Talk:2012 Group 7 Project

From CellBiology

Project Discussion Page

I will be adding information at the top of this discussion page that I want all groups to read. When adding your comments please also add your signature.

This page should be used by members of your group to:

  1. Talk to each other.
  2. Distribute/Allocate research areas.
  3. Add links to reviews, articles and websites (in draft form).
  4. Add images that may be useful for your project for there to see.

--Mark Hill 02:56, 1 April 2012 (EST) There should be more than just the sub-headings on your project page by the next Lab.

Peer review

Please paste your peer review of our page below this section only. Thanks, Group 7

The content in this page is well researched and demonstrates a lot of initiative with the hand-drawn images. The tables are bright and easy to read, and the images are well selected and are strongly linked to the written content. The amount of content shows the extend of research and it is clear that a lot of effort has been put into it.

Area of improvement: the structure and organisation of content makes the information overwhelming and exhausting to read. The long paragraphs could be summarized by the use of tables, diagrams (a picture says a thousand words!), bolded text to highlight key points and more subheadings to break up the paragraphs.


  • Introduction: Needs a sentence at the beginning to explain how the 3 receptors are related to each other.
  • History: Well researched and I like how you have included links to the research articles.
  • The Gene Description and Receptor Agonist sections could be merged into one table.

I'm impressed at the number of student drawn images. They are very helpful in helping me to visually picture the explanations given. However, you still need to remove at least one wikipedia image. We are only allowed one on the page before being marked down. Also, the non-student drawn images still need proper captioning and citation.

The "receptor structure" section was very informative, and I'm looking forward to when the beta-1-adrenoceptor structure section is complete. As for the "pathway" and "normal function", I think they should be divided up into separate sections for clarity. It would also be nice to add a section at the bottom outlining the research being conducted in this field nowadays. But overall, good effort.

  • Pros
    • Clear and simple student-drawn images
    • Lots of information included, reflects amount of research done
    • Content correctly cited and referenced
    • Found the “Abnormal Function, Diseases and Treatments” sections very interesting and well-written
  • Cons
    • Maybe consider using more tables/dot points or summarising information a bit more; some of the sections are very dense

Our thoughts


With regards to the picture - you can change the name by clicking on the picture and then click on edit (top right). Once we get our feedback we'll have a look at all the minor details :) When it comes to the table - maybe use the same in-text citations as those used in the text. Can't go wrong with that! It's better to provide too many references than not covering ourselves and being accused of plagiarism...

--Z3333865 20:39, 12 May 2012 (EST)

I just copied this away from our site, so that it looks nicer: … working more on table V. --Z3411306 14:18, 10 May 2012 (EST)


I love the picture too. I'm sorry I haven't been around - I had 4 tests this week!about the tables - do we need in text citations for the tables? Since we have that for the text below, can we skip that? I asked mark last time and he said we should reference the the table contents so I'm a bit confused.

J --Z3332863 10:46, 10 May 2012 (EST)

Hey, I realized too late to add "self produced" so it got the other name now. The only way to change that would be, delete it completely and add it new. Shall I do that? And for the link: I was wondering if it is possible to click on "picture" and then the picture I drew would maximize itself. Don't know, if thats possible at all. And M., sure I can draw another picture :) Just let me know, what you want! See you tomorrow, V.--Z3411306 17:19, 9 May 2012 (EST)

Hi Guys,

Im sorry i haven't done much last few days, I'm quite sick! i love the picture, just maybe add to the image page that it is self produced so mark knows. And references your right V, we need to fix them. As for the internal link, I'm not sure i understand what you mean, do u mean a link to a picture on another wiki page? Goodwork everyone,

C --Z3333208 13:19, 7 May 2012 (EST)

Hey V,

Nice picture! It looks amazing :). I might need you to draw a simplified picture for the role of Beta-arresting in 'normal pathway'. Will let you know once I finish editing it. Also, yes we have to change the references.. Probably finish all the info and pictures first though and then focus on the little things to improve our page:)

M. --Z3333865 17:08, 5 May 2012 (EST)

I tried to make an internal link to the picture- Does one of you know how that would work? I tried it with pasting the link and with the usual "page-link". Both did not work, I think it is different for pictures. I thought it would be nice, if you could click on "picture" and then it maximise in size. V --Z3411306 11:49, 5 May 2012 (EST)

Me again, I saw that some of the references are mentioned several times. I think we should upgrade that. V. --Z3411306 23:32, 4 May 2012 (EST)

