Talk:2013 Group 1 Project

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2013 Projects: Group 1 | Group 2 | Group 3 | Group 4 | Group 5 | Group 6 | Group 7

  1. Do not remove this notice {{2013 Project discussion}} from the top of the discussion page.
  2. Newest student comments should be entered at the top of this current page under the subheading "Student Discussion Area" (you cannot edit the sub-heading title).
  3. All comments should begin with your own signature button, that will automatically enter student number date/time stamp.
  4. Do not use your full name here in discussion, if absolutely necessary you may use first names only.
  5. Do not remove or edit other student comments.
  6. Use sub-headings if you want to add other draft information, images, references, etc.
  7. Only your own group members should edit this page, unless directed otherwise by the course co-ordinator.

Group Assessment Criteria

  1. The key points relating to the topic that your group allocated are clearly described.
  2. The choice of content, headings and sub-headings, diagrams, tables, graphs show a good understanding of the topic area.
  3. Content is correctly cited and referenced.
  4. The wiki has an element of teaching at a peer level using the student's own innovative diagrams, tables or figures and/or using interesting examples or explanations.
  5. Evidence of significant research relating to basic and applied sciences that goes beyond the formal teaching activities.
  6. Relates the topic and content of the Wiki entry to learning aims of cell biology.
  7. Clearly reflects on editing/feedback from group peers and articulates how the Wiki could be improved (or not) based on peer comments/feedback. Demonstrates an ability to review own work when criticised in an open edited wiki format. Reflects on what was learned from the process of editing a peer's wiki.
  8. Evaluates own performance and that of group peers to give a rounded summary of this wiki process in terms of group effort and achievement.
  9. The content of the wiki should demonstrate to the reader that your group has researched adequately on this topic and covered the key areas necessary to inform your peers in their learning.
  10. Develops and edits the wiki entries in accordance with the above guidelines.

Week 2 Project topic selection, preliminary researching on the topic.

Week 3 By the next practical class (after the mid-session break) there should be sub-headings and content on your actual project page and interactions between individual group members on this discussion page.

Week 4 Each group member should now have selected 4 papers relevant to their section of the project. These, or any other papers, can now be used to generate content (text, images and tables) within the project page. Students can also work on additional sub-headings on the project page.

Week 8 Peer assessment of group project work.

  • Each student will carry out an assessment of all Group projects other than their own.
  • This written assessment should then be pasted on the actual project discussion page and your own individual student page.
  • The peer assessment for each project should be concise and include both positive and negative critical analysis of the current project status.
  • The actual assessment criteria (shown above) can be used if you like.
  • Each student assessment should be your own work and be completed before the next Lab.

Group 1 Peer Review Introduction • Good introduction – Sums up what will be on the page well. Informative without being too detailed • Some sentences were a tad long and were a little confusing to read. Separating some of the longer sentences into two shorter ones would make this intro even better • A simple picture in the introduction would break up the text nicely History • Pleasing to the eye – Nice colours and succinct info drew my attention and made me want to read into it. • Obviously, some more information needs to be added to the last 3 rows. Entry into M phase • The intro to this section needs to be a little more informative, to assume the readers know nothing about cell biology. What is a G2 phase? What is M phase? Why shouldn’t replicated DNA be damaged and why are key regulators required for this transition? • Cyclins – Good information, informative and succinct. • CDK – Once again, good info and succinct. It might be good to add what CDK stands for and why it is called that. • Pictures are good. Relevant, eye catching and simple. • The second picture should be a ‘thumb’, much like the first one. The other pictures of the page should be thumbs too so that you can add a little information to what the picture is. • Overall, the information in this section is lacking some citation. Metaphase to anaphase • Im confused by the text in brackets here. Is this an error? • An introduction would benefit this section well, explaining what metaphase and anaphase are and why the complex and checkpoint are relevant to this part. • Good information. A picture could help break up the text. Mitogens • I like the definition that started this section. Simple yet effective. • The ‘mitogens’ section is very well written. It was an enjoyable read, and was structured nicely. A picture here could be nice. And just a slight spelling error in the first paragraph, ‘Mitogens effect cell division by overcoming the intracellular…’ should read ‘mitogens AFFECT cell division’. • PDGF history – This section was well written too. Overall, a good section. A few more citations here wouldn’t hurt. Disease • A good idea – Listing diseases that can occur involving cell division and putting it in table form is not something I would’ve thought of. Very creative, very relevant. I will be looking forward to seeing this table once it is completed. • It might make the table even better to add a ‘treatment’ column. But once the table is complete, it may not need it. Your call. Current/future research • Current research requires more detail • Future research was good. With a bit more citation, it will be perfect.




