Difference between revisions of "Talk:2011 Group 6 Project"

From CellBiology
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==to do list==
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-referencing. -wait until next lab, no references will save
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-finish history
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-more on development
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-current research
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-future research
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-external links
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-glossary
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Hi Rega, im temporarily giving up on the page for today, ive spent a long time referencing but nothing will save. ive emailed Dr Hill and he says he is fixing it, so i think ill wait until tomorrow :) --[[User:Z3265772|Jill De Coster]] 14:28, 28 April 2011 (EST)
 
Hi Rega, im temporarily giving up on the page for today, ive spent a long time referencing but nothing will save. ive emailed Dr Hill and he says he is fixing it, so i think ill wait until tomorrow :) --[[User:Z3265772|Jill De Coster]] 14:28, 28 April 2011 (EST)
  

Revision as of 14:33, 28 April 2011

to do list

-referencing. -wait until next lab, no references will save

-finish history

-more on development

-current research

-future research

-external links

-glossary

Hi Rega, im temporarily giving up on the page for today, ive spent a long time referencing but nothing will save. ive emailed Dr Hill and he says he is fixing it, so i think ill wait until tomorrow :) --Jill De Coster 14:28, 28 April 2011 (EST)

Jill, u mesmerized me with the microscopy section,,,,,JUST LOVED IT.... --User:z3255968--Rega Tabbaa 14:15, 28 April 2011 (EST)

Hey Rega!! LOVE the videos!! That was such a great idea to include them! i have added them to the page, so i dont think we need to add anything else for that section :) i am going to finish referencing today, and then maybe start future research. Do you like the microscopy section i added? :) - Jill --Jill De Coster 13:36, 28 April 2011 (EST)

Hi guys, there have been some problems saving stuff on the page, please please please dont edit the table under the heading Common neuromuscular junction disorders. i spent 6 HOURS trying to fix it! :O i never want to see that table again! haha :) Jill --Jill De Coster 13:15, 28 April 2011 (EST)

Jill watch this video about the sliding filament during mm contraction, watch the sarcomere.. [1]

Actin/Myosin Movie 1 [2]

Actin/Myosin Movie 2 [3]

If we put the Actin/Myosin both of above, we don't have to write how they work..

let me know what u think? --User:z3255968--Rega Tabbaa 20:03, 27 April 2011 (EST)

Hey Jill,,, im not going to upload my pic because urs is really good. Can we get rid of the other pic(troponin, myosin & tropomyosin)? About ur Q, I think that Dr Mark was more interested in cells that make NMJ. However, I'd the material ready for it and I thought was better not to uploaded. OR, maybe we can put a video for it.... Second, I put all my refs in the discussion page and if u remember i told u that we do it together, but u done it all. OMG, i know it takes so long to do the refs (i tried it with the history part)and THANK YOU. Organise one day next week and ill sit with u to give the final look of our page... --User:z3255968--Rega Tabbaa 19:43, 27 April 2011 (EST)


does anyone think we need to include excitation contraction coupling anywhere?--z3265772 14:41, 27 April 2011 (EST)

note to all: PLEASE reference anything you put up so people can see where you got your information, i have just spent two days trying to find where your information is from so i can reference it all :( --z3265772 10:52, 27 April 2011 (EST)

Rega: I think the clinical manifestation and treatment is pretty important, and it shows we have done more research. i have almost finished this section, and wanted to upload it today. The more we have on our page (that is relevant) the better, because it shows we have done more work. what do you think? if you still dont like it i will remove it, but i spent a lot of time yesterday researching these :( I think the muscle picture is a great idea, ive been trying to find a good one. if i find one i will upload it today and then see if you like it. I think reducing some text and having more in a picture is a perfect idea :) --z3265772 10:18, 27 April 2011 (EST)

--User:z3255968--Rega Tabbaa 01:41, 27 April 2011 (EST) Jill, i'm trying to draw a pic that includes and the sarcomere, so maybe we can get rid of some text and put a pic that talks about everything,, im still working on it. Let me know what u think..... The other thing is about the 2nd table. I think maybe we should not write about clin.manifestations and treatments,,, so the second table must enclude only three colons: the disease, the link with NMJ and the pic.... What do u think??