Hey, I worked all day on a self-made picture and I hope you all like it. It felt like it took me years :D I will work on some inscription and last editings and upload it then. Also I read one of the more general articles you posted in here and I will change the introduction slightly. Also I thought, that I might write in the introduction, why we are doing this and give a forcast about what you all worked on. Or do you think that would not be necessary since we hace an abstract? Let me know what you are thinking. Enjoy your weekends :) V- --Z3411306 20:57, 4 May 2012 (EST)

Hey all, i think we should remove Adrenergic receptors within the human body" picture that i put in intro, it says pretty much what the table does and mark said he doesn't want pic of the same thing.. let me know..

Im also thinking maybe ill add receptor agonist and beta blocker as one table! i can take care of that!

M this is an article i found a while back


-article for signalling, receptor silencing (via arrestin) generalised article. --Z3333208 20:59, 2 May 2012 (EST)

Hi M,

no worries! you can put it under normal pathway thats fine, if you need any help i could help you.. as for the agonist section i think we should keep it as i don't think it links well with gene.. ill be doing that section this weekend hopefully.. as for b2 because its in arterioles it really affects cv system, i don't think u need to mention it, i think its pretty much same pathway- n plus its in the table i uploaded! Let me kno how you go..i think tomorrow during lab we should spend ten mins afterward really working out if anyone is having trouble and anything else each person can work on.. did you have the notes on GPCR from phar last sem? i think they will help V... ok see u tomoro.. keep up the good work!

Cya C--Z3333208 20:14, 2 May 2012 (EST)

Hey C,

Thanks for the external link, thats heaps good:) Also, in addition to my text I will put the steps in dotpoint formation to make it easier. Could we have regulation as a subheading in normal pathway? Cause I'm going to expand upon the inhibitory pathway as well.. might be good to then discuss the regulation of the normal pathway (both when stimulated and inhibited).

I saw you mention B2 to J in regards to the heart and heart failure. In normal function I mention Beta-adrenergic receptors in general and B1 in more detail. Should I also put more detail down on B2? Or do we keep it simply as an interesting fact which we quickly mention in abnormal function as it is linked to disease and B1?

Thanks, M --Z3333865 20:55, 1 May 2012 (EST)

Hey all, i was wondering if anyone knows how to make a table on wikipedia.. i made a table in word and wanted to put it under the sub heading adrenoceptors, but i didn't know how. :( --Z3333208 20:24, 1 May 2012 (EST)

Hi J, i just read an article about how AR in the heart are both B1 and B2, <pubmed>14985822</pubmed>.

It shows how both pathways are different (GS v Gi) and how when both pathways are damaged it leads to chronic heart failure. It also goes on to say that medication should consist of beta blockers targeting both receptor subtypes.. I think J, you may be able to use it in abnormal function/pharmacological relevance.

Ta, Cya C --Z3333208 09:13, 1 May 2012 (EST)

To M, i hope you don't mind i added a external link to a picture from the online version of MCB, under your section..MCB - Figure 20-16- Activation of adenylyl cyclase following binding of an appropriate hormone (e.g., epinephrine, glucagon) to a Gs protein – coupled receptor a link to an illustration of the activation of adenylate cyclase. A MOVIE OF EXTRACELLULAR SIGNALLING IS ALSO PRESENT WITHIN THIS LINK

Also i was wondering when you get a chance may you could change the word passage of you text, what i mean is maybe you could add steps for the actual pathway so its easier to read as an e.g. (step 1;agonist bind.. step 2:,,,,)

And if you could add a couple subheading in your section. Mark said he did want to see sub-headings.. lastly with your file u uploaded, can you just add to file description that it is student drawn so he knows.

To V,

As we discussed today, and i gave you some basic information to add to intro. I found in one of the online book a link to the info, which you could use as a reference, but we can't use any of the images in the books... MBoC - Some G Proteins Signal By Regulating the Production of Cyclic AMP

And too all, i was just uploading some images and playing around with the sizing.. Keep up the good work ! Sorry if i seem like I'm nagging

Thanks, C. --Z3333208 18:14, 30 April 2012 (EST) --Z3333208 19:14, 30 April 2012 (EST)

To J,

As we discussed in the lab, I was going to mention not only activation of normal pathway but also inhibition. But when I look at your part on abnormal function it mentions reduced excitability, not inhibition.. so how am I linking this to yours? Inhibition is simply Gi protein which inhibits adenylate cyclase, therefore no cAMP is produced and no signalling occurs. Please let me know your thoughts on additional things to write about that are significant when comparing normal and abnormal function :)

Thanks, M --Z3333865 11:42, 30 April 2012 (EST)


so i was just thinking mentioning something about other beta receptors so we have some more topics to actually talk about, was looking at the length of last years projects,, so long!! but i know its not quantity but quality too...