Peer assessment:

Introduction:

  • The introduction is sound, highlighting the importance of regulating cell division and listing the topics that will be discussed.
  • I feel as though a brief overview of the cell cycle may be helpful either in the intro, as a separate subheading on its own or in the relevant subheadings.
  • Could use an image here, perhaps a diagram of the checkpoints

History:

  • I see that the timeline isn’t completely finished but so far the discoveries discussed are relevant to the topic and are summarised well (i.e. to the point and of a good length). However, there seems to be quiet big gaps in time, especially 1983-1992, may want to revisit this and add dates in between.

Entry into M-phase:

  • May want to discuss what M-phase is briefly (what it stands for and what happens in it etc.)
  • The use of subheadings in this section is good
  • The phase-contrast photomicrograph image has not been properly formatted in that it’s lacking the info needed for it to be used on the page, i.e. reference, copyright clearance, student image statement, description of the image in own words. Also the thumb on the actual project page could be a little bigger and the caption a little more descriptive
  • May want to discuss what exactly cyclin A, B, D and E do, i.e. the CDK’s they activate and when and what. This does this could be done in reference to the accompanying image
  • The CDK info has no reference
  • The student image statement is missing from the cyclin expression image and it has not been properly referenced

Metaphase to Anaphase Transition:

  • Info is succinct and to the point
  • Could perhaps add a research study to show the activity of the complex or checkpoint
  • Could use an image to break up the text a bit

Mitogens and Cell division:

  • I don’t think the word “definition” is necessary, could just go straight into what mitogens are
  • Some citations may be missing for some paragraphs?
  • Could use another image to break the text up towards the beginning of the section
  • Clear and concise explinations
  • Good use of subheadings
  • Could explain a lot of the jargon in the glossary
  • Could some of the history of the PDGF be added to the timeline?
  • The schematic could use a legend that summarises the image in your own words, also the student image statement is missing

Disease:

  • I feel this section needs a lot more work, only one disease is briefly touched on

Current and Future Research:

  • Good start, maybe consider summarising a few recent research papers and linking to them
  • While the image in this section is great, it looks like it can’t be used because you have written “Copyright © 2003, Rights Managed by Nature Publishing Group” which is not a clearance statement. May want to ask about this.

Overall I feel that the project is on its way to being complete, there’s good use of subheadings, info is succinct and easy to understand and there are good images to accompany the text. I feel that some of the sections could be expanded on a little further, maybe add a few more research studies and perhaps you may need more references. You might want to revisit the images to make sure all the info required is there and also a glossary could be very useful.


Main focus of the project is clearly stated in introduction. Table summary is concise. The explanation of each subheading is easy to understand and flow. The structure of the content is well organized. Need to add some more diagrams. There's some spelling errors that need to be corrected. Citation(s) under CDK subheading? -- --

--Z3240911 (talk) 06:30, 21 May 2013 (EST) Sounds good see you all then :)

--Z3465159 (talk) 10:33, 20 May 2013 (EST)Just a reminder that we are meeting tomorrow (Tues 21st May) in the library from 12-2, so I have made a room booking in GSR214, which is on second floor of the library. Hope to see you all there! :-)

--Z3465159 (talk) 18:28, 16 May 2013 (EST) ok I have added some events in the "History" table, I know the colours are not matching, but we will fix it later once all data are collected, cause I really dont wana spend one hour matching colours of the rows of table...lol...Cheers N

--Z3331321 (talk) 13:45, 16 May 2013 (EST)Hey guys. how much info do we need on it today? I haven't had much time to do a lot of research but I have uploaded a bit. I'm fine with covering PDGF. Also, how do you reference an online book? I just copied and pasted the websites for now but i'll fix them later on. See you soon! SF

--Z3240911 (talk) 08:08, 16 May 2013 (EST) Sorry to hear that you are ill, I hope you get better soon :). The peer-review today is on the page content rather than our summaries on articles. But if your summaries are relevant to a section you should put the information in that section, just reference it with the number rather than listing the whole reference above it. Cheers, MB