Thanks for doing the tropomyosin Rega! i thought i did it already, but it must not have have saved properly sorry --z3265772 22:26, 26 April 2011 (EST)

--User:z3255968--Rega Tabbaa 19:35, 26 April 2011 (EST) just wrote something about the tropomyosin. I love ur table Jill..

Jill, i liked it. Yesterday night, i really thought that a table or diagram will attract more eyes in looking at our page...Histology book had good pictures of BL and ill see what i can do... Don't 4get some dot points for the tropomyosin... --User:z3255968--Rega Tabbaa 18:44, 22 April 2011 (EST)


i have taken this out of the first table for now, until i can find a good picture and rewrite in lamens terms :)--z3265772 16:55, 22 April 2011 (EST)

|Basal lamina (BL) |Surrounds the Schwann cells of the axon and muscle fibre, Projects into folds that enclose the postsynaptic membrane |Layer of extracellular matrix, Synaptic cleft is filled with dense BL, Contain ACh-esterase, Lamina densa comprising the intermediate part of BL, procollagen type 4 is the most important component [4]

--User:z3255968--Rega Tabbaa 18:59, 21 April 2011 (EST)

Jill, i found this in uTube,, pls have a look..[5] I am adding some work that I've done for the cell components of NMJ.

--Shan Ruan 22:47, 20 April 2011 (EST) Hi guys, I've added some contents to the clinical manifestations for the table. One question though, should we use jargons like "ptosis" instead of "drooping eyelid" or the other way around to make the content more accessible?

--Lizzy 13:14, 20 April 2011 (EST)

Hi ladies, I've added a few images that could provide some visual material:

NMJ Synapse
Global View of NMJ
Electron Micrograph Cross Section of NMJ
Acetylcholine molecular diagram




--User:z3255968--Rega Tabbaa 19:51, 16 April 2011 (EST)

I wrote something about the ALS-motor neuron disease.

Kumar, V., Abbas, A.K., Fausto, N., & Aster, J.C., (2010). Robbins and Cotran. Pathologic Basis of Disaese, eighth edition. Saunders Elsevier 2010.

Muscle Mitochondrial Uncoupling Dismantles Neuromuscular Junction and Triggers Distal Degeneration of Motor Neurons. This research explores that mitochondrial defect is sufficient to generate motor neuron degeneration. Furthermore, it suggests that therapeutic strategies targeted at muscle metabolism might prove useful for motor neuron diseases.[6]

--User:z3255968--Rega Tabbaa 14:48, 16 April 2011 (EST)

Hey guys, just wrote the introduction in the way how Dr Mark want it. This intro is not the final.

Development of NMJ

--Shan Ruan 01:01, 14 April 2011 (EST) Hey guys, just wrote sth for this section. Sorry I came back from a conference in Hobart just yesterday, thus didn't have much time to provide more input.

--Lizzy 19:22, 13 April 2011 (EST)

Pretty much finished up the table, just working on find an image for CMS. Found a bunch of great ones that are copyrighted. Boo. See you all in prac tomorrow!

awesome! Thanks Lizzy! --Jill De Coster 13:35, 11 April 2011 (EST)

--Lizzy 12:37, 11 April 2011 (EST)

Hello hello, I've added to the table on common disorders. Descriptions, treatments, and images for Botulism, CMS, and Myasthenia gravis.

--User:z3255968----Rega Tabbaa 19:46, 10 April 2011 (EST)



Motor End Plate

- Specialised region of the sarcolemma

- Highly folded

- Holds a high concentration of AChRs

- Also called Myoneural Junction (Junqueira C.L. & Caraneiro J., 2005. Basic Histology, text & atlas, 11th edition. McGraw-Hill Companies.)