With references wen you add them they automatically readjust the numbering and every things its so simple its great!! best part of the assignment. But i don't really get wat ur saying J.

Great pic M, very nice work..

Glossary is easy i don't mind if its long or short, i don't think its worth as much though so i don't think were expected to define each scientific term..

If V you are reading, hope you are well, and if your having any issues or finding anything hard let us know I'm sure were all willing to help anyway we can..

Ta, C --Z3333208 21:48, 25 April 2012 (EST)


Can we put references in our text which link to the same reference in our list? (as in: can we get the same number in our text instead of continued numbering of the same reference?) - please look at history section.

Thanks :) M

Hey all,

Yes, I'm working on a student drawn image of the normal pathway. It takes some time though cause I want it to be understandable with different colours etc and not too simplistic. Also, I will change my reference now.. I only used 1 so far though (for normal function). Once I add more info to it I will add in more references :). And with the glossary of we need to assume that our audience has no prior knowledge of biology or do they have the same levels of understanding as us students? Cause that makes a big difference...

Thanks, M. --Z3333865 18:22, 24 April 2012 (EST)

Hi C,

I just talked to Mark about focusing on B1 and changing our title slightly to say 'with a B1 focus'. It's hard to talk about other B receptors normal pathway and structure and abnormal function in a 'brief' way. You can't talk about half a pathway nor can you talk about a disease without mentioning epidemiology, pathogenesis, etc. We'll see. if we have time maybe we can add some other things about other Bs - the more info the better.

with references, will it change the numbers we inserted into our text if we all put the references together?

cheers, J

--Z3332863 14:49, 24 April 2012 (EST)

Everyone, was just wondering if you could reference into the references section, not each section with their own, just type [1]

This will automatically make the reference appear in reference section. Thanks C --Z3333208 18:59, 23 April 2012 (EST)

Hi again, i want to upload a picture of structure but i don't want to upload one I'm not allowed. So can anyone just clarify for me, I can only use images from the 4 journals that allow reuse of the info? the ones we looked at in first lab?

hi i didn't do normal pathway. but i suggested we talk about other receptors (b2) coz we don't need to be so specific to b1 all the time just with specific signalling. I think it'll be good to cover the range of beta in general after all thats the title of our receptor group.. just briefly... C--Z3333208 17:38, 23 April 2012 (EST)


whoever wrote Normal Pathway - do you think you can draw or write a flow chart showing the pathway? Like 'the agonist binds the receptor --> g protein is activated --> Alpha subunit turns the next protein on'. I think it would be a good way to summarise what you've written. It can just be a flow chart drawn in paint or word.

Cheers, J. --Z3332863 14:15, 21 April 2012 (EST)


Are we planning to talk about the B2? I thought we were focusing on B1 receptor. If we're doing b1, any abnormalities should effect every organ except for heart and kidneys. Best place to start B2 is lungs and asthma. I will add a couple more abnormalities and diseases of B1 over this weekend. --Z3332863 10:19, 21 April 2012 (EST)

Hi just found three full access articles, seem easy to read, they follow the history of GPCR, which i think is all we really need for the history section. don't think we need to make it to specific.

Stefano Costanzi, Jeffrey Siegel, Irina G Tikhonova, Kenneth A Jacobson Rhodopsin and the others: a historical perspective on structural studies of G protein-coupled receptors. Curr. Pharm. Des.: 2009, 15(35);3994-4002 PMID:20028316

  • An article about history of GPCR generally

Edgar Jacoby, Rochdi Bouhelal, Marc Gerspacher, Klaus Seuwen The 7 TM G-protein-coupled receptor target family. ChemMedChem: 2006, 1(8);761-82 PMID:16902930

Graeme Milligan, Evi Kostenis Heterotrimeric G-proteins: a short history. Br. J. Pharmacol.: 2006, 147 Suppl 1();S46-55 PMID:16402120

  • Another 2 appear easier to read

cya monday C --Z3333208 21:10, 20 April 2012 (EST)

Hi guys, So i was talking to J in the lab, and we think that we might need some more information to actually mention, we have thought about receptor regulation (for example how to turn if off) , we already discuss receptor function/activation, so i think we can make a sub heading of receptor regulation, making mention of B arrestin. i want to have a look to see if there are any b2 not in the heart- and any abnormal function..

