Difference between revisions of "Sorted JCB Archive"

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External links to historic papers from JCB.
+
External links to historic papers from JCB. See also the unsorted [[From the JCB Archive]] list.
  
See also unsorted [[ JCB Archive]] list
+
== Membranes ==
 +
 
 +
 
 +
* [http://www.jcb.org/cgi/content/full/168/2/174-a The invention of freeze fracture EM and the determination of membrane structure] Russell Steere introduces his home-made contraption for freeze fracture electron microscopy (EM), and Daniel Branton uses it to conclude that membranes are bilayers.
 +
* [http://www.jcb.org/cgi/doi/10.1083/jcb1722fta1 Lipid raft idea is floated] Gerrit van Meer and Kai Simons get the first hints of lipid rafts based on lipid sorting experiments.
 +
* [http://www.jcb.org/cgi/doi/10.1083/jcb1701fta1 Spectrin is peripheral] S. Jonathan Singer, Garth Nicolson, and Vincent Marchesi use red cell ghosts to provide strong evidence for the existence of peripheral membrane proteins.
 +
 
 +
== Nucleus ==
 +
 
 +
* [http://www.jcb.org/cgi/doi/10.1083/jcb1684fta1 Heterochromatin is late] Antonio Lima-de-Faria shows that heterochromatin replicates later than euchromatin.
 +
* [http://jcb.rupress.org/cgi/content/full/168/4/524-a The nucleolar origin of rRNA] Base compositions and half-lives suggest to Jan-Erik Edström that the nucleolus is the source of rRNA.
 +
* [http://www.jcb.org/cgi/doi/10.1083/jcb1706fta2 The isolation of the nuclear lamina] Aaronson, Blobel, and Gerace define the extent and composition of the nuclear lamina.
 +
* [http://www.jcb.org/cgi/doi/10.1083/jcb.1731fta3 The Hunting of the snRNP] Carmo-Fonseca and Lamond track the nuclear travels of snRNPs.
 +
* [http://www.jcb.org/cgi/doi/10.1083/jcb1712fta3| A portrait of the nuclear pore complex] Ron Milligan and Nigel Unwin get a closer look at nuclear pore architecture.
 +
* [http://www.jcb.org/cgi/doi/10.1083/jcb.1726fta1 Chromosome snatching by lateral microtubules] Conly Rieder gets kinetochore capture on tape.
 +
* [http://jcb.rupress.org/cgi/content/full/168/1/13-a Building a case for the chromosome scaffold] William Earnshaw and Margarete Heck localize topo 2 to the base supports of the radial loops of chromatin.
 +
* [http://www.jcb.org/cgi/doi/10.1083/jcb1723fta1 Centrosome choreography] Tony Hyman investigates how centrosome movements are choreographed, and how they determine the division axis.
  
  
== Ribosomes endoplasmic reticulum ==
+
== Ribosomes / endoplasmic reticulum ==
 
   
 
   
  
Line 16: Line 32:
  
 
* [http://jcb.rupress.org/cgi/content/full/168/1/12 The discovery of synaptic vesicles] The visualization of the messengers of the synapse — synaptic vesicles — gives the hypothesis of quantal transmitter release a structural correlate.
 
* [http://jcb.rupress.org/cgi/content/full/168/1/12 The discovery of synaptic vesicles] The visualization of the messengers of the synapse — synaptic vesicles — gives the hypothesis of quantal transmitter release a structural correlate.
 +
 +
 +
== Golgi complex ==
 +
 +
* [http://www.jcb.org/cgi/doi/10.1083/jcb1691fta1 Sugars sprinkled onto proteins in the Golgi] Glycosylation occurs in the Golgi complex, based on labeling with tritiated glucose carried out by Marian Neutra and C.P. Leblond.
 +
* [http://www.jcb.org/cgi/doi/10.1083/jcb1712fta2 Tagging an organelle] Warren, Louvard, and Reggio isolate the first Golgi-specific antibodies.
 +
 +
 +
== Exocytosis ==
 +
 +
* [http://jcb.rupress.org/cgi/content/full/168/4/525 A pathway for secretion] Radioactive proteins are followed after their synthesis as they progress towards their secretory fate; this allows the definition of not only trafficking pathways but of the organelles that lie along that pathway.
  
