--Mark Hill 08:40, 20 March 2009 (EST) This is a working page for developing a quick glossary of cell biology designed for students at undergraduate level. The student group project glossary template is more basic than this current page and is available on this page's discussion tab.
Cytoskeletal 43 kD protein forming the backbone of the cytoplasmic microfilament system and the thin filament system of muscle sacomeres. In humans, there are distinct muscle (4 alpha-skeletal, alpha-cardiac, alpha-smooth, gamma-smooth) and non-muscle (2 cytoskeletal beta-, gamma-) actin isoforms. Exists as globular actin monomer (G-actin) and microfilament polymer (F-actin). Lecture - Cytoskeleton 3 Microfilaments
Family of proteins that specifically bind actin within microfilament polymer (F-actin) or globular actin monomer (G-actin). Lecture - Cytoskeleton 3 Microfilaments
actin depolymerizing factor
(ADF) alternative name Cofilin, actin-binding protein that can disassemble actin by severing and depolymerizing actin filaments. Lecture - Cytoskeleton 3 Microfilaments
The strength of binding between a ligand and a receptor: high affinity is strong binding, low affinity is a weak binding.
Lecture - Signal 1 | Lecture - Signal 2 | Lecture - Signal 3
A phase of mitosis in which the chromosomes have separated and begun to be pulled to opposite poles of the cell. Lecture - Cell Division
anaphase promoting complex
(APC, cyclosome) Protein complex that is involved in the degradation of cohesin, allowing chromosome separation, and therefore beginning of anaphase in cell division. Lecture - Cell Division
(Greek, anoikis = "homelessness") A form of cell death that occurs when cells loose contact with the extracellular matrix (ECM). Extracellular Matrix 1 | Extracellular Matrix 2 | Lecture Cell Death 1
Acronym for Anaphase Promoting Complex.
A protein complex essential for actin assembly, generating new filaments and branch points. It is involved in cell motility in many cell processes. Lecture - Cytoskeleton 3 Microfilaments
Lecture - Cell Cycle
cell cycle checkpoint
Lecture - Cell Cycle
Structure present outside bacteria and plant cells. Gram-positive bacteria, composed of the cytoplasmic membrane and peptidoglycan layer. Gram-negative bacteria, have an additional outer membrane composed of integral membrane proteins, lipids, and lipopolysaccharides. Lecture - Eukaryotes and Prokaryotes
A carbohydrate that is found in plant cell walls Lecture - Eukaryotes and Prokaryotes
Cytoplasmic microtubule organizing centre and thought to also regulate cell cycle events. Cytoskeleton 2 Microtubules PMID: 18437411
The green material found in chloroplasts that is active in photosynthesis. Lecture - Eukaryotes and Prokaryotes
The membrane-bound organelles containing chlorophyll found in photosynthetic organisms plants and fungi. Lecture - Eukaryotes and Prokaryotes
DNA and associated proteins, named because of its affinity for dyes. Cell Nucleus | Lecture - Cell Division
The condensed form of chromatin that is visible during mitosis and meiosis (cellular division).
Acronym for Confocal Laser Scanning Microscope. Lab 7 - Confocal Microscopy
Alternative name Actin Depolymerizing Factor, actin-binding protein that can disassemble actin by severing and depolymerizing actin filaments. Lecture - Cytoskeleton 3 Microfilaments
A complex of proteins within the nucleus that hold sister chromatids together during cell division. It is degraded by separase, a protease. Lecture - Cell Division
A major extracellular matrix protein forming an insoluble fiber. Lecture - Extracellular Matrix 1
correlative light/electron microscopy
(CLEM) microscopy technique combining fluorescence light microscopy and electron microscopy for simultaneous observation of subcellular structures.
Lab 2 - Microscopy Methods | PMID: 18817522
(CAP) actin-binding protein that works in conjunction with Cofilin. Lecture - Cytoskeleton 3 Microfilaments
A fungal metabolite which binds barbed end actin microfilaments and inhibits polymerization and depolymerization. Lecture - Cytoskeleton 3 Microfilaments
Collective term for the cytosol, organelles and cytoskeleton located outside the nucleus and under the plasma membrane. Lecture - Eukaryotes and Prokaryotes
Set of 3 filament systems intermediate filaments, actin filaments, and microtubules. Eukaryotic cells have a cytoplasmic and a nuclear cytoskeleton with different organisations and filaments.