--Z3465159 (talk) 20:48, 15 May 2013 (EST) Hi MB :) thank you for organizing this. Yeah I am happy with my part,so I will start searching information for it this weekend, I should have started today but unfortunately got ill and don't know if I can even come uni tomorrow, but I will try my best! :-) ohh one more thing, so you wanted us to move the 4 articles from the project page and paste it here, but how would other peers review our page? or they wont review it now, may be from next Thursday, yeah? Anyway I will move it for now ;)

--Z3240911 (talk) 09:56, 14 May 2013 (EST) Hey guys, so I'll be putting my stuff on the page on Thursday, but before I do the intro it would be good to know if everyone is OK with the plan. Just post on here if you are clear about the section you're doing. Remember this prac class involves the review of our pages by other students in the course and we have to have something on there. Also, If everyone can move the four article summarries off the main page into the sub heading on this discussion page that would be awesome. Cheers, MB

--Z3240911 (talk) 12:23, 10 May 2013 (EST) Hey everyone, so after the lab yesterday we've decided to focus on specific topics within the regulation on cell division. I'll do the introduction and current/future research, in which I'll outline that we're just covering specific sections rather than the entire topic.

Z3465159- we were thinking that you could maybe cover the checkpoint on the entry into M-phase (I know it's change from history, but to cover enough material I think we need to split it up this way).

Z3451879- You're going to cover the spindle checkpoint/APC.

Z3331321 - You're doing how mitogens can regulate cell division with some in depth detail on something like PDGF.

For each of the sections note down the history and that way we can all have input with that.

I think we just need to start putting content on and as we go we can decide how much detail we need. We need to have a lot of content on before Thursday next week, or we are going to loose marks. Pictures and figures are also important. Cheers, MB

--Z3240911 (talk) 10:53, 8 May 2013 (EST) Hey guys, I just made an area at the bottom for us to move our lab 4 stuff into. I'm moving mine off the main page because I'm starting to put some content into the page itself.

--Z3451879 (talk) 13:03, 2 May 2013 (EST) K, sounds like a plan. I was just about to post some research I did over our 2 weeks absence but I think we should have a group meeting today in lab about what exactly needs to be done by each person and what specific topics we'll be covering as well as talking to the professor and asking what he thinks about tweaking the topic. I'm on board though! see you guys today - CA

--Z3240911 (talk) 19:39, 18 April 2013 (EST) Hey guys, so due to the huge nature of the regulation of cell division, I think we should focus on some of the key regulatory checkpoints and complexes for intracellular and the key parts of extracellular. We just have to specify in our introduction that we are not addressing all regulatory components of cell division. I was thinking that we should focus on the checkpoint and associated CDK's for the entry into cell division and the spindle checkpoint/activation of APC. There are cyclins that play a role in these two checkpoints and we can also incorporate the extracellular influences. Let me know what you think. Cheers, MB

--Z3451879 (talk) 15:29, 12 April 2013 (EST) So I'm just going to put my assessment from Lab 3 here in the discussion since I think that was what we were actually supposed to do? haha. Just to be sure:

[1] <pubmed>4358429</pubmed> This article addresses the role of adenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (cAMP) in the regulation of cell division. It had been previously found that the stimulation of cell division required the decrease in intracellular levels of cAMP and the experiments also showed that the addition of proteolytic enzymes stimulated cell growth and division. cAMP, derived from ATP is an important in many processes through signal transduction.


[2] <pubmed>23565292</pubmed> The article covers the development of a screening method for the identification of bacterial cell division genes and regulators using E. coli clones, specifically in the regulation of the polymerization of FtsZ, which acts to split the cell wall and separate the DNA into daughter cells. The screening revealed known and previously unknown gene regulators in the bacerium and the authors intend the research to be applied to antibiotic development.


[3] <pubmed>22532834</pubmed> This article outline the use of computational modeling to visualise spacial regulation through the microtubial network. The experiment shows that the mitotic spindle can cause strong separation effects in the germ plasm in the embryo, asymmetric division in the neuroblast, among other findings. The computational model suggests that changes in the microtubule network are critical to spacial regulation in cell division, creating a "docking platform" for molecules to create a structured cytoplasm.


[4] <pubmed>22912800</pubmed> This article researches the less understood topic of the topological distributions in proliferating and quiescent cells. The quiescent cells have fewer sides than their proliferating neighbors. Through computational models, the experiment shows that cell topology and boundary tension between the sides of proliferating and quiescent cells play important roles in the regulation of cell division.