Anyways good luck all! C --Z3333208 18:47, 20 April 2012 (EST)

Hi guys I'm sorry I've been so slack with contacting I just completed two mid sem exams today!! Im still reading up on structure but will definitely have something compiled by tomoro. I don't have the old course notes... does anyone else?? It C.. maybe if this is not too late we can meet ten mins before lab tomorrow and really work on an outline of things that need to be done and what sections still need to be completed.. Cyas tomorrow.. C --Z3333208 21:41, 18 April 2012 (EST)

I am not sure anymore how to relate the source with the picture. I found this picture in for the introduction and it is allowed to use it when the source is mentioned. Can one of you explain me how that works?

--Z3411306 16:40, 15 April 2012 (EST)

Some of you said, that you would have some papers at home about earlier courses that thought you about GPCR and I wanted to ask if you can bring them to the Lab on Thursday, so that I can have a look.

Thank you for your feedback, I will take that into consideration and change it for the better.

--Z3411306 16:20, 15 April 2012 (EST)

what do you mean by 'in paper' - as in we print our sections out?

with the introduction, I think you should also mention the what are the subtypes of GPCR - like B and Alpha adrenergics, where they are. You should also include a picture of GPCR. There are also different types of G protein Alpha subunits like Alpha s, alpha i and alpha q. They all start different signalling pathways. I think B 1 is alpha q but I'm not sure. Can you please check up on that? I know what you write in intro will overlap with sopme of the other sections but it's like a very brief overview. May be suggest the aim of this page - what are we trying to explain about the GPCR? --Z3332863 12:07, 15 April 2012 (EST)

Hey, sorry for the late reply. As allready discussed in the lab I try to summarize the GPCR in the introduction. Is there anything else what u want me to look for? Also I wanted to ask if you can bring the material that you have about the G-protein in paper to the next lab, as we agreed in last lab? --Z3411306 21:43, 14 April 2012 (EST)


To upload a picture, you must save the picture onto desktop/documents,/etc. Go to 'Toolbox' on the left and click 'upload file' under that. Put the directory in using 'browse'so they know where the picture is saved. Click Upload. Copy the title 'File: ...' and past that into your page/grp page using File:... click save and it should be on your page. cheers, J. --Z3332863 14:51, 14 April 2012 (EST)


With clinical aspects I was thinking we could mention how to deal with the abnormal function - what drugs to use etc, but also epidemiology maybe? But if you want you can put it all together to have the two abnormalities with consequences etc mentioned separately..

ALSO! Could someone explain again how to upload a picture..?

Thanks :)

--Z3333865 17:42, 12 April 2012 (EST)


Can we merge abnormal function of the beta 1 with Clinical aspects? So if we have deficient Beta 1, we would get cardiac failure while over-reactive beta 1 gives hypertension. Can we put them under 1 heading? If not, what extra info should I be putting in Clinical aspects? maybe symptoms of cardiac failure? Let me know what you think. --Z3332863 14:19, 12 April 2012 (EST)

Hey! Firstly, no, we are not allowed to use nature articles.. Secondly, in regards to the table.. all of the Beta-adrenoceptors act via Gs and cAMP, not through phosphatidylinositol (think that is alpha-AR). I thought we were only discussing beta, and more specifically beta-1..? Please let me know what you think. If that pathway does occur within beta-AR can you please put up a link to that article? Thanks!

--Z3333865 10:42, 7 April 2012 (EST)

Me again, I know that last time we met up and discussed this project, we didn't know if we had enough sections. Im thinking maybe we can briefly in a table format describe the differences with the two transduction pathways that G proteins receptors are involved in; the cAMP signal pathway and the phosphatidylinositol signal pathway... I think that will be something basic and relevant to the whole concept behind the assignment, i.e. signalling pathways!

Anyways off now.. C --Z3333208 21:59, 6 April 2012 (EST)

Hi everyone. Hope start of the break has been good. I am currently looking into structure of the receptor, I found an article which conducted extensive studies of the turkey b1 receptor. I will have a read of the article you poster up as well. as for the genes, if you can find them easily i don't think it will hurt to post the information about it. Was wondering if someone can remind me, are we allowed to use nature articles for this project, i don't seem to remember.