Cytoskeleton 2 Microtubules | Lecture - Cytoskeleton 3 Microfilaments
Term describing the fluid component of the cytoplasm that makes up the cytoplasm, excluding the organelles and cytoskeleton of the cytoplasm. Lecture - Eukaryotes and Prokaryotes
(di-h-HALI) Actin-binding compound derived from marine organisms, belong to a large group of structurally related marine macrolides.
Experimental depletion of F-actin by F-actin severing and monomer sequestering activities.
(see also halichondramide, HALI)
Lecture - Cytoskeleton 3 Microfilaments
Acronym for deoxyribonucleic acid, the nucleotide polymer that forms a double-helix encoding the genetic information of organisms. Lecture - Cell Nucleus | Lecture - Cell Division
Dynamin family of GTPases member expressed in the nervous system and involved in many cellular pathways, implicated in clathrin-mediated endocytosis. Lecture - Cell Import - Endocytosis
Dynamin family of GTPases member ubiquitously expressed and involved in many cellular pathways, implicated in clathrin-mediated endocytosis. Lecture - Cell Import - Endocytosis
Acronym for ExtraCellular Matrix Extracellular Matrix 1 | Extracellular Matrix 2
Lecture - Cell Import - Endocytosis
A microtubule-stabilizing agent isolated from a soft coral (Eleutherobia sp.).
The cytoplasmic organelle forming a single membrane enclosed space continuous with the outer membrane of the nuclear envelope. It has 2 functional domains described by the presence or absence of ribosomes, the rough endoplasmic reticulum and smooth endoplasmic reticulum respectively. Cell Export - Exocytosis
Membrane receptors that use intracellular enzyme activity as part of the signaling pathway. Five classes of these cell receptors: receptor tyrosine kinases, tyrosine-kinase-associated receptors, receptor serine/threonine kinases, transmembrane guanylyl cyclases, and histidine-kinase-associated receptors. Lecture - Signal 1 | Lecture - Signal 2 | Lecture - Signal 3
DNA opened in interphase nucleus and transcriptionally active. Cell Nucleus
A fluorescent compound used in microscopy that that emits a specific color of light when illuminated by light. Lab 7 - Confocal Microscopy Table of Fluorochromes
fragile X mental retardation protein
(FMRP) an RNA-binding protein involved in several steps of RNA metabolism.
Unicellular or multicellular eukaryotic cells that obtain their food from external sources, and reproduce sexual or asexually. (yeast) Lecture - Eukaryotes and Prokaryotes |
Phase during interphase of cell cycle when cell has withdrawn from the normal cycle and not replicating. Lecture - Cell Cycle
Phase during interphase of cell cycle where initial growth occurs following mitosis (M phase). Lecture - Cell Cycle
Phase during interphase of cell cycle where growth occurs following duplication of DNA (S phase) and is followed by mitosis (M phase). Lecture - Cell Cycle
Cytoplasmic organelle consisting of a stack of individual membrane enclosed spaces located near the nucleus. Functions to process and modify proteins for exocytosis and endocytosis pathways.Lecture - Cell Export - Exoocytosis | Lecture - Cell Import - Endocytosis
(HALI) Actin-binding compound derived from marine organisms, belong to a large group of structurally related marine macrolides.
Experimental depletion of F-actin by F-actin severing and monomer sequestering activities.