SpatialLocalizationMicrotubuleNetwork.png

A computer-simulated model of intracellular spacial localization by the microtubule network. Reference: [5] <pubmed>22532834</pubmed> --Z3240911 (talk) 16:46, 10 April 2013 (EST) Yeah, I've been looking at lots of different articles and trying to do some stuff on current research, I started with a really broad approach and there is just so much information out there, I've just focused on the current research of the APC for now, and I'll do more in time, its hard to tell what can be considered as part of our topic and what is starting to talk too much about other parts of cell division. Anyway, I should have my summaries up tonight. MB

--Z3465159 (talk) 16:27, 10 April 2013 (EST) Thanks for that MB!...same I am about upload mine soon, but obviously it is not finalized yet, and plus we need feedback from our lecturer about this.

--Z3331321 (talk) 15:48, 10 April 2013 (EST) Hey guys. I've uploaded 2 of the articles/paragraphs so far. I will obviously change them when we start writing the report. I've sort of just summarised each article so far but haven't completely got what I need from them yet. I'm doing the other 2 now =]. SF

--Z3240911 (talk) 14:36, 10 April 2013 (EST) I think he said he wasn't going to tell us a word number for the paragraphs. Just write what you think an make sure you cover what you need to. Cheers, MB

--Z3465159 (talk) 00:04, 9 April 2013 (EST) How long should be each of those paragraphs? any idea? i.e how many words

--Z3465159 (talk) 20:43, 8 April 2013 (EST) I think I solved my own problem :) I found some information on how those regulators of cell were discovered and their roles in cell division till now, so it is all good now, but you are most welcome to suggest any feedback once I upload the information.

--Z3465159 (talk) 18:46, 8 April 2013 (EST) Hey guys I am really confused now!.. can someone clarify few things for me?, I am doing the "history" part of our topic. Do I just research the history of cell division OR I need to find historical information about the regulators of cell division such as proteins, growth factors and mitogens?.

--Z3240911 (talk) 15:21, 8 April 2013 (EST) Hey guys, I think we upload the links to the articles and the summary in our section of the page, ie intracellular, etc. I've only been doing reading as my mid-session break was full of the bacteria and disease labs... I'm hoping to get mine done on Wednesday, sorry for being a bit last minute but yeah. From what I've been reading we have a good topic with lots of information to draw on. Cheers, MB

--Z3465159 (talk) 15:56, 7 April 2013 (EST) Hopefully I will start tonight, cause I just recovered from a surgical tooth extraction :( anyway we have to upload the descriptions on discussion page as well as on your own page.

--Z3451879 (talk) 12:52, 25 March 2013 (EST) Sounds good! If we all agree, maybe we should all start looking into the topic/ reading up so we can have some sub-topics in mind when we see each other at lab?

--Z3240911 (talk) 20:16, 22 March 2013 (EST) Hey everyone, I've been looking at a few topics and though maybe centrosomes maybe an option to discuss. With centrosomes we could look at the cancer aspect in the current research section, ie, centrosomes as a cancer therapy target. Just a thought. Cheers.

Z3331321 (talk) 13:28, 5 April 2013 (EST) Hey guys. Hope you all had a good easter break. has anyone started looking for articles yet? and where do we upload them when we do find them? SF--

Lab 4 Submission

--Z3240911 (talk) 10:44, 8 May 2013 (EST)

Just wanted to move this submission off the wiki page itself.

4 articles relating to Extracellular regulation of cell division:

[6] <pubmed>2259205</pubmed> This article puts forward a model that hypothesizes that extracellular regulation of cell division and differentiation acts through only two communication channels. They consist of a “series of redundant components: extracellular messenger hormones; these hormones' receptors; cytoplasmic proteins activated by the hormone-receptor complex; and trans-activating nuclear regulatory proteins.” The channels in this model are labeled as such: "D" ("differentiate"), includes transforming growth factor-beta as one of its hormones; the other, labeled "G'" ("growth") includes epidermal growth factor. The article uses a cell type in an adult mammal capable of either division or differentiation, which in this case is a stem cell from an epithelium. The principal prediction of this hypothesis is that when appropriate experimental conditions are implemented the addition of various ratios of D- and G-class growth factors will lead to different consequences.


