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= Stem Cells =
= Stem Cells =
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The term "stem cell" is used so freely these days in many different forums that it is difficult sometimes understand without context what scientists, politicians, ethicists and commentators are discussing. This lecture will focus on the cell biology of stem cells and the current research on growing and differentiating theses cells.
The term "stem cell" is used so freely these days in many different forums that it is difficult sometimes understand without context what scientists, politicians, ethicists and commentators are discussing. This lecture will focus on the cell biology of stem cells and the current research on growing and differentiating theses cells.
Background information can also be found at '''UNSW Embryology''' [http://embryology.med.unsw.edu.au/Notes/stemcell.htm Stem Cells] and [http://embryology.med.unsw.edu.au/Notes/week1.htm Week 1 Development].
Why are they in the News?
* Scientific and Ethical
* Therapeutic uses
* Issues relating to human cloning
* Use of excess human eggs/sperm for research purposes
* Availability of human stem cell lines
What can they be used for?
* Generation of “knock out” mice
* Studying regulation of cell differentiation in development
* Therapeutic uses?
* Genetic disease
* Neurodegenerative
* Injury
* Medline Search “stem cell”
** 2002 - 110,920
** 2004 - 128,485
** 2005 - 140,966
** 2006 - 154,176
** 2011 - 182,559
==Research that led to Stem Cells==
[[File:Progenitor and stem cell cartoon.jpg|thumb|:Progenitor and stem cell]]
* Human Diseases
** Generation of “knock out” mice
* Human Development
** Studying regulation of cell differentiation in development
* Human Reproduction
** Disorders, sterility
==Tissue Stem Cells==
* differentiated cells have short life spans continually replaced
* blood cells, epithelial cells of skin and digestive tract
* fully differentiated cells do not proliferate
* proliferation of less differentiated- stem cells
* produce daughter cells that either differentiate or remain as stem cells
==Blood Cells==
[[Image:Hematopoietic and stromal cell differentiation.jpg|thumb|Hematopoietic and stromal cell differentiation]]
* All different types of blood cells develop from a pluripotent stem cell in bone marrow
* Precursors of differentiated cells undergo several rounds of cell division as they mature
** proliferation ceases at terminal stages of differentiation
== Embryonic Stem Cells ==
[[Image:Progenitor and stem cell cartoon.jpg|thumb|Difference between a Progenitor and Stem Cell]]
[http://stemcells.nih.gov/info/basics/basics3.asp NIH - What are embryonic stem cells?]
Pluripotent Stem Cells
* What is a stem cell- Pluripotent
* Pluripotent - to describe stem cells that can give rise to cells derived from all 3 embryonic germ layers
** Mesoderm
** Endoderm
** Ectoderm
* layers are embryonic source of all cells of the body
* hollow structure composed of about 100 cells surrounding an inner cavity
* Only ES cells, which form inner cell mass, actually form the embryo.
* ES cells can be removed from the blastocyst and grown on lethally irradiated “feeder cells.” (See E. Robertson et al., 1986, Nature 323:445)
Stem Cell Definition
* cell that has ability to divide for indefinite periods
* self replicate
* throughout life of organism
* stem cells can differentiate
** conditions, signals
* to the many different cell types
===Chimeric Mouse===
* ES or teratocarcinoma
* shows that stem cells can combine with cells of a normal blastocyst to form a healthy chimeric mouse
===Embryoid Bodies===
* spheroid cellular tissue culture structure
* mouse and human ES cells have the capacity to undergo controlled differentiation
* recapitulate some aspects of early development
** regional-specific differentiation program
** derivatives of all three embryonic germ layers
==Historic References==
* Isolation of a pluripotent cell line from early mouse embryos cultured in medium conditioned by teratocarcinoma stem cells. Martin GR. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1981 Dec;78(12):7634-8.
* Characterization of a pluripotent stem cell line derived from a mouse embryo. Wobus AM, Holzhausen H, Jakel P, Schoneich J. Exp Cell Res. 1984 May;152(1):212-9.
* Transgenesis by means of blastocyst-derived embryonic stem cell lines Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1986 Dec;83(23):9065-9. Gossler A, Doetschman T, Korn R, Serfling E, Kemler R.
===Pig and Sheep===
Derivation of pluripotent, embryonic cell lines from the pig and sheep. Notarianni E, Galli C, Laurie S, Moor RM, Evans MJ. J Reprod Fertil Suppl. 1991;43:255-60.
Isolation of a primate embryonic stem cell line. Thomson JA, Kalishman J, Golos TG, Durning M, Harris CP, Becker RA, Hearn JP. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1995 Aug 15;92(17):7844-8.
Embryonic stem cell lines derived from human blastocysts. Thomson JA, Itskovitz-Eldor J, Shapiro SS, Waknitz MA, Swiergiel JJ, Marshall VS, Jones JM. Science. 1998 Nov 6;282(5391):1145-7.
Stem Cell Lines [http://www.atcc.org/CulturesandProducts/CellBiology/StemCellProducts/tabid/170/Default.aspx ATCC - Embryonic Stem cell lines]