Thanks, hope u have great break --Z3333208 20:35, 6 April 2012 (EST)

Hey all,

I was looking for articles on the function and found some info on the gene.

Should we mention genes of all of the different beta-adrenergic receptors (1, 2, 3)?

Otherwise it will only be a tiny part of our project..

Also, here is an amazing article on the structure and function: [ Structure and function of G protein-coupled receptors Strader, C D ; Fong, T M ; Tota, M R ; Underwood, D ; Dixon, R A Annual review of biochemistry, 1994, Vol.63, pp.101-32]

For full text please find access through the UNSW online library

--Z3333865 09:04, 6 April 2012 (EST)


So, because GPCR is such a large area we're all a bit unsure of what to write.. We'll discuss things with Mark during our lab - to see what the best approach would be. I was just thinking that we can't talk about every single receptor individually.. it may be better if we give a general overview and then talk about one in more detail. At least we will know what to focus on when looking for articles etc.

Also, I'm trying to find info regarding history but it's quite hard.. so please add info there if you find something :)

See you all 10 minutes before the lab!

--Z3333865 09:31, 4 April 2012 (EST)


I found some papers for heart failures associated with beta 1:


This paper talks about how people with cardiac failures have a lower density in Beta 1 receptors and activated adenylate cyclase. also how pressure-overloaded right ventricles (those that have primary pulmonary hypertension) cause decrase in adenylate cyclase activity, leading to failing right ventricles.


This article found that it is the combined effects of increased Beta ARK (B adrenergic receptor kinase - inactivated the B receptor) expression and reduced Beta 1 receptor expression causing Heart failure.


This paper talks about how Anti- B1 receptor antibodies cause haert failure.

Hey all!

because there are so many different Beta-adrenergic receptors in all different tissues, we should focus on one specifically. There are lots of articles on Beta(1)-adrenergic receptors in the heart and its connection to cardiac failure. Beta-1 Adrenoceptor. We should divide the tasks between us all. Please write down the part you will do behind your initial. Write down your information under the subheading of this page, but please also have copy of it on your student page as a backup. If you find a reference which is relevant to another part, please let the other team member know :)

M - Pathway and normal function of Beta(1)-adrenergic receptors in the heart

J - I'm happy to do the Abnormal function of Beta 1 in the heart and Introduction . Are we purely focusing on beta 1 of the heart? I'm thinking of mentioning other Beta receptors in my intro. --Z3332863 15:09, 31 March 2012 (EST)

C - I think i might look at abnormal functioning of beta 1 in other tissues other than cardiac. Can i suggest that J you look at beta 1 in the whole cardiovascular system, so blood vessels... thanks cya u guys on thursday . are we still meeting ten mins before lab on thursday? --Z3333208 20:17, 3 April 2012 (EST)

V - I will write the introduction and I will draw the picture. If there is anything left, just let me know!--Z3411306 21:43, 14 April 2012 (EST)

Thank you!!

--Z3333865 12:46, 31 March 2012 (EST)

Hi all, I am finding papers on receptor structure of GPCRs/adrenergics and normal function of GPCR. Can we look for papers to cover all those areas listed so we don't miss out anything? If any of you have started your research, can you let everyone know so we don't research the same thing? Thanks. J

Hey all,

In the lab we mentioned chemotaxis as one of the possible topics for our group project. Now, I was just thinking.. chemotaxis were discussed in microbiology and are related to bacteria. So we would probably be better of looking at signalling within/between eukaryotic cells.

Something that might be good to research: the internal and external signalling pathways leading to apoptosis.

See you all on Monday :)

--Z3333865 13:34, 17 March 2012 (EST)

We have decided on GPCR :) What about Beta-adrenergic signaling and its regulation?!

--Z3333865 15:19, 22 March 2012 (EST)

Papers for group assignment: GROUP 7


This primary article investigates G-protein coupled receptors and the mechanism of binding of drugs to these receptors at an atomic level. One of the pathways for travel includes association with a vestibule on the extracellular surface of the receptors; a method used by several different drugs, including beta-blockers binding to beta-adrenergic receptors.


This primary article investigates an activation mechanism for the β(2)-adrenergic receptor. It is known that G-protein coupled receptors change from active to inactive states and vice versa due to drug actions, though recent crystalline structures do not reveal the mechanism of transition. Atomic simulations in this paper that the first structural changes during receptor activation often take place on the intracellular side of the receptor, far from the drug-binding site.