[7] <pubmed>11134534</pubmed> Protein phosphorylation/dephosphorylation reaction is an important factor in the regulation of cell division. Entry into mitosis in dividing eukaryotic cells is controlled by the M phase-promoting factor. Cdc2 protein kinase and cyclin B are the main constituents of this factor and acts by phosphorylating substrates that are essential for the completion of mitotic processes. This article explores the effects of PKN in the control of mitotic timing by inhibition of Cdc25C on Xenopus egg extracts. The results of this experiment suggest that PKN does in fact efficiently phosphorylate Cdc25C in vitro, demonstrating that PKN directly inhibits Cdc25C activity by phosphorylation. The results also showed that microinjections of the active form of PKN inhibit cell division of the Xenopus Embryo, therefore having an effect on the regulation of cell division.


[8] <pubmed>3598205</pubmed> An important factor that is necessary for an animal cell to proliferate is nutrients. However nutrients on its own is not enough, therefore cells receive stimulatory extracellular signals via mitogens from other cells. Mitogens act in a way to overcome intracellular braking mechanisms that block progression through the cell cycle. One of the first mitogens to be identified was platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF). The main relevance of this article to our project is their examination of the effect of PDGF on cell division in human skin and scar tissue fibroblasts. The results of this experiment showed that PDGF stimulated cell division more efficiently in normal human skin fibroblasts than in scar tissue fibroblasts.


[9] <pubmed>22586473</pubmed> EGF is a mitogen that can activate any type of cell to divide, including epithelial and non-epithelial cells. This article focuses on the effect of Epithelial Growth Factor (EGF) on the division frequency of Germline Stem Cells (GSCs) in testes of Drosophila melanogaster. The results showed that EGF does in fact regulate the division frequency of GSCs and that regulation of division frequency is a specific role for EGF signaling. The results also portray that GSC division frequency is under genetic control of the highly conserved EGF signaling pathway

Microinjection of active PKN.jpg

Microinjection of the active form of PKN inhibits cell division of the Xenopus embryo. (A) Effects of microinjection of the active form of PKN on cell division of Xenopus embryos. Control buffer, 0.75 ng per embryo of GST/PKN () or 4 ng per embryo of GST/PKN ()-K644E, was injected into one blastomere at the two-cell stage. Embryos were photographed 5 h after fertilization. Arrows indicate the position of injection. GST/PKN () and GST/PKN ()-K644E are indicated as PKN and PKN(KN), respectively. (B) Dose dependency of the active form of PKN for cleavage arrest of Xenopus embryos. The indicated amounts of GST/PKN () were microinjected as in A. A typical result of three independent experiments is shown.

Reference

[10] <pubmed>11134534</pubmed>

Copyright

Copyright © 2001, The National Academy of Sciences


4 Articles relating to current and future research

[11] <pubmed>21439394</pubmed> The article gives an in depth summary of the different mechanisms of inhibition and activation of the spindle-checkpoint and the Anaphase Promoting Complex (APC) and how the two regulatory components of cell division impact on one another. When the spindle-checkpoint is activated, it inhibits the activation of APC, thus keeping the cell from transitioning between metaphase and anaphase. The spindle-checkpoint is only inactivated when all kinetochores of sister chromatids are attached to microtubules stemming from opposite chromatids. The mechanism of the activation and inactivation of the spindle checkpoint is addressed with discussion of how a single unconnected kinetochore can activate the spindle checkpoint as well as how the spindle-checkpoint is silenced. Lastly, the authors address where research can go in future studies and outline questions that remain unanswered with respect to the mechanisms of the spindle-checkpoint and APC.


[12] <pubmed>11389834</pubmed> The article presents the discovery of a new early mitotic inhibitor, Emi1. Emi1 inhibits the Anaphase Promoting Complex (APC) by binding to Cdc20, a component which is essential for the activation of APC [13]. APC is an important regulatory complex in cell division as it triggers the transition between metaphase and anaphase, but there has been some unknown components surrounding the mechanism of its activation. The discovery of this inhibitor answers some of the questions about how APC is regulated and activated but there are questions left unanswered. Firstly, a question that may be asked with regards to destruction of the protein is what happens if the protein isn't destroyed after its interaction with Cdc20? The presence of nondestructable isoforms of the protein results in somatic cells not being able to commence through mitosis. The protein, after removal, is destroyed by proteolysis, mediated by the attachment of ubiquitin. Further mechanisms surrounding Emi1's destruction are being pursued by the authors. Another question that presents itself is are there any other inhibitory mechanisms or proteins interacting with Emi1?

