Talk:2012 Group 3 Project

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Revision as of 09:28, 13 May 2012 by Z3289738 (talk | contribs)

Peer Review

  • Introduction: The introduction is well written and easy to understand. Points to improve on: The details on which pathways will be focused on could be better presented in bullet points; I think that the second paragraph should be put into a 'compare/contrast' table in a separate section; the third paragraph very nicely outlines the main focus of your page "Signalling molecules, receptors, enzymes, inhibitors, genes and pathway", however where are these headings in the text??
  • History: This section highlights the importance of each discovery and attributes the discoveries to the researchers. Links to the research papers would be good for further reading.
  • Signalling Pathway: This section needs a diagram! The 'Fas-Mediated Apoptosis' would be much clearer with a flowchart to refer to. More details should be put into the proteins involved, such as their functions and relations to the pathway.
  • Function: This section is well researched, however lacks any structure. Headings, proper bullet points and pictures/diagrams/tables would draw the readers attention and highlight the key points in the text.
  • Abnormal Function? This section is very important as it highlights the importance of the pathway!
  • Current Research: You provided links to the journals and described the first and last paper very well. The importance of the research is clearly described. More detail is needed for the second research area.
  • Overall Impression: The current content is fairly well written however it lacks a depth of research and there are many sections that need to be expanded on. Pictures are essential to illustrate points, and long paragraphs could be better structured with the use of tables and bullet point. References are essential!

What was done well:

  • enjoyed your Introduction becasue it gave a great definition for apoptosis and extrisnsic apoptosis. It provided a great scope of the key ideas you are going to be reporting in the rest of your project

what needs Improvement:

  • You cannot leave no references. Even with technical difficulties you should still write the PMID and author at the end of each paragraph or section (at the very least)
  • Signalling pathway section was confusing. How do all these extrinsic apoptotic proteins interact with one another to give apoptosis? what is the actual pathway? I thought a pathway would be 'DISC activates caspase 8 which activates Caspase 3, etc' and not just a series of proteins given in no particular order.
  • There was a section under function where it was just dot points. I found this hard to understand. What does 'inactivate proteins involved in mRNA splicing' actually have anything to do with extrinsic apoptosis?
  • Only one image. need to add more
  • You need a section on Abnormal function and receptor structure


It is understandable if one member of the group has technical difficulties in inserting citations, but for there to be no coding for any references to appear at the end of the wiki by any member of the group? It's a bit hard to accept. Typing up content without referencing is like borrowing a stranger's car without asking and without expressing thanks. You could wait till you return the car to say thanks, but it's just not the same.

I do, however, like the simplified concise explanation of the concept of apoptosis in the intro. For a reader new to the concept it is helpful to express it in layman's terms. But due to the lack of referencing I don’t know if that was an original concept, or one taken from another source.

Another thing I liked was the good depth of research conducted on the current research on apoptosis. A suggestion could be looking for research that people look to do in the future.

Something not so praiseworthy is the last entry under history, which is unbelievably condensed…….. you might want to expand a bit on that. And then find the individual references for each paper that demonstrated the landmarks in apoptosis history.

Furthermore, half the content under "function" wasn't about function, and the half that was was all about caspases……. I was a bit lost as to why only caspases were mentioned. Reading it made me feel like I was reading a wiki page solely focusing on capase signalling.

As for "signalling pathway", an image would've been nice. Besides the fact that this wiki page has a blatant absence of images, even one image depicting a section of the signalling pathway would have been helpful. At the moment I am clueless as to how they relate nor what they do. And also, you have 1 week to (theoretically) write about the other 15 proteins that supposedly only comprise "some of the proteins involved". Regarding that point, you will need to come up with a qualification for why you decided to showcase these 15 and not the rest.

  • Pros
    • Large amount of information included but hard to ascertain whether it is a result of extensive research or plagiarism due to lack of citations and referencing
  • Cons
    • No references for “Introduction”, “History” or “Function” sections (aware this was due to technical difficulties)
    • References for “Signalling Pathway” and “Current Research” sections incorrectly formatted
    • No reference list or glossary
    • Page needs more images/diagrams and reorganisation of text into a more readable format (Tables?)(Dot Points?)
    • Flow charts (possibly student drawn) would aid in understanding the pathways described in the text
    • “Signalling Pathway” section lists proteins involved in extrinsic apoptosis pathway but there is no description of their specific roles
    • No student-drawn image
    • No abnormal function/implications in disease section