==Timeline of Human Embryonic Stem Cell Research==
* '''1878''' First reported attempts to fertilize mammalian eggs outside the body
* '''1959''' First report of animals (rabbits) produced through IVF in the United States
* '''1960's''' Studies of teratocarcinomas in the testes of several inbred strains of mice indicates they originated from embryonic germ cells. The work establishes embryonal carcinoma (EC) cells as a kind of stem cell
* '''1968''' Edwards and Bavister fertilize the first human egg in vitro
* '''1970's''' EC cells injected into mouse blastocysts produce chimeric mice. Cultured SC cells are explored as models of embryonic development, although their complement of chromosomes is abnormal
* '''1978''' Louise Brown, the first IVF baby, is born in England
* '''1980''' Australia's first IVF baby, Candace Reed, is born in Melbourne
* '''1981''' Evans and Kaufman, and Martin derive mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells from the inner cell mass of blastocysts. They establish culture conditions for growing pluripotent mouse ES cells in vitro. The ES cells yield cell lines with normal, diploid karyotyes and generate derivatives of all three primary germ layers as well as primordial germ cells. Injecting the ES cells into mice induces the formation of teratomas. The first IVF baby, Elizabeth Carr, is born in the United States.
* '''1984–88''' Andrews et al., develop pluripotent, genetically identical (clonal) cells called embryonal carcinoma (EC) cells from Tera-2, a cell line of human testicular teratocarcinoma. Cloned human teratoma cells exposed to retinoic acid differentiate into neuron-like cells and other cell types
* '''1989''' Pera et al., derive a clonal line of human embryonal carcinoma cells, which yields tissues from all three primary germ layers. The cells are aneuploid (fewer or greater than the normal number of chromosomes in the cell) and their potential to differentiate spontaneously in vitro is typically limited. The behavior of human EC cell clones differs from that of mouse ES or EC cells
* '''1994''' Human blastocysts created for reproductive purposes using IVF and donated by patients for research, are generated from the 2-pronuclear stage. The inner cell mass of the blastocyst is maintained in culture and generates aggregates with trophoblast-like cells at the periphery and ES-like cells in the center. The cells retain a complete set of chromosomes (normal karyotype); most cultures retain a stem cell-like morphology, although some inner cell mass clumps differentiate into fibroblasts. The cultures are maintained for two passages
* '''1995–96''' Non-human primate ES cells are derived and maintained in vitro, first from the inner cell mass of rhesus monkeys, and then from marmosets. The primate ES cells are diploid and have normal karyotypes. They are pluripotent and differentiate into cells types derived from all three primary germ layers. The primate ES cells resemble human EC cells and indicate that it should be possible to derive and maintain human ES cells in vitro.
* '''1998''' Thomson et al., derive human ES cells from the inner cell mass of normal human blastocysts donated by couples undergoing treatment for infertility. The cells are cultured through many passages, retain their normal karyotypes, maintain high levels of telomerase activity, and express a panel of markers typical of human EC cells non-human primate ES cells. Several (non-clonal) cell lines are established that form teratomas when injected into immune-deficient mice. The teratomas include cell types derived from all three primary germ layers, demonstrating the pluripotency of human ES cells. Gearhart and colleagues derive human embryonic germ (EG) cells from the gonadal ridge and mesenchyma of 5- to 9-week fetal tissue that resulted from elective abortions. They grow EG cells in vitro for approximately 20 passages, and the cells maintain normal karyotypes. The cells spontaneously form aggregates that differentiate spontaneously, and ultimately contain derivatives of all three primary germ layers. Other indications of their pluripotency include the expression of a panel of markers typical of mouse ES and EG cells. The EG cells do not form teratomas when injected into immune-deficient mice
* '''2000''' Scientists in Singapore and Australia led by Pera, Trounson, and Bongso derive human ES cells from the inner cell mass of blastocysts donated by couples undergoing treatment for infertility. The ES cells proliferate for extended periods in vitro, maintain normal karyotypes, differentiate spontaneously into somatic cell lineages derived from all three primary germ layers, and form teratomas when injected into immune-deficient mice.
* '''2001''' As human ES cell lines are shared and new lines are derived, more research groups report methods to direct the differentiation of the cells in vitro. Many of the methods are aimed at generating human tissues for transplantation purposes, including pancreatic islet cells, neurons that release dopamine, and cardiac muscle cells.
:Modified from [http://stemcells.nih.gov/info/scireport/chapter3.asp NIH - Stem Cells: Scientific Progress and Future Research Directions 2001]