[14] <pubmed>22357967</pubmed> The article looks at particular mechanisms of regulation of the two E3 enzymes Skp1–cullin1–F-box complex (SCF) and the anaphase promoting complex (APC) with regards to ubiquitylation. As discussed in the summary of the above article [15],if certain components such as Emi1 are not destroyed by ubiquitin-dependent mechanisms, then the cell cannot progress through cell division. This reinforces the importance of ubiquitin-dependant destruction of inhibitory proteins and hence the importance of the enzyme cascade leading to ubiquitylation. The article discusses new signals and specific targeting of cell division regulators and groups together ubiquitylation enzymes that work in collaboration. Despite giving an overview of the current understanding of the regulation of SCF and APC, it was made clear that there is still a plethora of information to be uncovered in the topic in terms of cross-talk and mechanisms.


[16] <pubmed>17443180</pubmed>

The article addresses the interaction between the spindle-checkpoint and the progression of the cell cycle from metaphase to anaphase via the activation of the anaphase promoting complex. In particular the impact of a particular inhibitor, USP44, and its mechanism of inhibition is discussed

File:USP44 activity is cell-cycle regulated and is required for proper spindle checkpoint function and anaphase timing..jpg

Title: Anaphase initiation is regulated by antagonistic ubiquitination and deubiquitination activities Author: Frank Stegmeier, Michael Rape, Viji M. Draviam, Grzegorz Nalepa, Mathew E. Sowa et al. Publication: Nature Publisher: Nature Publishing Group Date: Apr 19, 2007 Copyright © 2007, Rights Managed by Nature Publishing Group

[17] <pubmed>4358429</pubmed> This article addresses the role of adenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (cAMP) in the regulation of cell division. It had been previously found that the stimulation of cell division required the decrease in intracellular levels of cAMP and the experiments also showed that the addition of proteolytic enzymes stimulated cell growth and division. cAMP, derived from ATP is an important in many processes through signal transduction.


[18] <pubmed>23565292</pubmed> The article covers the development of a screening method for the identification of bacterial cell division genes and regulators using E. coli clones, specifically in the regulation of the polymerization of FtsZ, which acts to split the cell wall and separate the DNA into daughter cells. The screening revealed known and previously unknown gene regulators in the bacerium and the authors intend the research to be applied to antibiotic development.


[19] <pubmed>22532834</pubmed> This article outline the use of computational modeling to visualise spacial regulation through the microtubial network. The experiment shows that the mitotic spindle can cause strong separation effects in the germ plasm in the embryo, asymmetric division in the neuroblast, among other findings. The computational model suggests that changes in the microtubule network are critical to spacial regulation in cell division, creating a "docking platform" for molecules to create a structured cytoplasm.


[20] <pubmed>22912800</pubmed> This article researches the less understood topic of the topological distributions in proliferating and quiescent cells. The quiescent cells have fewer sides than their proliferating neighbors. Through computational models, the experiment shows that cell topology and boundary tension between the sides of proliferating and quiescent cells play important roles in the regulation of cell division.

SpatialLocalizationMicrotubuleNetwork.png

A computer-simulated model of intracellular spacial localization by the microtubule network. Reference: [21] <pubmed>22532834</pubmed>

z3465159:

[22] <pubmed>22046431</pubmed> Some of the regulators in cell division are mitogen, growth factors, cyclins and cyclins dependent kinases. Mitogen is a substance that stimulates cell division. The first mitogen-activated protein kinase to be discovered was ERK1 (MAPK3) in mammals in 1980s. After identification of the first member of MAPK family, six different MAPK cascades were then categorised in mammals such as ERK1/2, ERK3/ERK4, ERK5, ERK7/8, JNK and P38. A further study was carried by Meng Li, Jun Liu and Chiyu Zhang at Jiangsu University in China to investigate the evolutionary History of the vertebrate mitogen activated protein kinases’ family. Their experiment explains MAPK role in eukaryotic cellular regulation and shows a comparison between vertebrate MAPK family members and invertebrate MAPK family members. Interestingly according to their study the vertebrates had substantially more MAPK family members than invertebrates. This study is relevant to the history of regulation of cell division because it illustrates where the MAPK families were originated from particularly in vertebrates and how well they are conserved.