  
 
== Lysosmes ==
 
== Lysosmes ==
 
  
 
* [http://jcb.rupress.org/cgi/content/full/168/2/174 Catching sight of lysosomes] Lysosomes are identified by Christian deDuve when a membrane barrier gradually dissolves, thus yielding the tell-tale release of an enzyme activity over time.
 
* [http://jcb.rupress.org/cgi/content/full/168/2/174 Catching sight of lysosomes] Lysosomes are identified by Christian deDuve when a membrane barrier gradually dissolves, thus yielding the tell-tale release of an enzyme activity over time.
Line 26: Line 52:
 
* [http://www.jcb.org/cgi/content/full/169/4/553-a How to make a lysosome] Daniel Friend and Marilyn Farquhar find that transport pathways intersect: synthesized enzyme meets endocytosed protein in the lysosome.
 
* [http://www.jcb.org/cgi/content/full/169/4/553-a How to make a lysosome] Daniel Friend and Marilyn Farquhar find that transport pathways intersect: synthesized enzyme meets endocytosed protein in the lysosome.
  
 +
== Mitochondria ==
  
== Membranes ==
+
* [http://www.jcb.org/cgi/doi/10.1083/jcb1686fta2 There’s DNA in those organelles] DNA is directly visualized in first chloroplasts and then mitochondria.
 +
* [http://www.jcb.org/cgi/doi/10.1083/jcb1692fta3 Were mitochondrial contractions driving the cellular energy cycle?]      In the days before Mitchell’s chemiosmotic hypothesis, Charles Hackenbrock and others are intrigued by the correlation of an in vitro mitochondrial structural change with oxidative phosphorylation function.
  
 +
== Endocytosis ==
  
* [http://www.jcb.org/cgi/content/full/168/2/174-a The invention of freeze fracture EM and the determination of membrane structure] Russell Steere introduces his home-made contraption for freeze fracture electron microscopy (EM), and Daniel Branton uses it to conclude that membranes are bilayers.
 
* [http://www.jcb.org/cgi/doi/10.1083/jcb1722fta1 Lipid raft idea is floated] Gerrit van Meer and Kai Simons get the first hints of lipid rafts based on lipid sorting experiments.
 
* [http://www.jcb.org/cgi/doi/10.1083/jcb1701fta1 Spectrin is peripheral] S. Jonathan Singer, Garth Nicolson, and Vincent Marchesi use red cell ghosts to provide strong evidence for the existence of peripheral membrane proteins.
 
  
 +
* [http://www.jcb.org/cgi/doi/10.1083/jcb1691fta1 Coated pits bring in the yolk] A study of yolk protein uptake leads Thomas Roth and Keith Porter to propose that endocytosis is specific to a particular cargo and that the vesicle coat might be functioning in both selection and mechanical molding.
 +
* [http://www.jcb.org/cgi/doi/10.1083/jcb1702fta1 Curbside recycling at the synapse] When John Heuser and Thomas Reese visualize neurotransmitter 'quanta' being released, they also catch sight of endocytic recycling that forms new synaptic vesicles. Ralph Steinman confirms that significant plasma membrane recycling must also be occurring in other cell types.
 +
* [http://www.jcb.org/cgi/doi/10.1083/jcb1707fta1 Viruses catch an endocytic ride into the cell] Ari Helenius puts together snapshots of virus entry to form a coherent sequence of events.
  
== Exocytosis ==
 
 
 
* [http://jcb.rupress.org/cgi/content/full/168/4/525 A pathway for secretion] Radioactive proteins are followed after their synthesis as they progress towards their secretory fate; this allows the definition of not only trafficking pathways but of the organelles that lie along that pathway.
 
  
 +
== Peroxisomes ==
  
 +
* [http://www.jcb.org/cgi/content/full/169/5/705 Seeing peroxisomes] Christian de Duve’s group isolates and characterizes peroxisomes.
  
