP65 did not affect the stacking of cisternae however it did afect the organisation of the mitotic spindle. This ultimately lead to cell death.

Sutterlin C, Polishchuk R, Pecot M, Malhotra V (2005) The Golgi-associated protein GRASP65 regulates spindle dynamics and is essential for cell division. Molecular Biology of the Cell Vol 16

4) The Golgi and Endoplasmic reticulum remain independent during mitosis in HeLa cells

The Golgi apparatus must undergo partitioning and dissasembly prior to mitosis. And although it may not require molecular machinery to dissasemble/ reassemble, it requires a number of specific cell-cycle regulated activities. The same can be said about the Endoplasmic reticulum which is a large tubular network that involves the nuclear membrane. In this study, Jesch SA et. al. conducted a number of assays to observe wether the Golgi apparatus and ER are dependent or independent of one another during mitosis

Jesch SA, Linstedt AD (1998) The Golgi and Endoplasmic reticulum remain independent during mitosis in HeLa cells. Molecular Biology of the Cell 9(3).

--Z3374507 (talk) 17:11, 11 April 2013 (EST) Hey joey, we've delegated the topic between the 4 of us. We are all gonna get some content into the sub topic you've been allocated. If you have any other ideas just post up.


--Z3330409 (talk) 17:07, 11 April 2013 (EST) Delegation of topics

-Difference between GA and other membrane-bound organelles during mitosis
-Why does the GA act differently during mitosis compared to other organelles

-Morphology of GA prior to cell division
-How does the above process differ in other organisms

Joeyv -History (what was previously assumed about GA)
-Limitations of current models
-Does the GA's function relate to its behaviour in mitosis

-Structure and location
-The GA cant be synthesised de novo, how does it end up in two daughter cells?

--Z3374507 (talk) 20:08, 10 April 2013 (EST) Hey guys, these are my 4 articles:

1.) Who Needs Microtubules? Myogenic Reorganization of MTOC, Golgi Complex and ER Exit Sites Persists Despite Lack of Normal Microtubule Tracks

This article aims to better understand the process of structural reorganization which occurs during skeletal muscle differentiation. The focus is placed on the Golgi complex, endoplasmic reticulum exit sites and their ability to move and differentiate despite their lack of normal microtubule tracks. The lack of knowledge is attributed to the fact that these changes to the secretory pathway happen almost simultaneously. By using taxol, nocodazole and GSK3-beta inhibitor it was possible to interrupt the microtubule network and uncouple the reorganization. This investigation has revealed new insight into the structure and functional reorganization of both the Golgi complex and ER during myogenisis.

Citation: Zaal KJM, Reid E, Mousavi K, Zhang T, Mehta A, et al. (2011) Who Needs Microtubules? Myogenic Reorganization of MTOC, Golgi Complex and ER Exit Sites Persists Despite Lack of Normal Microtubule Tracks. PLoS ONE 6(12): e29057. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0029057

Editor: Michael Klymkowsky, University of Colorado, Boulder, United States of America

2.)The Golgin Tether Giantin Regulates the Secretory Pathway by Controlling Stack Organization within Golgi Apparatus

This article looks at the connection between Giantin (a regulation protein) and the function and structure of the Golgi apparatus. By using of drugs (nocodazole) which inhibits the action on Giantin it was found that there was a notable difference in the movement of the Golgi. The Golgi partitioned into a ribbon like form rather than the normal stacks. It was also found that in area where there was a deficiency in Giantin there was a notable increase in transport of cell surface proteins. Furthermore, Drosophila cells known to lack Giantin show the organisation of the Golgi to be dispersed. Ultimately this information suggests that the Giantin protein in the Golgi can be at least partially responsible for the regulation of transport and structure of the Golgi apparatus.

Citation: Koreishi M, Gniadek TJ, Yu S, Masuda J, Honjo Y, et al. (2013) The Golgin Tether Giantin Regulates the Secretory Pathway by Controlling Stack Organization within Golgi Apparatus. PLoS ONE 8(3): e59821. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0059821

3.) Golgi Cisternal Unstacking Stimulates COPI Vesicle Budding and Protein Transport

In this article Wang et al. compare the efficiency at which the Golgi transports proteins to the cell surface when it is varying degrees of compactness. Through the use of an assay it was found that more protein was transported when the Golgi was unstacked. This information can suggest that the amount of stacking within the cisternae of the Golgi could be directly related to the rate of protein transport. In addition, it implies that transport could in fact be maximized in cells by unpacking the Golgi.

Citation: Wang Y, Wei J-H, Bisel B, Tang D, Seemann J (2008) Golgi Cisternal Unstacking Stimulates COPI Vesicle Budding and Protein Transport. PLoS ONE 3(2): e1647. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0001647

4.)Polarization of the Golgi apparatus and the microtubule-organizing center in cultured fibroblasts at the edge of an experimental wound.

In this article Kupfer et al. explore the movement of the Golgi apparatus and microtubule organising centre in experimentally wounded fibroblasts through the use of immunolabelling. They compare the orientation of these two organelles to each other in two positions; at the edge of the wound and in a culture of cells that have been removed from the wound. In the prior the two were relatively close to the face of the wound and in the latter they were randomly orientated. This change in position suggests that the ma play a role in the cell movement.

Citation: Kupfer A, Louvard D, Singer S-J (1982)Polarization of the Golgi apparatus and the microtubule-organizing center in cultured fibroblasts at the edge of an experimental wound. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 79(8): 2603–2607/PMC346248

--Z3374507 (talk) 17:29, 10 April 2013 (EST) Hey guys, I just put all the ideas everyone had for sub topics onto the project page. I just wanted to put something up before tomorrows lab. See you then! :)

--Z3330409 (talk) 10:43, 1 April 2013 (EST) Great start indeed! Looking in to a history are good points too and should take up a good bulk of our wiki page. Having a quick look into it, we could also discuss:

-the GA can't be synthesised within a cell de novo, so how is it that daughter cells contain a GA? -does the GA's function relate to its behaviour during mitosis. Argh, i thought of 2 more but theyve escaped me! :( Silly public holiday brain.