Phylogenetic tree of Vertebrate MAPK family .jpg

Maximum likelihood (ML) phylogenetic tree of the vertebrate MAPK family. The ML tree was constructed based on the protein sequences of the MAPK family using PHYML v2.4 with 100 bootstrap replications. The tree is unrooted and only the bootstrap values >70% are shown at interior nodes. The MAPK protein sequences from mammals, amphibians/reptiles and teleosts are marked in blue, green and red, respectively. The scale bar indicates the branch length that corresponds to 0.2 substitutions per site. The species and accession numbers are listed in Table S1. The corresponding amino acid sequence alignment is provided in Figure S2. The abbreviations used are as follows: Hsa, Homo sapiens; Mamu, Macaca mulatta; Ptr, Pan troglodytes; Mumu, Mus musculus; Rno, Rattus norvegicus; Oan, Ornithorhynchus anatinus; Mdo, Monodelphis domestica; Bta, Bos taurus; Clu, Canis lupus familiaris; Eca, Equus caballus; Oar, Ovis aries; Ssc, Sus scrofa; Dre, Danio rerio; Gga, Gallus gallus; Tgu, Taeniopygia guttata; Gac, Gasterosteus aculeatus; Orl, Oryzias latipes; Tru, Takifugu rubripes; Tni, Tetraodon nigroviridis; Aca, Anolis carolinensis; Xtr, Xenopus tropicalis; Ttr, Tursiops truncatus; Cin, Ciona intestinalis; Csa, Ciona savignyi; Spu, Strongylocentrotus purpuratus.

Reference

[23] <pubmed>22046431</pubmed>

Copyright

Copyright Li et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

Note - This image was originally uploaded as part of a student project and may contain inaccuracies in either description or acknowledgements. Please contact the site coordinator if the uploaded content does not meet the original copyright permission or requirements, for immediate removal.

[24] <pubmed>11734586</pubmed> Cyclins are from the family of proteins that are involved in regulation of cell division. They control the progression of cells through the cell cycle by activating cyclin dependent kinases enzymes. It is evident in one of the articles written by Ken Garber that cyclins were discovered by Timothy Hunt in 1983. Timothy Hunt was studying the fertilization of sea urchin eggs and while he was measuring the level of proteins in newly fertilized eggs, he found one protein that shortly disappeared at the end of cell division and then gradually appeared again as eggs began the next round of division. He named this protein as “cyclin” and concluded that this protein was driving the cell cycle. Also it was proven further by Hunt and other scientists that making and destroying cyclin were essential for cell division. Thus, this article outlines the historical research of the cell cycle and its regulators such as cyclin, therefore it is relevant to the topic “regulation of cell division” because it explains how they were discovered and why they are still an important factor in the subject of cell cycle.

[25] <pubmed>3306916</pubmed> At the beginning of 1950s, the discovery of growth factors were established. Nerve growth factors were one of the first growth-regulating signal substances that was discovered by Rita Levi-Montalcini. The article named “The Nerve Growth Factor 35 Years Later” shows evidence about the work of Rita Levi-Montalcini. In 1952 Rita showed when tumors from mice were transplanted into chick embryos, they induced strong growth of the chick embryo nervous system. This outgrowth did not require direct contact between the tumor and the chick embryo. Therefore she concluded that the tumor released a nerve growth- promoting factor which had a specific action on certain types of nerves. This article supports and proves that growth factors are naturally occurring substances that can effect cell division by binding to the receptors of the target cell. It also give information about the first founder of growth factors and the time of the discovery.

[26] <pubmed>16551699</pubmed>

In 2001 Leland Hartwell, Timothy Hunt and Paul Nurse won the Nobel Prize in Physiology and medicine for their discovery of 2 classes of regulatory molecules cyclins and cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs). CDKs are constitutively expressed in cells, whereas cyclins are synthesized at specific stages of cell cycle. CDK inhibitory proteins prevent the development of cell cycle because they include genes such as P21 that stops cell cycle. One of the studies that has been carried in this field is the research on “Spatiotemporal dynamics of p21CDKN1A protein recruitment to DNA-damage sites and interaction with proliferating cell nuclear antigen”. This article explains specifically the role of P21 protein inhibitor as well as the other historical aspects of the protein inhibitor P21 with other scientists and how they performed experiments to investigate its role in cellular pathways.

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