 
== Microtubules ==
 
== Microtubules ==
 
  
 
* [http://www.jcb.org/cgi/doi/10.1083/jcb1707fta2 What the cytoskeleton really looks like] Freeze drying gives John Heuser a far more complete view of the cytoskeleton.
 
* [http://www.jcb.org/cgi/doi/10.1083/jcb1707fta2 What the cytoskeleton really looks like] Freeze drying gives John Heuser a far more complete view of the cytoskeleton.
Line 57: Line 83:
 
* [http://www.jcb.org/cgi/doi/10.1083/jcb1705fta1 Microtubules as a gyroscope for cells on the go] Harry Malech, Richard Root, and John Gallin make neutrophils switch their direction, and thus find that microtubules orient and organize the internal structure of migrating cells.
 
* [http://www.jcb.org/cgi/doi/10.1083/jcb1705fta1 Microtubules as a gyroscope for cells on the go] Harry Malech, Richard Root, and John Gallin make neutrophils switch their direction, and thus find that microtubules orient and organize the internal structure of migrating cells.
  
 +
== Microfilaments ==
  
 
+
* [http://www.jcb.org/cgi/doi/10.1083/jcb1707fta2 What the cytoskeleton really looks like] Freeze drying gives John Heuser a far more complete view of the cytoskeleton.
== Nucleus ==
+
* [http://www.jcb.org/cgi/content/full/169/5/704-a Not actin, not myosin, but intermediate] They are neither thick nor thin: Howard Holtzer identifies intermediate filaments as a completely new kind of filament.
 
+
* [http://www.jcb.org/cgi/doi/10.1083/jcb1696fta2 Actin in non-muscle cells] Howard Holtzer’s group uses heavy meromyosin as a probe to find actin filaments in non-muscle cells.  
 
+
* [http://www.jcb.org/cgi/doi/10.1083/jcb1705fta3 Actin and microtubules interact via MAP] A viscometer allows Linda Griffith and Tom Pollard to demonstrate that actin and microtubules interact via MAPs.
* [http://www.jcb.org/cgi/doi/10.1083/jcb1684fta1 Heterochromatin is late] Antonio Lima-de-Faria shows that heterochromatin replicates later than euchromatin.
+
* [http://www.jcb.org/cgi/doi/10.1083/jcb1696fta1 Actin in locomotion] Ken Yamada, Brian Spooner and Norman Wessels use the newly discovered drug cytochalasin B to show that actin filaments drive cell locomotion.
* [http://jcb.rupress.org/cgi/content/full/168/4/524-a The nucleolar origin of rRNA] Base compositions and half-lives suggest to Jan-Erik Edström that the nucleolus is the source of rRNA.
+
* [http://www.jcb.org/cgi/doi/10.1083/jcb1702fta2| Actin pushes in bizarre places] Lewis Tilney discovers that actin polymerization is a means of force generation. His studies use unorthodox systems: the acrosomal reaction in both starfish and sea cucumber sperm and the cell-to-cell motility of the <em>Listeria  monocytogenes</em> bacterium.
* [http://www.jcb.org/cgi/doi/10.1083/jcb1706fta2 The isolation of the nuclear lamina] Aaronson, Blobel, and Gerace define the extent and composition of the nuclear lamina.
+
* [http://www.jcb.org/cgi/doi/10.1083/jcb.1727fta1 Skeleton crew] Anne Ridley and Alan Hall find that rho and its relatives control actin dynamics.
* [http://www.jcb.org/cgi/doi/10.1083/jcb.1731fta3 The Hunting of the snRNP] Carmo-Fonseca and Lamond track the nuclear travels of snRNPs.
+
* [http://www.jcb.org/cgi/content/full/170/3/339 Powered by gel] Thomas Stossel and John Hartwig nab the very first actin-binding protein, find that it spurs actin fibers in vitro to coalesce into a mesh, and tie this process to what happens in vivo during phagocytosis.
* [http://www.jcb.org/cgi/doi/10.1083/jcb1712fta3| A portrait of the nuclear pore complex] Ron Milligan and Nigel Unwin get a closer look at nuclear pore architecture.
+
* [http://www.jcb.org/cgi/doi/10.1083/jcb1704fta3 Myosin powers cytokinesis] Issei Mabuchi and Makoto Okuno, in the first use of antibodies as protein inhibitors in live cells, show that myosin interacts with actin to provide the force behind cell cleavage.
* [http://www.jcb.org/cgi/doi/10.1083/jcb.1726fta1 Chromosome snatching by lateral microtubules] Conly Rieder gets kinetochore capture on tape.
 