- Receive neurotransmitters in order to propagate an Action Potential

- Responsible for the terminal tree like branching of a motor axon on a muscle fibre

- Maintains muscle tone through stretch reflex


--User:z3255968----Rega Tabbaa 14:23, 8 April 2011 (EST)


Motor neuron

- Efferent neurons

- Originate in the ventral horn of the spinal cord

- Synapse with muscle fibers

- Carry information from the central nervous system to muscles

- Facilitate muscle contraction

- Somatic once are directly involved in the contraction of skeletal muscles

- Excitatory

- Influenced by input descending from the brain

- Affected by a class of diseases known as motor neuron diseases

- Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

Messenger RNA Oxidation Occurs Early in Disease Pathogenesis and Promotes Motor Neuron Degeneration in ALS [7]


For Jill- neuromuscular junction disorders http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Myasthenia_gravis http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lambert-Eaton_myasthenic_syndrome http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Botulinum_toxin http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Botulism and for an overview on all http://www.merckmanuals.com/home/ag/sec06/ch095/ch095c.html --z3265772 12:35, 8 April 2011 (EST)

ive uploaded a picture that Rega drew for the main picture, i think its a really good overview of our topic so ive put it at the top. Eventually as the page gets bigger, the contents menu will grow and the picture will fit the page properly (as in my embro project i did). Hope thats OK! we have four weeks until we need to have finished our page for peer review :) -Jill --z3265772 09:10, 8 April 2011 (EST)


--User:z3255968----Rega Tabbaa 06:56, 8 April 2011 (EST)

Group 6, now we have plenty of research articles and books in our hands, so start writing things down. Then we can link our writings together and design our page. Thank you Jill for helping me to upload the drawings.


Functional anatomy of the NMJ

- Nerve impulse reaches the motor nerve terminal

- Specialized proteins forming ion channels in its cell membrane open quickly

- Calcium enters into the axon terminal

- Synaptic vesicles are filled with ACh which is attached to special site of it

- Ca causes some of the vesicle membranes to fuse with the nerve terminal membrane

- ACh content is released into synaptic cleft

- ACh diffuses rapidly across the gap and binds to the ACh receptors (AChRs)

- When this binding occur, small positively charged sodium (Na) ions enter the muscle

- This lead to the depolarization across membrane

- End-plate potential in turn opens the voltage-sensitive Na channels at the synaptic fold

- An “all or nothing” action potential starts

- Propagated along the muscle fibre in each direction

- Initiation of a muscle contraction occur

- Then, the AChR pore closes

- ACh unbinds and broken down


--User:z3255968--Rega Tabbaa 20:39, 7 April 2011 (EST)

Synaptic cleft

- The space between the axon terminal and the motor end plate

- Separates the presynaptic from the post synaptic cells

- The electrical signal cannot cross


Synaptic vesicles

- Membranous organelle

- Contain neurotransmitter Acetylcholine (Ach)

- Found within the axon terminals of neuron

- Transmitter release occurs by fusion with the presynaptic membrane

- Ach is liberated by exocytosis into the synaptic cleft


Acetylcholine (ACh)

- Cholinergic neurons

- Skeletal muscle movement

- Regulation of smooth muscle

- One of the principle neurotransmitters of the peripheral nervous system

- Released by a motor neuron at the NMJ

- Bind and activate a receptor protein

- A very effective deliverer of sodium ions, which stimulate muscle contractions and excites nerves

- The enzyme acetycholinesterase (AChE) hydrolyzes acetylcholine into acetic acid and choline

- Choline travels back to be recycled into acetylcholine and start the process over again

- Concentration of ACh remains higher if the AChE is inhibited

- AChE inhibitors delay the degradation of acetylcholine

- This inhibitors are used to reverse muscle relaxants and sometimes to treat Alzheimer's disease



INTRODUCTION (anything regarding the introduction section of the project page goes under this heading pls!)