This review article addresses the development of Beta-blockers, the way in which they have evolved up until now and the direction in which we are headed regarding their future uses. Some concepts include receptor selectivity, agonistic and antagonistic actions, ligand-directed signalling, and how these characteristics could be useful in fighting diseases related to beta-adrenergic receptors, such as cardiac failure and osteoporosis.


This review article addresses the possible relationship between polymorphisms in the β2 adrenoceptor gene and various individual responses to short-acting and long-acting Beta2-agonists. These drugs are used in the treatment of asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease to dilate the airways and protect them, despite their associated side-effects, such as increased mortality. Although currently genetic testing is very limited, it is hoped that in the future we can predict the individual responses to these drugs based on the genotype of the β2 adrenoceptor gene.

--Z3333865 10:31, 28 March 2012 (EST)

'Papers for group 7 assignment': <pubmed>21857662</pubmed> This paper talks about how the different conformations of the B adrenergic receptor can be induced by different ligands. This is important for our project because it explains the mechanisms underlying the activation and function of tis GPCR

<pubmed>1974837</pubmed> This paper gives a great overview of the structure and function of the B Adrenergic receptor. It talks about how cAMP acts as a secondary messenger and desensitisation of the receptor.

<pubmed>20975248</pubmed> This paper talks about the B3 adrenergic receptor and its role in controlling Ca ion concentrations in cardiomyocytes. This is immportant as improper regulation of Ca ions can lead to chronic heart failure. This is useful for our section on abnormalities and disease associated with our receptor.

<pubmed>2551839</pubmed> This article explains the inositol 1,4,5 triphosphate system of B adrenergic signalling and its role in muscle contraction. This gives more information about the downstream effects of the B adrenergic receptor.

--Z3332863 13:42, 27 March 2012 (EST)

[1] <pubmed>22242170</pubmed> This paper provides a good overview about G protein-coupled receptors.

[2] <pubmed>16183910</pubmed> This paper shows an overview about the functions that G protein-coupled receptors fulfill, for example modulation of synaptic transmission, hormone release and actions, regulation of cell contraction and migration,cell growth and differentiation.

[3] <pubmed>15914470</pubmed> This paper gives information about diseases in relation with GCPb receptors.

[4] <pubmed>12177051</pubmed> This paper provides information about interactions between G protein-coupled receptors and other enzymes. It is important to get an overview about the different influences and interactions between GPCR and other factors.

z3411306 --Z3411306 20:45, 24 March 2012 (EST)

Hi guys these are the articles that i found. I noticed you guys have found a lot on structure, how the receptor actually works (conformational changes etc), and drug interactions. I found two articles linking two very common diseases to B GPCR abnormalities, i also looked at beta arrestins and in general the location of GPCR in the cell.

1. <pubmed>20351116</pubmed>

A primary article linking defective GPCR to heart failure. This can be used for abnormal receptor function section

2. <pubmed>12648290</pubmed>

A review article about how Beta Gpcr linked to asthma, can also be used for the abnormal receptor functioning section.

3. <pubmed>16460808</pubmed>

This is also a review. It initially gives a brief and then detailed information on arrestins which are proteins which bind to GPCR and inhibit their action. They are vital in signal transduction pathways, and I think that it will be necessary for us to discuss their role.

4. <pubmed>9398661</pubmed>

The article above is a primary article which investigated the location of GPCR in the plasma membrane. I think it will be good to add in the intro sections, that overall there was no specific location for the receptors morphologically.

Also found a article with few good images about the actual configuration of the receptor in different states. We can use such images along side the section for structure. <pubmed>22031696</pubmed>

And the following articles i think may be useful, but are more complicated i thought id post them up maybe a few of us can have a go at understanding them better. They are generally concerned with beta arrestins, internalisation, regulation of the signal transduction pathway. <pubmed>15634674</pubmed> <pubmed>9145918</pubmed>

--Z3333208 22:16, 28 March 2012 (EST)


(identify which specific aspect of the pathway)

History of pathway


Time-line of discoveries

Gene description



Receptors etc

Molecules and proteins involved - interactions, etc

Normal function

Abnormal function

Clinical aspects

Glossary of terms

(dot points with small description)


as an example when you add a reference - see discussion edit mode


  1. <pubmed>12324352(as example)</pubmed>
  2. <actual reference>

Somewhere in project has to be at least one student drawn image!

With the pictures: add category