(see also dihydrohalichondramide, di-h-HALI) Lecture - Cytoskeleton 3 Microfilaments
DNA within the nucleus in a packed form which has limited transcriptional activity.Cell Nucleus | Cell Division
Cytoplasmic anaerobic organelle related to mitochondria adaptated to extreme cellular anaerobic lifestyle. Lecture - Eukaryotes and Prokaryotes |
Cytoskeleton filament system required for cell mechanical stability and integrity. The name comes from the filaments being "intermediate" in cross-sectional size between microfilaments and microtubules. Lecture - Cytoskeleton - Intermediate Filaments
A sea sponge metabolite which binds and stabilizes actin microfilaments competitively with phalloidin. Also can cause nucleation. Lecture - Cytoskeleton 3 Microfilaments
Cytoskeleton intermediate filament protein of epithelial cells required for cell mechanical stability and integrity. Humans have 54 functional keratin genes. Lecture - Cytoskeleton - Intermediate Filaments | PMID: 18461349
A genetically engineered mouse in which genetic information is inserted into a particular locus in the genome. The mouse can now express this inserted gene/protein. Lab - Cell Knockout Methods
A genetically engineered mouse in which genetic information is deleted from a particular locus in the genome. The mouse can now not express this modified or deleted gene and therefore protein. Lab - Cell Knockout Methods
A family of intermediate filament proteins that form the nuclear cytoskeleton. Lecture - Cell Nucleus | Lecture - Cytoskeleton - Intermediate Filaments
An extracellular matrix adhesive glycoprotein. Major component of epithelial basal lamina and also functions to direct cell migration and growth. Lecture - Extracellular Matrix 2
(Latrunculin A) A sea sponge metabolite which binds monomeric actin in a 1:1 complex and inhibits polymerization of actin microfilaments. Lecture - Cytoskeleton 3 Microfilaments
(Latin, ligare = to bind) A substance (substrate, activator, inhibitor, neurotransmitter) that binds to a receptor as part of a signaling process. Binding can have both different specificity and affinity. Lecture - Signal 1 | Lecture - Signal 2 | Lecture - Signal 3
Cytoplasmic phospholipid enclosed depots of neutral lipids found in many cell types. PMID: 18546013
Acronym for Laser Scanning Microscope. Lab 7 - Confocal Microscopy
Cytoplasmic organelle for the degradation of both endocytosed extracellular and autophagy of intracellular materials. Lecture - Cell Import - Endocytosis
(MDBs) liver disease associated protein aggregates consisting of ubiquitinated K8/K18, chaperones and sequestosome1/p62 (p62).
(MMPs) secreted family of proteins that can degrade or modify components of the extracellular matrix, cellular receptors, and cytokines. In humans, 24 different MMPs have roles in normal and pathophysiological cellular events. Lecture - Extracellular Matrix
A phase of mitosis in when the chromosome pairs have lined up at the equator of the mitotic spindle. Lecture - Cell Division
Cytoskeleton filament system required for cell shape and motility. The name comes from the filaments being the smallest in cross-sectional size of the three filament systems including intermediate filaments and microtubules. Lecture - Cytoskeleton 3 Microfilaments
Cytoskeleton filament system required for intracellular transport and motility. The name comes from the system filaments forming "tubes", they are also the largest in cross-sectional size of the three filament systems including microfilaments and intermediate filaments. Lecture - Cytoskeleton 3 Microtubules
Cytoplasmic double membrane organelle, main functions include energy production from aerobic cell respiration and cell death by apoptosis. Lecture - Cell Energy Production - Mitochondria
The term used to describe normal cell division, where the progeny cells are genetically identical to the parent cell, diploid. Historically the term was originally used by Walther Flemming in 1882 to characterize the appearance of paired chromosomes (Greek, mitos = "paired threads") Lecture - Cell Nucleus | Lecture - Cell Division
(MVB) A type of cytoplasmic vesicle (200 - 500 nmdiameter) that occurs when part of an endosome membrane invaginates and buds into its own lumen forming smaller contained vesicles. These smaller vesicles are subsequently lost when the endosome fuses with a lysosome. Lecture - Endocytosis | PMID: 17506697
(entactin) Ubiquitous basement membrane component that binds laminin and consists of three globular domains (G1–G3) connected by extended segments.
The eukaryotic double membrane enclosed organelle that contains genetic material DNA and processes messenger RNA. Cell Nucleus
Functional domain within the nucleus that contains genes encoding ribosomal RNA (rRNA), highly transcriptionally active and formed from DNA located at the ends of chromosomes. Cell Nucleus
(TP53) A multifunctional protein Mr 53 kDa regulating cell cycle arrest, apoptosis, senescence, DNA repair, and changes in cell metabolism. As a cell cycle regulator it recognizes and binds damaged DNA (single-stranded DNA, insertion/deletion mismatches, and free DNA ends) and also acts as a transcription factor activating p21 transcription. p53 also has an important role in apoptosis. Lecture - Cell Cycle OMIM 191170
A microtubule-stabilizing agent used in cancer therapy. Originally isolated from the Pacific yew tree (Taxus brevifolia) and called taxol, it is a member of the taxane family. Cytoskeleton 2 Microtubules
A fungal metabolite which binds and stabilizes actin microfilaments. Lecture - Cytoskeleton 3 Microfilaments
(cell membrane) The lipid based bilayer forming the container for each cell Lecture - Compartments and Cell Membranes
A protein complex that degrades cellular proteins by proteolysis. Lecture - Cell Import - Endocytosis
(PBs) cytoplasmic plant organelles that accumulate storage proteins in seeds, formed from endoplasmic reticulum or vacuole.