Just added a general description (will add reference later).--Shan Ruan 22:56, 6 April 2011 (EST)

heading

Just an idea, as this page fills up with an endless amount of information, it takes ages to edit and save the page. To overcome this problem, just add a heading every now and again like i have done above, then we will just need to edit this heading, and the page saves quickly.

Also, we seem to be adding information to this page that could go straight on to our project page. We can always edit and refine later. I think it would be a much bigger job to eventually copy from this page on to our project page when we want to finish it. We will also lose alot of information if we do that because it will get lost on here. Maybe keep this page for chatting/adding relevant articles and if you have good info on something, add it straight on to the project. what do you guys think? --z3265772 22:22, 5 April 2011 (EST)


I think both are good ideas (about adding new headings and about contributing directly to the project page). It would be easier to delete info we don't need rather than semi-frantically add to it at the end. I'll start posting there more often. --Lizzy 18:14, 6 April 2011 (EST)

--z3265772 22:13, 5 April 2011 (EST) Hi guys, im going to kill two birds with one stone. i wanted to do this weeks exercise and fill in the relevant heading as i go. so i found some stuff for future research: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20955113 it is about future stem cell research for neurodegenerative diseases. I added it straight on to the project page. For some reason i cant reference it though, so ill ask mark about that next week :)

--z3265772 22:13, 5 April 2011 (EST)

--z3255968 10:02, 5 April 2011 (EST)

Regas awesome drawing

Neuromuscular junction

Post Peer Assessment Discussion

Hey guys in response to the peers i moved around my pictures, gave them text under them, and added a lot of new information and some photos to the structure section. the only issue we have left is to clean up our reference list since it mostly looks like a bunch of pubmed IDs. i guess we will ask mark what to do with this.--Michael Orenstein 21:48, 25 May 2011 (EST)

Week 7

  • This is the week before the mid-session break.
  • In the lab this week we will have an opportunity to discuss any issues which are slowing progress on your project.
  • The Thursday of the week beginning 02 May will be when all projects will be open to Peer Assessment.
  • What you have on your page by Thursday of that week will be the content that others in the class will comment upon.

Week 6

  1. I see many groups now have subsection titles for their projects.
  2. Here are some searches: Pubmed search all databases junction | PLoS junction | JCB junction You can now simply put your own search term into each top window.
  3. Now's the time to get your images, movies, media etc uploaded. Biomed central | JCB | JCB Archive | PLoS. Once uploaded you can make a gallery on either your project or discussion page using <gallery>File:name here</gallery> tags with your image files listed between the tags. When you upload project images, add this text as it appears replacing # with your own Group number to the summary information [[Category:2011Project#]].
  4. Shown below are the criteria that will be used to assess your final project.

Group Assessment Criteria

  • The key points relating to the topic that your group was allocated are clearly described.
  • The choice of content, headings and sub-headings, diagrams, tables, graphs show a good understanding of the topic area.
  • Content is correctly cited and referenced.
  • The wiki has an element of teaching at a peer level using the student’s own innovative diagrams, tables or figures and/or using interesting examples or explanations.
  • Evidence of significant research relating to basic and applied sciences that goes beyond the formal teaching activities.
  • Relates the topics and content of the Wiki entry to learning aims of cell biology.
  • Clearly reflects on editing/feedback from group peers and articulates how the Wiki could be improved (or not) based on peer comments/feedback. Demonstrates an ability to review own work when criticised in an open edited wiki format. Reflects on what was learned from the process of editing a peer’s wiki.
  • Evaluates own performance and that of group peers to give a rounded summary of this wiki process in terms of group effort and achievement.
  • The content of the wiki should demonstrate to the reader that your group has researched adequately on this topic and covered the key areas necessary to inform your peers in their learning.
  • Develops and edits the wiki entries in accordance with this sites wiki guidelines.


By Week 5

Each Group member has added to the discussion page:

  1. A Review Article
  2. A Historic Research Article
  3. A Current Research Article

No two students should add the same paper and there should be a link to the original article.

--Mark Hill 17:18, 30 March 2011 (EST) OK Group 6, You and Group 5 are the only groups that have begun your project work, well done! Though I can only see contributions from Z3255968 and Z3265772. This search should get you started with the references Search Pubmed: Neuromuscular Junction


Hi Guys, Here are the articles I've found pretty useful to NMJ.--Shan Ruan 13:32, 5 April 2011 (EST)

  1. Review Article: Neuromuscular junction in health and disease This is a review article from the British Journal of Anaesthesia. It outlines the structure and function of the NMJ and (discusses the anaesthetic implications of disease of the junction)<- can ignore this part. Current concepts in neuromuscular transmission Outlines the general anatomy and physiology of NMJ. Both articles overall are very useful but you need to ask for permissions to reference them. However, since they are review articles, there should be plenty of articles down the reference lists.
  2. Historic Research Article: The Receptor Tyrosine Kinase MuSK Is Required for Neuromuscular Junction Formation In Vivo This research article indicates the role of the receptor MuSK protein which responds to a critical nerve-derived signal (agrin), and in turn activates signaling cascades responsible for the formation of neuromuscular synapses.
  3. Current Research Article: The Function of Cortactin in the Clustering of Acetylcholine Receptors at the Vertebrate Neuromuscular Junction This research article suggested a novel function of phosphorylation-dependent cortactin signaling downstream from agrin/MuSK in facilitating AChR clustering at the developing NMJ.


  • Hi guys, Lizzy here.

I've been surfing around Pubmed. Here's a recent article on the significance of the role of MRF4, a transcription factor that may be involved in maintenance of neuromuscular junctions: [1] Maybe we could mention it briefly under "Current Research." Also, this article had some lovely images: [2] However I'm not sure how relevant the article is, and I'm also not sure if we could get permission to use the images on our page. But maybe they'd be cool to have a look at on your own time. --Lizzy 16:46, 4 April 2011 (EST)

  • P.S. Also, if you scroll down to the bottom of the PubMed Copyright notice page, there are 3 websites listed whose material we can use without special permission as long as we cite sources. Maybe they'd be handy for some neat images or background info.

PMC Copyright Notice --Lizzy 16:51, 4 April 2011 (EST)

  • The three articles to be found by the end of Week 5:
  1. Review Article: On the development of the Vertebrate Neuromuscular Junction [3]
  2. Historic Research Article: Change in the Fine Structure of the Neuromuscular Junction of the Frog Caused by Black Widow Spider Venom This was published in the JCB by Clark, Hurlbut & Mauro in 1972. It's a super interesting article! Heads up though, it's a big file.
  3. Current Research Article: ARIA, a neuromuscular junction neuregulin [4]


--Lizzy 17:21, 4 April 2011 (EST)



--User:z3255968--Rega Tabbaa 20:54, 3 April 2011 (EST)

Group 6, this is a link for The Journal of Physiology [8]

There are some good research articles in NMJ.

Historic researches in NMJ:

In 1672, Myasthenia gravis (MG) was first described by Thomas Willis. It is an acquired autoimmune disease with antibodies against the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (AChR) at the NMJ. [9]

In1842, Claude Bernard concluded that the arrow poison curare acts at the NMJ to interrupt the stimulation of muscle by nerve impulses. [10]

In 1850, Claude Bernard demonstrated that the observed paralysis was mediated via the NMJ, although the precise mechanism was at that time unknown. [11]

In 1914, Sir Henry Dale, (in 1936, he was warded the Nobel Prize for Medicine and Physiology), investigating the pharmacological properties of ACh, distinguished two actions that were reproduced by the alkaloids, muscarine and nicotine. As the effects of muscarine mimicked the parasympathetic nervous system, he termed the receptors muscarinic, whereas those in autonomic ganglia and at the skeletal NMJ were termed nicotinic. [12]

In 1952 - 1954, the name end-plate potential is used since Fatt&Katz (1952) and Del Castillom & Katz (1954) studied the endplate potential (epp) at NMJ. They concluded that the ACh molecules were released in packets containing several thousand ACh molecules revealing the quantal nature of synaptic transmission. [13]


--User:z3255968 12:31, 1 April 2011--Rega Tabbaa 12:38, 1 April 2011 (EST)

Abnormalities in signal transmission at the NMJ with associated diseases

This research explored that in skeletal muscle, the stability and function of NMJ depend on mitochondrial respiration. Furthermore, any abnormalities of this respiration lead to distal degeneration of motor neurons in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis disease.[14]

This is a review article for the autoimmune disorders of the neuromuscular junction.[15]. The article unfolds the role of Acetylcholine receptors (AChR)and also the loss of AChRs at the NMJ is the underlying Myasthenia Gravis (MG)pathogenesis.However, if there is not enough ACh released at NMJ, it will lead to another disease such as The Lambert Eaton Myasthenic Syndrome.


Functional anatomy of the NMJ

All the behaviour depends on the ability to control the activity of skeletal muscles, which maintain posture and permit movement (Crossmen R.A. & Neary D., 2005). This group of muscles are innervated by axon motor neurons, the body of which lie in ventral horn of the spinal cord. The junction between the axon terminal of a motor neuron and the motor end plate of a muscle fibre make a Neuromuscular Junction (NMJ). When an action potential arrives at the axon terminal of a motor neuron, the voltage gated calcium (Ca)will open and through which Ca enters the cytosol. Then the acetylcholine is released which diffuses to and binds to cholinergic receptors at the motor end plate (Stanfield, L.C., & German, J.,W., 2009). This is followed by the opening of cation channels where the sodium enters the cell, producing an end plate potential. This cause an action potential which spread along skeletal muscle membrane stimulating contraction.

[5]

[6]


Introduction

Historic background

Mechanism of action

Development of the neuromuscular junction

Common neuromuscular junction disorders

Current associated research

Future research


Hey guys, I've added a sub-heading of common disorders of neuromuscular junction--Shan Ruan 10:52, 31 March 2011 (EST)




--Rega Filipi Tabbaa 18:09, 29 March 2011--Rega Tabbaa 18:18, 29 March 2011 (EST)

Neuromuscular Junction (NMJ)

Introduction

Background

Embryonic development of NMJ

Functional anatomy of the NMJ

The role of Acetylcholine (ACh), its receptors and inhibitors

Abnormalities in signal transmission at the NMJ with associated diseases

Current research combined with techniques used


The actual wiki page for neuromuscular junction contains the headings - --Jill De Coster 08:09, 29 March 2011 (EST)

-Mechanism of action

-Development of the neuromuscular junction

-Knockout studies

-Neuromuscular block

-See also

-External links

-Further reading

-References


Here is a link to my old Embryology page i did last semester, we should maybe look at a similar layout? --Jill De Coster 12:20, 24 March 2011 (EST)

Chorionic Villus Sampling

1. Intro

2. historic background

3. current associated research

4. simplified description of technique

5. student drawn figure or animation

6. reference list

7. glossary

8. external links

example reference list --z3265772 12:21, 24 March 2011 (EST)

This is about frog nucleoli shape changes.[7]

Reference list

  1. <pubmed>21278612</pubmed>
  2. <pubmed>21445349</pubmed>
  3. <pubmed>10202544</pubmed>
  4. <pubmed>9056721</pubmed>
  5. Crossmen R. A. & Neary D. (2005). Neuroanatomy: An Illustrated Colour Text. Third edition. Elsevier Churchill Livingstone 2005.
  6. Stanfield L.C. & German J.W.(2009). Principles of Human Physiology. Third edition. Pearson Benjamin Cummings 2009.
  7. <pubmed>21368180</pubmed>