* [http://jcb.rupress.org/cgi/content/full/168/1/13-a Building a case for the chromosome scaffold] William Earnshaw and Margarete Heck localize topo 2 to the base supports of the radial loops of chromatin.
 
* [http://www.jcb.org/cgi/doi/10.1083/jcb1723fta1 Centrosome choreography] Tony Hyman investigates how centrosome movements are choreographed, and how they determine the division axis.
 
 
 
 
 
  
 
== Adhesion / Cell Junctions ==
 
== Adhesion / Cell Junctions ==
 
  
 
* [http://www.jcb.org/cgi/doi/10.1083/jcb1685fta3 How vessels become leaky] Guido Majno and George Palade find that inflamed blood vessels leak when endothelial cells loosen their grip on one another.  
 
* [http://www.jcb.org/cgi/doi/10.1083/jcb1685fta3 How vessels become leaky] Guido Majno and George Palade find that inflamed blood vessels leak when endothelial cells loosen their grip on one another.  
Line 89: Line 110:
  
 
== Cell Death ==
 
== Cell Death ==
 
  
 
* [http://www.jcb.org/cgi/doi/10.1083/jcb1685fta2 Autophagy unveiled] Autophagy is identified, given a function, and named.
 
* [http://www.jcb.org/cgi/doi/10.1083/jcb1685fta2 Autophagy unveiled] Autophagy is identified, given a function, and named.
Line 95: Line 115:
 
* [http://www.jcb.org/cgi/doi/10.1083/jcb.1732fta2 Dying On Cue] Yuri Lazebnik and William Earnshaw create a system for in vitro apoptosis.
 
* [http://www.jcb.org/cgi/doi/10.1083/jcb.1732fta2 Dying On Cue] Yuri Lazebnik and William Earnshaw create a system for in vitro apoptosis.
 
* [http://www.jcb.org/cgi/doi/10.1083/jcb.1724fta1 Active neuronal death] Eugene Johnson shows that neurons lacking trophic factors actively kill themselves.
 
* [http://www.jcb.org/cgi/doi/10.1083/jcb.1724fta1 Active neuronal death] Eugene Johnson shows that neurons lacking trophic factors actively kill themselves.
 
 
 
== Mitochondria ==
 
 
 
* [http://www.jcb.org/cgi/doi/10.1083/jcb1686fta2 There&rsquo;s DNA in those organelles] DNA is directly visualized in first chloroplasts and then mitochondria.
 
* [http://www.jcb.org/cgi/doi/10.1083/jcb1692fta3 Were mitochondrial contractions driving the cellular energy cycle?]      In the days before Mitchell&rsquo;s chemiosmotic hypothesis, Charles Hackenbrock and others are intrigued by the correlation of an in vitro mitochondrial structural change with oxidative phosphorylation function.
 
 
 
 
 
== Endocytosis ==
 
 
 
* [http://www.jcb.org/cgi/doi/10.1083/jcb1691fta1 Coated pits bring in the yolk] A study of yolk protein uptake leads Thomas Roth and Keith Porter to propose that endocytosis is specific to a particular cargo and that the vesicle coat might be functioning in both selection and mechanical molding.
 
* [http://www.jcb.org/cgi/doi/10.1083/jcb1702fta1 Curbside recycling at the synapse] When John Heuser and Thomas Reese visualize neurotransmitter 'quanta' being released, they also catch sight of endocytic recycling that forms new synaptic vesicles. Ralph Steinman confirms that significant plasma membrane recycling must also be occurring in other cell types.
 
