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Intracellular bacterial pathogens invade non-phagocytic host cells through two mechanisms: zipper and trigger. The zipper mechanism uses bacterial surface proteins that bind receptors on the host cell membrane on contact, triggering a signalling cascade that reorganizes the actin cytoskeleton to internalize the bacterium. The trigger mechanism employs the bacterial type III secretion system (T3SS) or type IV secretion system (T4SS) to deliver proteins across the host plasma membrane to directly interact with the cellular components that regulate actin dynamics. After internalization, the bacterium can either persist in an intracellular vacuole that is derived from host cell or vesicle membranes, or escape to the cytosol. Extracellular pathogens secrete effectors that disrupt the host signalling system. ER, endoplasmic reticulum.
Copyright © 2014 Copyright Clearance Center, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Reprinted by permission from Nature Publishing Group.
License Date: May 29, 2014
License Number: 3398110280340
Publication: Nature Reviews Microbiology
Title: Manipulation of host membranes by bacterial effectors
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|current||18:44, 29 May 2014||500 × 398 (33 KB)||Z3399239||==Trigger_and_Zipper_Mechanism.jpg== Image of Trigger and Zipper Mechanism Intracellular bacterial pathogens invade non-phagocytic host cells through two mechanisms: zipper and trigger. The zipper mechanism uses bacterial surface proteins that bind re...|