==Cord Blood Stem Cells ==
* Blood collected from the placental umbilical cord of a newborn baby shortly after birth
** total amount of blood about 90 ml
* blood stem cells that can be used to generate red blood cells and cells of the immune system
* collected, typed, stored in Cord Blood Bank
** Both public and private Banks have arisen
** available for use by the donor and compatible siblings
* suggested use to treat a range of blood disorders and immune system conditions such as leukaemia, anaemia and autoimmune diseases
* cells provide a resource for bone marrow replacement therapy in many diseases
Cord Blood - Disease Treatments
* Acute Lymphoblastic Leukaemia
* Acute Myeloblastic Leukaemia
* Adrenoleukodystrophy
* Blackfan-Diamond
* Chronic Myeloid Leukaemia
* Chronic Lymphocytic leukaemia
* Fanconi's Anaemia
* Hurler's Syndrome
* Krabbe's disease
* Lymphomas
* Myelodysplastic Syndrome
* Mucolipopolysaccharide deficiency
* Osteopetrosis
* Syndrome Severe Aplastic Anaemia
* Severe Combined Immunodeficiency Disease
* Thalassaemia
* Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome
* Miscellaneous
* Cancer
* Genetic disorders
* Immune deficiency
* Storage disorders
==Adult Stem Cells==
[http://stemcells.nih.gov/info/basics/basics4.asp NIH - What are adult stem cells?]
Stem Cells in the Adult
* Connective Tissue
* Bone marrow
** Blood Cells, Osteoclasts, blasts
* Epithelia
** Gut
** Skin
* Neural?
Epidermis: Immortal Stem Cell
==Induced Pluripotent Cells==
* non-pluripotent cells engineered to become pluripotent
** a cell with a specialized function ‘reprogrammed’ to an unspecialized state
==Embryonic vs Adult Stem Cells==
===Embryonic Stem Cell Advantages===
* Pluripotency - ability to differentiateinto any cell type.
* Immortal - one cell can supply endless amounts of cells.
* Easily available - human embryos from fertility clinics.
===Embryonic Stem Cell Disadvantages===
* Unstable - difficult to control differentiation into specific cell type.
* Immunogenic - potential immune rejection when transplanted into patients.
* Teratomas - tumor composed of tissues from 3 embryonic germ layers.
* Ethical Controversy - unethical for those who believes that life begins at conception.
===Adult Stem Cell Advantages===
* Already ‘specialised’ - induction of differentiation into specific cell types will be easier.
* Plasticity - Recent evidences suggest wider than previously thought ranges of tissue types can be derived.
* No Immune-rejection - if used in autologous transplantations.
* No Teratomas - unlike ES cells.
* No Ethical Controversy - sourced from adult tissues.
===Adult Stem Cell Disadvantages===
* Minimal quantity - number of isolatable cells may be small.
* Finite life-span - may have limited lifespan in culture.
* Ageing - stem cells from aged individuals may have higher chance of genetic damage due to ageing.
* Immunogenic - potential immune rejection if donor cells are derived from another individual.
==Stem Cell Markers==
In order to carry out research on stem cells, it is important to be able to identify them. A number of different research groups in the late 90's generated several antibodies which specifically identified undifferentiated, differentiating or differentiated stem cells from a number of different sources and species. Note that the nomenclature in some cases is based upon the antibody used to identify the cell surface marker.
* Every cell surface has specialized proteins (receptors) that can selectively bind or adhere to other “signalling” molecules (ligands)
* Different types of receptors differ in structure and affinity for signalling molecules
* Cells use these receptors and molecules that bind to them as a way of communicating with other cells and to carry out their proper functions in the body
* '''Stage-Specific Embryonic Antigen-1''' (SSEA-1) cell surface embryonic antigen which has a role in cell adhesion, migration and differentiation and is often differentially expressed during development. Can be identified by Davor Solter monoclonal antibody MC-480 (SSEA-1).
* '''Stage-Specific Embryonic Antigen-4''' (SSEA-4) cell surface embryonic antigen of human teratocarcinoma stem cells (EC), human embryonic germ cells (EG) and human embryonic stem cells (ES) which is down-regulated following differentiation of human EC cells. Antigen not expressed on undifferentiated murine EC, ES and EG cells but upregulated on differentiation of murine EC and ES cells. Can be identified by Davor Solter monoclonal antibody MC-813-70 (SSEA-4)
* '''Tumor Rejection Antigen''' (TRA-1-60) Sialylated Keratan Sulfate Proteoglycan expressed on the surface of human teratocarcinoma stem cells (EC), human embryonic germ cells (EG) and human embryonic stem cells (ES).
* '''Tumor Rejection Antigen''' (TRA-1-81) antigen expressed on the surface of human teratocarcinoma stem cells (EC), human embryonic germ cells (EG) and human embryonic stem cells (ES).
** Both TRA antibodies identify a major polypeptide (Mr 240 kDa) and a minor polypeptide (Mr 415 kDa).
* '''Oct-4''' (Pou5f1 – Mouse Genome Informatics) gene has an essential role in control of developmental pluripotency (Oct4 knockout embryo blastocysts die at the time of implantation). Oct4 also has a role in maintaining viability of mammalian germline.