* [http://www.jcb.org/cgi/doi/10.1083/jcb1707fta1 Viruses catch an endocytic ride into the cell] Ari Helenius puts together snapshots of virus entry to form a coherent sequence of events.
 
 
 
== Golgi complex ==
 
 
 
* [http://www.jcb.org/cgi/doi/10.1083/jcb1691fta1 Sugars sprinkled onto proteins in the Golgi] Glycosylation occurs in the Golgi complex, based on labeling with tritiated glucose carried out by Marian Neutra and C.P. Leblond.
 
* [http://www.jcb.org/cgi/doi/10.1083/jcb1712fta2 Tagging an organelle] Warren, Louvard, and Reggio isolate the first Golgi-specific antibodies.
 
 
 
 
== Peroxisomes ==
 
 
 
* [http://www.jcb.org/cgi/content/full/169/5/705 Seeing peroxisomes] Christian de Duve&rsquo;s group isolates and characterizes peroxisomes.
 
 
 
 
== Microfilaments ==
 
 
 
* [http://www.jcb.org/cgi/doi/10.1083/jcb1707fta2 What the cytoskeleton really looks like] Freeze drying gives John Heuser a far more complete view of the cytoskeleton.
 
* [http://www.jcb.org/cgi/content/full/169/5/704-a Not actin, not myosin, but intermediate] They are neither thick nor thin: Howard Holtzer identifies intermediate filaments as a completely new kind of filament.
 
* [http://www.jcb.org/cgi/doi/10.1083/jcb1696fta2 Actin in non-muscle cells] Howard Holtzer&rsquo;s group uses heavy meromyosin as a probe to find actin filaments in non-muscle cells.
 
* [http://www.jcb.org/cgi/doi/10.1083/jcb1705fta3 Actin and microtubules interact via MAP] A viscometer allows Linda Griffith and Tom Pollard to demonstrate that actin and microtubules interact via MAPs.
 
* [http://www.jcb.org/cgi/doi/10.1083/jcb1696fta1 Actin in locomotion] Ken Yamada, Brian Spooner and Norman Wessels use the newly discovered drug cytochalasin B to show that actin filaments drive cell locomotion.
 
* [http://www.jcb.org/cgi/doi/10.1083/jcb1702fta2| Actin pushes in bizarre places] Lewis Tilney discovers that actin polymerization is a means of force generation. His studies use unorthodox systems: the acrosomal reaction in both starfish and sea cucumber sperm and the cell-to-cell motility of the <em>Listeria  monocytogenes</em> bacterium.
 
* [http://www.jcb.org/cgi/doi/10.1083/jcb.1727fta1 Skeleton crew] Anne Ridley and Alan Hall find that rho and its relatives control actin dynamics.
 
* [http://www.jcb.org/cgi/content/full/170/3/339 Powered by gel] Thomas Stossel and John Hartwig nab the very first actin-binding protein, find that it spurs actin fibers in vitro to coalesce into a mesh, and tie this process to what happens in vivo during phagocytosis.
 
* [http://www.jcb.org/cgi/doi/10.1083/jcb1704fta3 Myosin powers cytokinesis] Issei Mabuchi and Makoto Okuno, in the first use of antibodies as protein inhibitors in live cells, show that myosin interacts with actin to provide the force behind cell cleavage.
 
 
 
  
 
== Cell Division ==
 
== Cell Division ==
Line 156: Line 127:
 
* [http://www.jcb.org/cgi/doi/10.1083/jcb1704fta3 Myosin powers cytokinesis] Issei Mabuchi and Makoto Okuno, in the first use of antibodies as protein inhibitors in live cells, show that myosin interacts with actin to provide the force behind cell cleavage.
 
* [http://www.jcb.org/cgi/doi/10.1083/jcb1704fta3 Myosin powers cytokinesis] Issei Mabuchi and Makoto Okuno, in the first use of antibodies as protein inhibitors in live cells, show that myosin interacts with actin to provide the force behind cell cleavage.
 
