Group 3 Project- Immunohistochemistry

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What is Immunohistochemistry?

Immunohistochemistry (IHC) is a technique used to locate antigens or proteins in tissue sections. This is possible by using labelled antibodies which react with specific antigens in an antibody-antigen interaction. This interaction is visualised by a marker. Markers may be fluorescent dyes, enzymes, radioactive elements or colloidal gold.


1941 - Albert H. Coons first introduced immunofluorescence as initial attempts to label antibodies were unsuccessful as the labels were not visible enough under the microscope. Using specific antibodies, Coons labeled them with fluorescent dyes in order to localise substances in tissues. This allowed for the detection of antibodies, antigens and antigenic proteins in tissues. (Mao, Su-Yau, Javois, Lorette C., Kent, Ute M. "Overview of Antibody Use in Immunocytochemistry" From: Methods in Molecular Biology, Vol. 115: Immunocytochemical Methods and Protocols, Edited by L. C. Javois, Humana Press Inc, Totowa, New Jersey)

1942 - Albert H. Coons, Hugh Creech, Norman Jones and Ernst Berliner succeeded in tagging antibodies and using these antibodies to detect foreign antigens in tissues. This involved using a single antipneumococcal antibody to find pnuemococcal antigens in mice injected with large numbers of pneumococci. (


Direct Method




Indirect Method

PAP Method

ABC Method

The ABC method in immunohistochemistry is a type of indirect method and stands for Avidin-Biotin Complex method.

LSAB Method

Current Research/Breakthroughs


2010 Projects

Fluorescent-PCR | RNA Interference | Immunohistochemistry | Cell Culture | Electron Microsopy | Confocal Microscopy | Monoclonal Antibodies | Microarray | Fluorescent Proteins | Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer