Talk:2011 Group 2 Project

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Revision as of 10:41, 31 March 2011 by S8600021 (talk | contribs)

Post Peer Assessment Discussion

Hey guys in response to the peers i moved around my pictures, gave them text under them, and added a lot of new information and some photos to the structure section. the only issue we have left is to clean up our reference list since it mostly looks like a bunch of pubmed IDs. i guess we will ask mark what to do with this.--Michael Orenstein 21:48, 25 May 2011 (EST)

Week 7

  • This is the week before the mid-session break.
  • In the lab this week we will have an opportunity to discuss any issues which are slowing progress on your project.
  • The Thursday of the week beginning 02 May will be when all projects will be open to Peer Assessment.
  • What you have on your page by Thursday of that week will be the content that others in the class will comment upon.

Week 6

  1. I see many groups now have subsection titles for their projects.
  2. Here are some searches: Pubmed search all databases junction | PLoS junction | JCB junction You can now simply put your own search term into each top window.
  3. Now's the time to get your images, movies, media etc uploaded. Biomed central | JCB | JCB Archive | PLoS. Once uploaded you can make a gallery on either your project or discussion page using <gallery>File:name here</gallery> tags with your image files listed between the tags. When you upload project images, add this text as it appears replacing # with your own Group number to the summary information [[Category:2011Project#]].
  4. Shown below are the criteria that will be used to assess your final project.

Group Assessment Criteria

  • The key points relating to the topic that your group was allocated are clearly described.
  • The choice of content, headings and sub-headings, diagrams, tables, graphs show a good understanding of the topic area.
  • Content is correctly cited and referenced.
  • The wiki has an element of teaching at a peer level using the student’s own innovative diagrams, tables or figures and/or using interesting examples or explanations.
  • Evidence of significant research relating to basic and applied sciences that goes beyond the formal teaching activities.
  • Relates the topics and content of the Wiki entry to learning aims of cell biology.
  • Clearly reflects on editing/feedback from group peers and articulates how the Wiki could be improved (or not) based on peer comments/feedback. Demonstrates an ability to review own work when criticised in an open edited wiki format. Reflects on what was learned from the process of editing a peer’s wiki.
  • Evaluates own performance and that of group peers to give a rounded summary of this wiki process in terms of group effort and achievement.
  • The content of the wiki should demonstrate to the reader that your group has researched adequately on this topic and covered the key areas necessary to inform your peers in their learning.
  • Develops and edits the wiki entries in accordance with this sites wiki guidelines.

By Week 5

Each Group member has added to the discussion page:

  1. A Review Article
  2. A Historic Research Article
  3. A Current Research Article

No two students should add the same paper and there should be a link to the original article.

--Mark Hill 17:07, 30 March 2011 (EST) OK Group 2, Just one student contributing sub-headings to date and no other content has been added to either your discussion or project page. You were meant to have already begun looking into both the topic and references, pasting links on your discussion page. I will see you in the lab tomorrow to discuss whether you are having problems or are simply not doing the work. This search should get you started. Search Pubmed: Gap Junction

hey everyone, I have thought of some headings for our assignment let me know which you think are most suitable

(1) Introduction - just a quick summary

(2) Discovery/History - who discovered gap junctions

(3) Structure - what they look like/how they are formed

(4) Function(importance) - their job

(5) Location - where they are found/why

(6) Comparison - briefly explain how our junction is different from others

(7) Diease - possibly something to do with dieases associated with abnormalties of the junction

(8) Research - current research of gap junctions/new research and discoveries

--z3253348 20:19, 29 March 2011 (EST)

Headings seem all good. We should try and organize who is going to do what at some point too.



Intercellular channels present in gap junctions allow cells to share small molecules and thus coordinate a wide range of behaviors. Remarkably, although junctions provide similar functions in all multicellular organisms, vertebrates and invertebrates use unrelated gene families to encode these channels. The recent identification of the invertebrate innexin family opens up powerful genetic systems to studies of intercellular communication. At the same time, new information on the physiological roles of vertebrate connexins has emerged from genetic studies. Mutations in connexin genes underlie a variety of human diseases, including deafness, demyelinating neuropathies, and lens cataracts. In addition, gene targeting of connexins in mice has provided new insights into connexin function and the significance of connexin diversity.



Gap junctions are specialized membrane domains composed of collections of channels that directly connect neighboring cells providing for the cell-to-cell diffusion of small molecules, including ions, amino acids, nucleotides, and second messengers. Vertebrate gap junctions are composed of proteins encoded by the "connexin" gene family. In most cases examined, connexins are modified post-translationally by phosphorylation. Phosphorylation has been implicated in the regulation of gap junctional communication at several stages of the connexin "lifecycle", such as the trafficking, assembly/disassembly, degradation, as well as, the gating of gap junction channels. Since connexin43 (Cx43) is widely expressed in tissues and cell lines, we understand the most about how it is regulated, and thus, connexin43 phosphorylation is a major focus of this review. Recent reports utilizing new methodologies combined with the latest genome information have shown that activation of several kinases including protein kinase A, protein kinase C, p34(cdc2)/cyclin B kinase, casein kinase 1, mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase and pp60(src) kinase can lead to phosphorylation at 12 of the 21 serine and two of the six tyrosine residues in the C-terminal region of connexin43. In several cases, use of site-directed mutants of these sites have shown that these specific phosphorylation events can be linked to changes in gap junctional communication.


  1. <pubmed>10099690</pubmed>
  2. <pubmed>15109565 </pubmed>

--Elizabeth Blanchard 23:10, 30 March 2011 (EST)

Hey guys, I also think we should talk about how gap junctions function differently within different cells of the body. They may all act the same but if we research it and find thats not the case then maybe thats something we should take note of. also below i've added 2 abstracts to 2 pubmed articles concerning gap junctions

Connexins and the gap in context.

Mroue RM, El-Sabban ME, Talhouk RS.

Division of Life Sciences, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA.


Gap junctions (GJ) can no longer be thought of as simple channel forming structures that mediate intercellular communication. Hemi-channel and channel-independent functions of connexins (Cxs) have been described and numerous Cx interacting partners have been uncovered ranging from enzymes to structural and scaffolding molecules to transcription factors. With the growing number of Cx partners and functions, including well-documented roles for Cxs as conditional tumor suppressors, it has become essential to understand how Cxs are regulated in a context-dependent manner to mediate distinct functions. In this review we will shed light on the tissue and context-dependent regulation and function of Cxs and on the importance of Cx-interactions in modulating tissue-specific function. We will emphasize how the context-dependent functions of Cxs can help in understanding the impact of Cx mis-expression on cancer development and, ultimately, explore whether Cxs can be used as potential therapeutic targets in cancer treatment. In the end, we will address the need for developing relevant assays for studying Cx and GJ functions and will highlight how advances in bioengineering tools and the design of 3D biological platforms can help studying gap junction function in real time in a non-intrusive manner. [1]

Gap junctions and connexins as therapeutic targets in cancer.

Kandouz M, Batist G.

Wayne State University, Department of Pathology, 5101 Cass Avenue, Chemistry Building, Detroit, Michigan 48202, USA.


IMPORTANCE OF THE FIELD: Connexins (Cxs) and gap junctional intercellular communications (GJICs) play roles in cancer development, growth and metastasis. Experimental studies suggest that targeting Cxs may be a novel technique, either to inhibit tumor cell growth directly or to sensitize to various therapies.

AREAS COVERED IN THIS REVIEW: A brief introduction to the role of Cxs in cancer. The focus is mainly on data available in the literature regarding therapeutic aspects.

WHAT THE READER WILL GAIN: This article reviews the various strategies that take advantage of gap junctions and connexins to eliminate cancer cells, including use of the bystander effect (BE) in gene therapy, the effect of connexins on chemosensitization, the role of apoptotic processes and interactions with the microenvironment. Attempts to restore connexin expression at the transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels are described, as well as promising strategies recently explored. The potential and limitations of the approaches are discussed.

TAKE HOME MESSAGE: Connexins have multiple facets, singly, in hemichannel complexes, in gap junctions or interacting with different proteins. The regulation of their expression is not fully resolved and selective manipulation of Cxs expression is therefore a challenge. Although the therapeutic potential of connexins is undeniable, more effort is needed to study the regulation and functions of these proteins. [2]


  1. <pubmed>21437329</pubmed>
  2. <pubmed>20446866</pubmed>

--Michael Orenstein 01:15, 31 March 2011 (EST)

Hey guys so i put some names under the headings that we just discussed. we shoudl still all look for articles and read up on gap junctions and then we can always change our roles if we want