* [http://www.jcb.org/cgi/doi/10.1083/jcb1723fta1 Centrosome choreography] Tony Hyman investigates how centrosome movements are choreographed, and how they determine the division axis.
 
* [http://www.jcb.org/cgi/doi/10.1083/jcb1723fta1 Centrosome choreography] Tony Hyman investigates how centrosome movements are choreographed, and how they determine the division axis.
 
 
 
  
 
== Signaling ==
 
== Signaling ==
 
  
 
* [http://www.jcb.org/cgi/content/full/170/3/339-a EGF is internalized and degraded] Occupied growth factor receptors do not remain statically at the cell surface, say Graham Carpenter and Stanley Cohen, but are internalized to allow continued signaling or downregulation.
 
* [http://www.jcb.org/cgi/content/full/170/3/339-a EGF is internalized and degraded] Occupied growth factor receptors do not remain statically at the cell surface, say Graham Carpenter and Stanley Cohen, but are internalized to allow continued signaling or downregulation.
Line 174: Line 141:
  
 
== Techniques ==
 
== Techniques ==
 
 
  
 
* [http://www.jcb.org/cgi/doi/10.1083/jcb1713fta1 Yeast becomes a cell biologist] Adams, Pringle, and Kilmartin introduce new antibody techniques, and budding yeast makes its debut as a cell biology workhorse.
 
* [http://www.jcb.org/cgi/doi/10.1083/jcb1713fta1 Yeast becomes a cell biologist] Adams, Pringle, and Kilmartin introduce new antibody techniques, and budding yeast makes its debut as a cell biology workhorse.
 
* [http://www.jcb.org/cgi/doi/10.1083/jcb1714fta2 Frog egg extracts can do a cell&rsquo;s work] Manfred Lohka and Yoshio Masui show that frog egg extracts can be used to recreate complex in vivo processes.
 
* [http://www.jcb.org/cgi/doi/10.1083/jcb1714fta2 Frog egg extracts can do a cell&rsquo;s work] Manfred Lohka and Yoshio Masui show that frog egg extracts can be used to recreate complex in vivo processes.
 
* [http://www.jcb.org/cgi/doi/10.1083/jcb1713fta3| Dishing up bone formation] Hiroaki Kodama establishes a cell line of osteoblasts (bone-forming cells) that mineralize in vitro.
 
* [http://www.jcb.org/cgi/doi/10.1083/jcb1713fta3| Dishing up bone formation] Hiroaki Kodama establishes a cell line of osteoblasts (bone-forming cells) that mineralize in vitro.
 
 
  
  
 
== Cells ==
 
== Cells ==
 
  
 
* [http://www.jcb.org/cgi/doi/10.1083/jcb1693fta1 Endothelial tight junctions form the blood&ndash;brain barrier] What is the cellular correlate of the so called blood-brain barrier? Thomas Reese and Morris Karnovsky find that it is the junctions between endothelial cells in the brain vasculature. Their discovery comes thanks to three factors: high resolution electron microscopy; the development of sensitive tracer methods; and a fortuitous lunch date.
 
* [http://www.jcb.org/cgi/doi/10.1083/jcb1693fta1 Endothelial tight junctions form the blood&ndash;brain barrier] What is the cellular correlate of the so called blood-brain barrier? Thomas Reese and Morris Karnovsky find that it is the junctions between endothelial cells in the brain vasculature. Their discovery comes thanks to three factors: high resolution electron microscopy; the development of sensitive tracer methods; and a fortuitous lunch date.
Line 194: Line 156:
  
 
== Extracellular Matrix ==
 
== Extracellular Matrix ==
 
 
  
 
* [http://www.jcb.org/cgi/doi/10.1083/jcb.1731fta1 ECM determines fate] Streuli and Bissell find that extracellular matrix can tell a cell what to do and what to become.
 
* [http://www.jcb.org/cgi/doi/10.1083/jcb.1731fta1 ECM determines fate] Streuli and Bissell find that extracellular matrix can tell a cell what to do and what to become.