Anyway here's a paper i found. I will keep searching. Hope you all had a good easter weekend!

--Z3374507 (talk) 15:42, 28 March 2013 (EST) This is a great start. There seems like a lot to go through with these topics alone. Last week our tutor mentioned that we need to include history, current known research and what else is yet to be known. (We can always add more topics as we do more research)

Also it would be helpful if we provide links to the research articles we find to this page. That way everyone in the group will know the sources properly.

--Z3324681 (talk) 15:36, 28 March 2013 (EST)I read a little bit into in and it seems like it goes through several changes throughout cell division. Thing we could talk about / potential subheadings:

-Where GA is located in cells and their function

-What was previously assumed about how GA participated during cell division

-Difference between GA and other membrane bound organelles during cell division

-Morphology of GA prior to cell division

-and subsequently its morphology during each part of cell divisions

-and how the above process differs in other organisms

-also, limitations of current models

-maybe even why GA participates in cell division differently compared to other membrane bound organelles


--Z3330409 (talk) 15:25, 28 March 2013 (EST) Hi! Interesting insight and very good resource you've found. I'll have a look into it. Could be really interesting like you said :) my only concern would be that by limiting ourself to one organelle, it may also limit the range of information we can access, topics we can discuss etc etc. But you raised good points about and it could end up being very informative. I will have a deeper look into it :) :)

--Z3324681 (talk) 13:44, 28 March 2013 (EST) Hello ho! What do you guys think of examining Golgi Apparatus separating during cell division as our topic rather than just 'prophase'? :) Mark mentioned it very briefly during one of his lectures and I thought it'll be nice to find out more about it (and would be a more focused research topic perhaps?)

Here's a research article about it for your perusal :)

--Z3324681 (talk) 16:37, 21 March 2013 (EST) J: Like this? Heh.

--Z3324681 (talk) 16:37, 21 March 2013 (EST) Helloho! What does everybody think of putting our initials at the start of our messages so that we'd know who's who without having to memorise each other's student IDs?

--Z3330409 (talk) 16:34, 21 March 2013 (EST) Hi everyone!

--Z3420150 (talk)16:05, 04 April 2013 (EST) Hey guys I think we should think for subheadings (or are we using 681's? subheading examples?) and allocate them to four of us. I can do them tomorrow (because i'm working tonight) before revising for my other subjects because I'm not working until Sunday :)

--Z3420150 (talk) 23:56, 17 April 2013 (EST) Partitioning of the Golgi Apparatus during Mitosis in Living HeLa Cells

Using a fluorescent tag protein, the location of the Golgi apparatus has been identified and confirmed using immunogold and immunofluorescence (Golgi markers). Using confocal microscopy, the behavior of Golgi Apparatus has been observed. During metaphase, the cells containing fragments of Golgi seemed to disperse in the cytoplasm. The combination of confocal microscopy and fluorescence microscopy exposed the juxtanuclear reticulum in 90% of the cells which is a characteristic of Golgi apparatus which has also been confirmed by immunoelectron microscopy using GFP antibodies [1]. It identified its location to be found over a subset of one/two stack of cisternae during cell division.

Golgi Biogenesis

In this experiment, the NRK cells has been used to identify the positions of the Golgi apparatus during cell division. When the cells have been treated with 5-inhibitor s-trityl-L-cystein that functions as centrosome inhibitor, the Golgi behaviour has been viewed more clearly and systematically. Such chemical created a fixed triple-stained colour: green for protein GM130, red for a-tubulin and blue for the Golgi's DNA. The images has been collected systematically to show the location of each fragments that composes the whole Golgi body during cell mitosis. By this study, there has been hints to why Golgi undergoes disassembly and reconstruction during the cell division process of all mammalian living things and its significance in cell division. For now, the reason for interaction between Golgi and different mitotic machineries are still unknown, however further studies about ubiquitin ligase would give understanding to p97 which is responsible for post mitotic Golgi membrane fusion.

The Golgi Apparatus Maintains Its Organization Independent of the Endoplasmic Reticulum

In this experiment, the Golgi enzymes has been observed and treated under physiological conditions in the endoplasmic reticulum. The reason for the experiment is to find the reason behind the recycling of golgi membranes in the ER. Using the chemical repamycin that serves its function as an inducer of FKBP and FRAP proteins, it became possible to observe the FKBP-tagged Golgi enzyme to FRAP-ER protein when the enzyme visits the ER. The experiment was paramount since this study suggests that Golgi proteins cycles through the ER and at the same time undergoes into biogenesis in ER as well. This is significant since it exposes the existance of Golgi-ER recycling pathway.

Analysis of De Novo Golgi Complex Formation after Enzyme-based Inactivation

This study focuses on the Golgi maintenance during interphase cell division as well as the relationship of ER and Golgi complex during interphase. Using a drug free method where the Golgi body and its dynamics has been deactivated and replacing it by a synthetic Golgi-like marker with architecture, it has been tested and achieved a result that cells were unable to create a normal trafficking activity during the interphase method. Similar with the third paper, it has been suggested that the interaction between ER is paramount to achieve a balance maintenance during interphase. Such integration would be needed to create a Golgi-like structure that will be essential as a building block for Golgi complexes. Hence, Golgi complexes would be used for biogenesis of new normal Golgi elements when it comes to it's morphological and biochemical functions.