* '''Stem Cell Antigen 1''' (Sca-1) member of the Ly-6 family of GPI-linked surface proteins (Mr 18 kDa) and a major phenotypic marker for mouse hematopoietic progenitor/stem cell subset.
* CD133, AC133, prominin 5 transmembrane glycoprotein (865 aa) expressed on stem cells with hematopoietic and nonhematopoietic differentiation potential.
* '''Alkaline Phosphatase'''
** embryonic stem cell is characterized by high level of expression alkaline phosphatase (undifferentiated state) [http://www.atcc.org/ELFregPhosphataseDetectionKit/tabid/567/Default.aspx ATCC ELF Phosphatase Detection Kit for Embryonic Stem Cells]
** assay to determine if embryonic stem cells are undifferentiated or are starting to differentiate
** uses a fluorescent detection of endogenous phosphatase activity in embryonic stem cells
[http://www.pnas.org/content/102/23/8239/F5.expansion.html PNAS - Expression of molecular markers characteristic of ES cells in morula-derived cell lines]
==Stem Differentiation==
* each generation at least 1 "immortal" stem cell
** descendants present in patch in future
* Other basal cells
** leave basal layer and differentiate
* Committed, born different
or may be stem cells
equivalent to immortal stem cell in character
mortal in sense that their progeny jostled out of basal layer and shed from skin
Amplifying Cells
* Stem cells in many tissues divide only rarely
* give rise to transit amplifying cells
* daughters committed to differentiation that go through a limited series of more rapid divisions before completing the process.
* each stem cell division gives rise in this way to eight terminally differentiated progeny
Stem Cell Production - Stem Cell Daughter Fates
* Environmental asymmetry
** daughters are initially similar
** different pathways according to environmental influences that act on them after they are born
** number of stem cells can be increased or reduced to fit niche available
* Divisional asymmetry
** stem cell has an internal asymmetry
** divides in such a way two daughters are already have different determinants at time of their birth
==Current stem cell research==
[[Image:NIH stem cell cartoon.jpg|thumb|300px|NIH - stem cell cartoon]]
How to:
* Isolate
* Grow
* Maintain, store
* Differentiate
* Therapeutic uses
===Growth of Embryonic Stem Cells===
* Mouse blastocyst-derived ES cell line D3
** from American Type Culture Collection (ATCC)
* Undifferentiated ES cells
** maintained on gelatin-coated dishes
** earlier studies, feeder layer
Growth Media
* DMEM (dulbecco’s modified essential media)
* 2 mM glutamine (essential amino acid)
* 0.001% beta-mercaptoethanol (reducing agent)
* 1x nonessential amino acids (amino acids for growth)
* 10% donor horse serum (source of growth factors etc)
* human recombinant leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) 2,000 units/ml
== Neural Therapeutic Uses?==
[[Image:Stem cell therapy cartoon.jpg|thumb|Stem cell therapy cartoon]]
[http://stemcells.nih.gov/info/scireport/2006Chapter4.html NIH - Use of Genetically Modified Stem Cells in Experimental Gene Therapies]
Embryonic stem cells develop into functional dopaminergic neurons after transplantation in a Parkinson rat model
* Implantation of fetal dopamine (DA) neurons can reduce parkinsonism in patients
* current methods are rudimentary
* lacking a reliable donor cell source
Transplanted ES cells can develop spontaneously into dopamine (DA) neurons
* Such DA neurons can restore cerebral function and behavior in an animal model of Parkinson's disease
* Björklund et al Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, Vol. 99, Issue 4, 2344-2349, February 19, 2002
===Parkinson Rat Model===
Embryonic stem cell Transplant
* transplanting low doses of undifferentiated mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells into rat striatum
* results in a proliferation of ES cells into fully differentiated DA neurons
* ES cell-derived DA neurons caused gradual and sustained behavioral restoration of DA-mediated motor asymmetry
Staining of a Graft
* 16 weeks after implantation of D3 ES cells into adult 6-OHDA lesioned striatum
** TH-positive neurons were found within the graft (A and B, green)
** All TH-positive profiles coexpressed the neuronal marker NeuN (A, red)
** TH (B) also was coexpressed with DAT (C, red) and AADC (D, blue), shown by white triple labelling (E)
Rotation response to Amphetamine
* 6-OHDA-lesioned animals were selected for transplantation by quantification of rotational behaviour in response to amphetamine
* response was examined post-transplantation at 5, 7, and 9 weeks
* Animals with ES cell-derived DA neurons showed recovery over time from amphetamine-induced turning behavior
== References ==
====Essential Cell Biology====
* Chapter 19 Tissues p622-627
====Molecular Biology of the Cell====
Alberts, Bruce; Johnson, Alexander; Lewis, Julian; Raff, Martin; Roberts, Keith; Walter, Peter
New York and London: Garland Science; c2002
* Molecular Biology of the Cell 4th ed. - Chapter 19 Cellular Mechanisms of Development p1037-1039