Latest revision as of 16:17, 16 March 2009

External links to historic papers from JCB. See also the unsorted From the JCB Archive list.

Membranes

Nucleus


Ribosomes / endoplasmic reticulum

  • Ribosomes, or the particles of Palade George Palade identifies particulate components of the cytoplasm, known initially as the particles of Palade and later as ribosomes.
  • Microsomes are the in vitro ER George Palade and Philip Siekevitz unite the fields of microscopy and fractionation in this work. They conclude that Albert Claude’s biochemical fraction called microsomes are the in vitro version of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) — a cytological feature first noted by Keith Porter.
  • Growth cones make proteins, too The recent discovery that elongating axons can synthesize proteins locally is pre-dated by 30 years by Virginia Tennyson’s discovery that growth cones have ribosomes.
  • Lost in translation: the signal hypothesis Günter Blobel and Bernhard Dobberstein use a Rube Goldberg concoction of mouse RNA, rabbit ribosomes, and dog ER to reconstruct cell biology's version of the ship in the bottle: how proteins a cell intends to secrete end up in the endoplasmic reticulum.
  • Isolating SRP Walter, Blobel, Warren and Dobberstein pin down the proteins (and RNA) that grab onto signal sequences.

Vesicles

  • The discovery of synaptic vesicles The visualization of the messengers of the synapse — synaptic vesicles — gives the hypothesis of quantal transmitter release a structural correlate.


Golgi complex


Exocytosis

  • A pathway for secretion Radioactive proteins are followed after their synthesis as they progress towards their secretory fate; this allows the definition of not only trafficking pathways but of the organelles that lie along that pathway.


Lysosmes

  • Catching sight of lysosomes Lysosomes are identified by Christian deDuve when a membrane barrier gradually dissolves, thus yielding the tell-tale release of an enzyme activity over time.
  • The first supper Fritz Miller and George Palade carry out one of the first examples of combined cytochemistry and electron microscopy. They find that enzymes and substrates colocalize in lysosomes.
  • Excess secretory products fuse with lysosomes Robert Smith and Marilyn Farquhar find that excess secretory granules are not stored but fuse with multivesicular bodies (MVBs) that then mature and fuse with lysosomes.
  • How to make a lysosome Daniel Friend and Marilyn Farquhar find that transport pathways intersect: synthesized enzyme meets endocytosed protein in the lysosome.

Mitochondria

Endocytosis

  • Coated pits bring in the yolk A study of yolk protein uptake leads Thomas Roth and Keith Porter to propose that endocytosis is specific to a particular cargo and that the vesicle coat might be functioning in both selection and mechanical molding.
  • Curbside recycling at the synapse When John Heuser and Thomas Reese visualize neurotransmitter 'quanta' being released, they also catch sight of endocytic recycling that forms new synaptic vesicles. Ralph Steinman confirms that significant plasma membrane recycling must also be occurring in other cell types.
  • Viruses catch an endocytic ride into the cell Ari Helenius puts together snapshots of virus entry to form a coherent sequence of events.


Peroxisomes

Microtubules

Microfilaments

  • What the cytoskeleton really looks like Freeze drying gives John Heuser a far more complete view of the cytoskeleton.
  • Not actin, not myosin, but intermediate They are neither thick nor thin: Howard Holtzer identifies intermediate filaments as a completely new kind of filament.
  • Actin in non-muscle cells Howard Holtzer’s group uses heavy meromyosin as a probe to find actin filaments in non-muscle cells.
  • Actin and microtubules interact via MAP A viscometer allows Linda Griffith and Tom Pollard to demonstrate that actin and microtubules interact via MAPs.
  • Actin in locomotion Ken Yamada, Brian Spooner and Norman Wessels use the newly discovered drug cytochalasin B to show that actin filaments drive cell locomotion.
  • Actin pushes in bizarre places Lewis Tilney discovers that actin polymerization is a means of force generation. His studies use unorthodox systems: the acrosomal reaction in both starfish and sea cucumber sperm and the cell-to-cell motility of the Listeria monocytogenes bacterium.
  • Skeleton crew Anne Ridley and Alan Hall find that rho and its relatives control actin dynamics.
  • Powered by gel Thomas Stossel and John Hartwig nab the very first actin-binding protein, find that it spurs actin fibers in vitro to coalesce into a mesh, and tie this process to what happens in vivo during phagocytosis.
  • Myosin powers cytokinesis Issei Mabuchi and Makoto Okuno, in the first use of antibodies as protein inhibitors in live cells, show that myosin interacts with actin to provide the force behind cell cleavage.