Lecture - Eukaryotes and Prokaryotes
Human severe blistering skin disease caused by autoantibodies against desmosomal cadherins. Lecture - Cytoskeleton - Intermediate Filaments
Cell cycle term used to describes the timepoint in G1 when cells no longer respond to withdrawal of growth factors by returning to G0, but progress to S phase. Lecture - Cell Cycle
(pRb, Rb) Protein with a role in cell cycle regulation acting as a tumor suppressor. Lecture - Cell Cycle
Cytoplasmic structure formed from RNA and proteins that assembles to synthesise proteins. Ribosomes may be either free in the cytoplasm or attached to the endoplasmic reticulum, forming rough endoplasmic reticulum. Lecture - Exocytosis Ribosome
Acronym for ribonucleic acid, the molecule produced from DNA by transcription with structural and functional roles in protein synthesis.
Cell Nucleus Cell Export - Exocytosis
rough endoplasmic reticulum
Functional compartment of the endoplasmic reticulum with ribosomes bound to the membrane surface. Functions to compartmentalize newly translated proteins and their post-translational modification. Cell Export - Exocytosis
Phase during interphase of cell cycle where DNA is duplicated prior to second growth period (G2 phase) and then mitosis (M phase). Lecture - Cell Cycle
A protein involved in cell division (anaphase). Functions in nuclear transport of separase and to inhibit its activity. Lecture - Cell Division
Family of secreted transmembrane and GPI-linked proteins that alter the cytoskeletal organization of micofilaments and microtubules. Humans have 20 semaphorins, defined by cysteine-rich semaphorin protein domains, expressed in the nervous system and other tissues.
Lecture - Cell Division
A highly conserved GTPase family found in fungi and animals implicated in a diversity of cellular processes including cytokinesis, formation of diffusion barriers and vesicle trafficking. Septin2 partially co-localises with actin bundles in mammalian interphase cells. Lecture - Cytoskeleton 3 Microfilaments
A bacterial protein toxin produced by Shigella dysenteriae is transported directly from the plasma membrane to the endoplasmic reticulum by early endosomes and the Golgi apparatus. Lecture - Cell Import - Endocytosis | PMID: 11514628
(S1P) A protease functions to convert latent membrane-bound transcription factors to the active free form. In cartilage, necessary for specialized ER stress response of chondrocytes for the formation of normal cartilage and then endochondral ossification. PMID: 18025304
(Ub) PMID: 17689064
Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein
(WASP) Protein involved in signal trasduction to the microfilament cytoskeleton. Other family members are N-WASP (neuronal Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome protein) and Scar.
Lecture - Cytoskeleton 3 Microfilaments
Term used to describe the research technique involving growth of cells experimentally outside the organism (in vitro = in glass). Tissue Culture 1 | Tissue Culture 2
(TGN) Cell Import - Endocytosis
Cytoskeletal protein that sits in the major groove of the actin microfilament system. Many different different isoforms of this protein from 4 genes. Lecture - Cytoskeleton 3 Microfilaments | Cytoskeleton Exercise
Unicellular protozoan parasites that infect humans, animals, insects, and plants. Lecture - Eukaryotes and Prokaryotes | PMID: 18462016
Protein that forms microtubules, 55-kd polypeptides of α-tubulin (alpha-) and β-tubulin (beta-) form a a dimer, which is the basic subunit of microtubules.
A third type of tubulin γ-tubulin (gamma-) is located at the centrosome.
Cytoskeleton 2 Microtubules
Membrane-bound organelles in the cytoplasm that are used for storage and digestion. Lecture - Eukaryotes and Prokaryotes
Bacterial protein toxins produced by enterohemorrhagic strains of Escherichia coli these are transported directly from the plasma membrane to the endoplasmic reticulum by early endosomes and the Golgi apparatus. Lecture - Endocytosis | PMID: 11514628