  • A really great introduction. it is clear and well said, and does what an intro should do, that is introduce what you will be discussing, GREAT WORK. Same said for History
  • I don't really like how you listed 15 proteins but then only spoke about one. It seems confusing and if you had made a little table with the most well understood proteins, their structure, and function as headings i would of been more comprehensive, and would demonstrate a broader understanding of the proteins involved in signalling. I think anyone can list the proteins and say their involved!
  • Function section is lacking a lot. it has NO referencing so how are you meant to fill the referencing section before this project is due ?!? Its just a slab of text, it definitely needs subheadings, bullet points, images, diagrams, it needs to engage the audience and to be honest i didn't want to read past the second paragraph.
  • Current research: i don't think articles from 2002/07 are current to be blunt. i do like how you have a paragraph introducing the research though.
  • There is one image on the entire page and nothing really special about this project, its quite boring and to make it interesting you really should look at cell death lecture 2, because Mark spent a lot of time on this topic, you should use some of his images and you should definitely look at how he discussed the pathway, (using bold headings for steps and short sentences below each). I think you have a lot of work to do. Start your referencing soon because if you loose where your references then you would be plagiarising. Goodluck



  • introduction was very informative, interesting, pointed out key points
  • good history section
  • language was simplified and clear


  • not engaging/interesting
  • not enough pictures
  • layout makes reading hard (all writing not much else)
  • no subheadings
  • no references present
  • major headings should include when ‘abnormality occurs’ if possible.

Possible improvements:

  • dot points about information on the FasL protein to make it easier to read
  • history put into a table to make the page more interesting
  • clarify which proteins are most important out of the list of proteins involved.
  • reference list and glossary needs to be updated. Correct in-text citations needed.
  • subheadings to break up writing and add style and organisation to layout
  • pathway should be more in depth i.e how extrinsic apoptosis works, maybe as a step-process summary for easy reading.

The introduction is well-written. It given a really good layout of what is involved. One of my issues though is that you have not provided any references - not just this section but other parts of your project as well. Because of this, it makes me wonder how much of this is written by you as a group and how much is simply pasted from the original source and rearranged. Also, when you use abbreviations etc (like TNF), please do write out the full name first.

History is quite expansive and easy to read. A reference is provided at the end of this section, which I don't think is acceptable. I don't know which sentences came from that reference and the style of referencing is incorrect. Please improve this.

Signalling pathway: it might be an idea to use subheadings here. You list many different proteins which are involved in the signalling pathway, however you only talk about FasL (Fatty acid synthetase ligand) in more detail. It might be better if you shorten your list or give more information on the other proteins mentioned, as this seems a bit irrelevant now. The pathway itself sounds a little complex (as it would be) so I would advise you to get a simplified picture to complement your text. Adding student-drawn images would also be good. Again, the issue with references; you have all the APA style in-text citations, but please put them in as little numbers so we can see all the sources in the reference list.

The function section has a lot of information, which looks a bit boring now that I've read so much of your project without being engaged by colourful images and tables. Please provide (student-drawn) images to encourage the audience to continue reading. Sub-headings within this section will also make it easier to understand and look more attractive, eg. a subheading for 'cellular disassembly'. As we are about to start week 11, I really hope you can soon provide us with the references. At the moment it is unclear whether you plagiarised or not! Another little point to notice: the 'function' does not relate to the apoptotis function as much - it is more so the function of caspases on apoptosis. Maybe change the heading to 'Function of caspases within this signalling pathway'.

Current research has quite a lot of information to it, which is good. Also, I'm happy to finally see an image! The image has the copyright information, though please provide a description on your main page. Cardiovascular disease is mentioned, however no further information is provided so please expand upon this. The section on leukaemia was very interesting though. Please do check your spelling and provide correct citations. It might be advisable to put this information into a table, thereby explaining the disease, current research and provide a picure.

Please expand upon the glossary and references (most importantly!)

--Z3333865 13:27, 12 May 2012 (EST)

The basic outline of this page seems ok.

The information is good, but it needs to be put into subheadings and organised better.

My suggestion is to include a few tables and use diagrams/images to explain some of the concepts.

The History is great, I really enjoyed reading it.

The Signal pathway is also descent. The information is all there, it just needs to be organised.

The glossary and referncing needs to be worked on.

There is nothing under the two headings.

The Image has correct referencing as well as copyright information so well done.

A description would go along really well with the image.

Current research has been done very well. I really enjoyed seeing the reference made to the group currently doing the research the "MRC Toxicology Unit in the United Kingdom" which is really great.

Overall, try to work on the referencing, layout of the page, and glossary.

Best of luck with the rest of the assignment.

Hey guys, this article here might help us out with gaining a greater understanding of the extrinsic apoptosis pathway.


The receptor for advanced glycation endproduct (RAGE) is involved in diabetic complications and chronic inflammation, conditions known to affect the sensitivity towards apoptosis. Here, we studied the effect of genetically depleting RAGE on the susceptibility towards apoptosis. In murine osteoblastic cells, RAGE knockout increased both spontaneous and induced apoptosis. Decreased levels of B-cell lymphoma 2 protein and increased intrinsic apoptosis were observed in Rage(-/-) cells. Furthermore, loss of RAGE increased expression of the death receptor CD95 (Fas, Apo-1), CD95-dependent caspase activation and extrinsic apoptosis, whereas NF-kB-p65 nuclear translocation was diminished. Importantly, depletion of RAGE reduced the ubiquitination and degradation of p53 and p73 and increased their nuclear translocation. The increase of p53 and p73 transactivational activity was essential for the RAGE-dependent regulation of apoptosis, because knockdown of p53 and p73 significantly decreased apoptosis in RAGE-deficient but not in RAGE-expressing cells. Thus, the RAGE-mediated posttranslational regulation of p53 and p73 orchestrates a sequence of events culminating in control of intrinsic and extrinsic apoptosis signaling pathways


Another Article I thought was relevant to our research on extrinsic apoptosis and pathway was this one here:


Phytoestrogens are known to prevent tumor induction. But their molecular mechanisms of action are still unknown. This study aimed to examine the effect of apigenin on proliferation and apoptosis in HER2-expressing breast cancer cells. In our experiments, apigenin inhibited the proliferation of MCF-7 vec and MCF-7 HER2 cells. This growth inhibition was accompanied with an increase of sub G(0)/G(1) apoptotic fractions. Overexpression of HER2 did not confer resistance to apigenin in MCF-7 cells. Apigenin-induced extrinsic apoptosis pathway up-regulating the levels of cleaved caspase-8, and inducing the cleavage of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase, whereas apigenin did not induce apoptosis via intrinsic mitochondrial apoptosis pathway since this compound did not decrease mitochondrial membrane potential maintaining red fluorescence and did not affect the levels of B-cell lymphoma 2 (BCL2) and Bcl-2-associated X protein. Moreover, apigenin reduced the tyrosine phosphorylation of HER2 (phospho-HER2 level) in MCF-7 HER2 cells, and up-regulated the levels of p53, phospho-p53 and p21 in MCF-7 vec and MCF-7 HER2 cells. This suggests that apigenin induces apoptosis through p53-dependent pathway. Apigenin also reduced the expression of phospho-JAK1 and phospho-STAT3 and decreased STAT3-dependent luciferase reporter gene activity in MCF-7 vec and MCF-7 HER2 cells. Apigenin decreased the phosphorylation level of IκBα in the cytosol, and abrogated the nuclear translocation of p65 within the nucleus suggesting that it blocks the activation of NFκB signaling pathway in MCF-7 vec and MCF-7 HER2 cells. Our study indicates that apigenin could be a potential useful compound to prevent or treat HER2-overexpressing breast cancer.


hey guys, i added the rough copy of an intro i pieced together a while back and had in a microsoft doc. its hell rough and we dont need to keep or use any of it. ill slowly add more to it and change it and hopefully by establishing the intro, we can add direction and structure to the project. - we need to keep in mind that the focus of our project is extrinsic apoptosis and so emphasis on signalling molecules and mechanisms through out the project is important - but since intrinsic apoptosis links in, we could include a brief comparison and summary of it somewhere- - from my intial readings extrinsinc apotosis seems to be more important in physiological settings, whereas intrinsic apotosis comes into play more and is intiated more during pathological conditions. this is just my intial observation. there will be relevant pathological conditions however, because obviously if there is malfunction of a physiological process, you'll end up with a pathological one. - here are a few ideas/points i thinks we need to focus on 1) Fas (CD95) receptor and corresponding ligand- structure and function 2) TNF receptor and corresponding ligand- structure and function 3) the caspase cascade and its culmination in apoptosis 4)all the other sub topics and headings as already discussed and allocated

Hey guys, here is a more official allocation of the parts of this project:

Katherine: current research + student drawing

Luke: Caspase cascade (pathway) + introduction + short explanation of intrinsic pathway

Elhassan: tnf receptor and ligand + history

Mark: FAS receptor + signaling pathway

Need to include malfunctioning of pathway + diseases

We will all contribute to the glossary once the rest of the project is complete.