* [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov:80/books/bv.fcgi?db=Books&rid=mboc4.figgrp.4090 Figure 22-4. The definition of a stem cell]
* [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov:80/books/bv.fcgi?db=Books&rid=mboc4.figgrp.4119 Figure 22-19. Renewal of the gut lining]
* [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov:80/books/bv.fcgi?db=Books&rid=mboc4.figgrp.4092 Figure 22-5. Two ways for a stem cell to produce daughters with different fates]
====Molecular Cell Biology====
Lodish, Harvey; Berk, Arnold; Zipursky, S. Lawrence; Matsudaira, Paul; Baltimore, David; Darnell, James E.
New York: W. H. Freeman & Co.; c1999
* Molecular Cell Biology - Chapter 23. Cell Interactions in Development
* [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov:80/books/bv.fcgi?db=Books&rid=mcb.figgrp.7080 Figure 24-8. Formation of differentiated blood cells from hematopoietic stem cells in the bone marrow]
====The Cell- A Molecular Approach====
Cooper, Geoffrey M.
Sunderland (MA): Sinauer Associates, Inc.; c2000
* The Cell - A Molecular Approach -  IV. Cell Regulation Chapter 14. Cell Proliferation in Development and Differentiation
* [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov:80/books/bv.fcgi?db=Books&rid=cooper.section.2499#2501 Stem Cells]
====Search Online Textbooks====
* "stem cell" [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov:80/entrez/query.fcgi?db=Books&cmd=search&doptcmdl=DocSum&term=stem+cell+AND+mboc4%5Bbook%5D Molecular Biology of the Cell] | [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov:80/entrez/query.fcgi?db=Books&cmd=search&doptcmdl=DocSum&term=stem+cell+AND+mcb%5Bbook%5D Molecular Cell Biology] | [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov:80/entrez/query.fcgi?db=Books&cmd=search&doptcmdl=DocSum&term=stem+cell+AND+cooper%5Bbook%5D The Cell- A molecular Approach]
Please download Dr Annemiek Beverdam's Slides (linked below) before the lecture.
* Jensen J, Hyllner J, Björquist P. Human embryonic stem cell technologies and drug discovery. J Cell Physiol. 2009 Jun;219(3):513-9. Review. [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18000678 PMID: 19277978]
[[Media:2015 Stem Cell Lecture 1 AB.pdf|'''2016 Lecture Slides''']]
* Allen ND, Baird DM. Telomere length maintenance in stem cell populations. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2009 Feb 11. [Epub ahead of print] [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19419691 PMID: 19419691]
* Kenji Matsumoto, Takayuki Isagawa, Toshinobu Nishimura, Takunori Ogaeri, Koji Eto, Satsuki Miyazaki, Jun-ichi Miyazaki, Hiroyuki Aburatani, Hiromitsu Nakauchi, and Hideo Ema Stepwise Development of Hematopoietic Stem Cells from Embryonic Stem Cells PLoS ONE. 2009; 4(3): e4820. Published online 2009 March 16. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0004820. PMCID: PMC2653650
* Tesar PJ. Derivation of germ-line-competent embryonic stem cell lines from preblastocyst mouse embryos. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005 Jun 7;102(23):8239-44. Epub 2005 May 25. [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15917331 PMID: 15917331]
====Search Entrez====
* [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/gquery?itool=toolbar&cmd=search&term=stem+cell stem cell]
Archive [[media:2015 Stem Cell Lecture 1 AB.pdf|2015]]
* [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/gquery?itool=toolbar&cmd=search&term=stem+cell+marker stem cell marker]
* [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/gquery?itool=toolbar&cmd=search&term=embryonic+stem+cell embryonic stem cell]
* [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/gquery?itool=toolbar&cmd=search&term=mesenchymal+stem+cell mesenchymal stem cell]
* UNSW Embryology [http://embryology.med.unsw.edu.au/Notes/stemcell.htm Stem Cells]
* Australian Stem Cell Centre [http://www.stemcellcentre.edu.au/ Australian Stem Cell Centre] | [http://www.stemcellcentre.edu.au/public-education.aspx Public Education] | [http://www.stemcellcentre.edu.au/public-education_fact-sheets.aspx Fact Sheets] | [http://www.asscr.org/ Australasian Society for Stem Cell Research]
* NIH [http://stemcells.nih.gov/ Stem Cell Information Home Page] | [http://www.nationalstemcellbank.org/National Stem Cell Bank (NSCB)] | [http://stemcells.nih.gov/info/2001report/2001report.htm Stem Cells: Scientific Progress and Future Research Directions 2001] | [http://stemcells.nih.gov/info/2006report/ Regenerative Medicine 2006]
* International Consortium of Stem Cell Networks [http://icscn.wordpress.com/about-icscn/ International Consortium of Stem Cell Networks] | [http://www.stemgen.org/mapworld.cfm Stem Cell Legislation - World Map] | [http://www.isscr.org/science/faq.htm FAQs]
* STEM CELLS Journal [http://www.stemcellsportal.com/ Stem Cells Portal]
[http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK27044/ StemBook] Cambridge (MA): Harvard Stem Cell Institute; 2008.
:"StemBook is an open access collection of invited, original, peer-reviewed chapters covering a range of topics related to stem cell biology written by top researchers in the field at the Harvard Stem Cell Institute and worldwide. StemBook is aimed at stem cell and non-specialist researchers."