Adhesion / Cell Junctions


Cell Death

  • Autophagy unveiled Autophagy is identified, given a function, and named.
  • Hold on for dear life Steve Frisch and Hunter Francis find that epithelial cells that lose touch with the extracellular matrix kill themselves by anoikis.
  • Dying On Cue Yuri Lazebnik and William Earnshaw create a system for in vitro apoptosis.
  • Active neuronal death Eugene Johnson shows that neurons lacking trophic factors actively kill themselves.

Cell Division

Signaling

  • EGF is internalized and degraded Occupied growth factor receptors do not remain statically at the cell surface, say Graham Carpenter and Stanley Cohen, but are internalized to allow continued signaling or downregulation.
  • Roll-your-own endothelial tubes Tom Maciag and Michael Stemerman find the critical factor that keeps endothelial cells alive and controls their tube formation.
  • Contacting the matrix Can the extracellular matrix (ECM) act as an inducer? Using an ingenious combination of biochemistry and tissue culture on Nucleopore filters, Elizabeth Hay and Stephen Meier show that direct contact with ECM is necessary for corneal epithelium to differentiate.
  • In vitro nuclear import In vitro nuclear import assays lead Gerace and Blobel to the importance of the Ran GTPase.
  • Pursuing the middleman: the hunt for integrins A group of labs use antibodies to find integrins and define their function.
  • BFA sends proteins back Jon Yewdell uses Brefeldin A to detect retrograde trafficking.



Techniques


Cells

  • Endothelial tight junctions form the blood–brain barrier What is the cellular correlate of the so called blood-brain barrier? Thomas Reese and Morris Karnovsky find that it is the junctions between endothelial cells in the brain vasculature. Their discovery comes thanks to three factors: high resolution electron microscopy; the development of sensitive tracer methods; and a fortuitous lunch date.
  • A cell line that is under control George Todaro and Howard Green establish the 3T3 cell line — the first well behaved, contact-inhibited cell line.
  • A macrophage mystery leads to dendritic discovery In the days before MHC function is defined, digestion of antigens in macrophages is mistakenly taken as evidence against the cells’ role in antigen presentation. But the study leads Ralph Steinman and Zanvil Cohn to their vital discovery of dendritic cells.
  • How to spot a satellite cell Based on appearance alone, Alexander Mauro identifies satellite cells as a possible muscle stem cell.


Extracellular Matrix

  • ECM determines fate Streuli and Bissell find that extracellular matrix can tell a cell what to do and what to become.
  • Basal lamina instructs innervation Joshua Sanes and Jack McMahan show that regenerating nerve axons take their cues for new synapse formation from the extracellular matrix (ECM) of muscle cells and not from the muscle cells themselves.
  • ECM signals ECM degradation Damsky and Zena Werb show that changes in ECM interaction change expression of ECM-modifying enzymes.
  • More than one way to attach Wen-Tien Chen and S. Jonathan Singer define different connections between membrane receptors and extracellular matrix.
  • Making tendons David Birk and Robert Trelstad discover how the cell manipulates collagen to form a tendon.
  • Contacting the matrix Can the extracellular matrix (ECM) act as an inducer? Using an ingenious combination of biochemistry and tissue culture on Nucleopore filters, Elizabeth Hay and Stephen Meier show that direct contact with ECM is necessary for corneal epithelium to differentiate.


Yet to be sorted

  • Passenger proteins check in Carol Cooke and William Earnshaw identify the first passenger proteins and catalog their strange movements.