Latest revision as of 14:23, 20 May 2016

Stem Cells


Week 1 Human Development - Embryonic Stem Cells
Inner cell mass

The term "stem cell" is used so freely these days in many different forums that it is difficult sometimes understand without context what scientists, politicians, ethicists and commentators are discussing. This lecture will focus on the cell biology of stem cells and the current research on growing and differentiating theses cells.

Please download Dr Annemiek Beverdam's Slides (linked below) before the lecture.

2016 Lecture Slides

Archive 2015

2016 Course Content

Lectures: Cell Biology Introduction | Cells Eukaryotes and Prokaryotes | Cell Membranes and Compartments | Cell Nucleus | Cell Export - Exocytosis | Cell Import - Endocytosis | Cytoskeleton Introduction | Cytoskeleton - Microfilaments | Cytoskeleton - Microtubules | Cytoskeleton - Intermediate Filaments | Cell Mitochondria | Cell Junctions | Extracellular Matrix 1 | Extracellular Matrix 2 | Cell Cycle | Cell Division | Cell Death 1 | Cell Death 2 | Signal 1 | Signal 2 | Stem Cells 1 | Stem Cells 2 | Development | 2016 Revision

Laboratories: Introduction to Lab | Microscopy Methods | Preparation/Fixation | Cell Knockout Methods | Cytoskeleton Exercise | Immunochemistry | Project Work | Confocal Microscopy | Tissue Culture | Stem Cells Lab | Microarray Visit

2016 Projects: Group 1 | Group 2 | Group 3 | Group 4 | Group 5 | Group 6 | Group 7

Dr Mark Hill 2015, UNSW Cell Biology - UNSW CRICOS Provider Code No. 00098G