Difference between revisions of "Cell Biology Glossary"
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Acronym for [[#
Acronym for [[#Anaphase Promoting Complex]].
Revision as of 14:21, 30 April 2009
--Mark Hill 08:40, 20 March 2009 (EST) This is a working page for developing a quick glossary of cell biology designed for students at undergraduate level. The student group project glossary template is more basic than this current page and is available on this page's discussion tab.
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Cytoskeletal 43 kD protein forming the backbone of the cytoplasmic microfilament system and the thin filament system of muscle sacomeres. In humans, there are distinct muscle (4 alpha-skeletal, alpha-cardiac, alpha-smooth, gamma-smooth) and non-muscle (2 cytoskeletal beta-, gamma-) actin isoforms. Exists as globular actin monomer (G-actin) and microfilament polymer (F-actin). Lecture - Cytoskeleton 3 Microfilaments
Family of proteins that specifically bind actin within microfilament polymer (F-actin) or globular actin monomer (G-actin). Lecture - Cytoskeleton 3 Microfilaments
actin depolymerizing factor
(ADF) alternative name Cofilin, actin-binding protein that can disassemble actin by severing and depolymerizing actin filaments. Lecture - Cytoskeleton 3 Microfilaments
A phase of mitosis in which the chromosomes have separated and begun to be pulled to opposite poles of the cell. Lecture - Cell Division
anaphase promoting complex
(APC, cyclosome) Protein complex that is involved in the degradation of cohesin, allowing chromosome separation, and therefore beginning of anaphase in cell division. Lecture - Cell Division
Acronym for Anaphase Promoting Complex.
A protein complex essential for actin assembly, generating new filaments and branch points. It is involved in cell motility in many cell processes. Lecture - Cytoskeleton 3 Microfilaments
Structure present outside bacteria and plant cells. Gram-positive bacteria, composed of the cytoplasmic membrane and peptidoglycan layer. Gram-negative bacteria, have an additional outer membrane composed of integral membrane proteins, lipids, and lipopolysaccharides. Lecture - Eukaryotes and Prokaryotes
A carbohydrate that is found in plant cell walls Lecture - Eukaryotes and Prokaryotes
The green material found in chloroplasts that is active in photosynthesis. Lecture - Eukaryotes and Prokaryotes
The membrane-bound organelles containing chlorophyll found in photosynthetic organisms plants and fungi. Lecture - Eukaryotes and Prokaryotes
The condensed form of chromatin that is visible during mitosis and meiosis (cellular division).
Acronym for Confocal Laser Scanning Microscope. Lab 7 - Confocal Microscopy
Alternative name Actin Depolymerizing Factor, actin-binding protein that can disassemble actin by severing and depolymerizing actin filaments. Lecture - Cytoskeleton 3 Microfilaments
A complex of proteins within the nucleus that hold sister chromatids together during cell division. It is degraded by separase, a protease. Lecture - Cell Division
A major extracellular matrix protein forming an insoluble fiber. Lecture - Extracellular Matrix 1
correlative light/electron microscopy
(CAP) actin-binding protein that works in conjunction with Cofilin. Lecture - Cytoskeleton 3 Microfilaments
A fungal metabolite which binds barbed end actin microfilaments and inhibits polymerization and depolymerization. Lecture - Cytoskeleton 3 Microfilaments
Collective term for the cytosol, organelles and cytoskeleton located outside the nucleus and under the plasma membrane.
Set of 3 filament systems intermediate filaments, actin filaments, and microtubules. Eukaryotic cells have a cytoplasmic and a nuclear cytoskeleton with different organisations and filaments. Cytoskeleton 2 Microtubules | Lecture - Cytoskeleton 3 Microfilaments
(di-h-HALI) Actin-binding compound derived from marine organisms, belong to a large group of structurally related marine macrolides. Experimental depletion of F-actin by F-actin severing and monomer sequestering activities. (see also halichondramide, HALI) Lecture - Cytoskeleton 3 Microfilaments
Dynamin family of GTPases member expressed in the nervous system and involved in many cellular pathways, implicated in clathrin-mediated endocytosis. Lecture - Cell Import - Endocytosis
Dynamin family of GTPases member ubiquitously expressed and involved in many cellular pathways, implicated in clathrin-mediated endocytosis. Lecture - Cell Import - Endocytosis
A microtubule-stabilizing agent isolated from a soft coral (Eleutherobia sp.).
DNA opened in interphase nucleus and transcriptionally active. Cell Nucleus
fragile X mental retardation protein
(FMRP) an RNA-binding protein involved in several steps of RNA metabolism.
Unicellular or multicellular eukaryotic cells that obtain their food from external sources, and reproduce sexual or asexually. (yeast) Lecture - Eukaryotes and Prokaryotes |
Cytoplasmic organelle consisting of a stack of individual membrane enclosed spaces located near the nucleus. Functions to process and modify proteins for exocytosis and endocytosis pathways.Lecture - Cell Export - Exoocytosis | Lecture - Cell Import - Endocytosis
(HALI) Actin-binding compound derived from marine organisms, belong to a large group of structurally related marine macrolides. Experimental depletion of F-actin by F-actin severing and monomer sequestering activities. (see also dihydrohalichondramide, di-h-HALI) Lecture - Cytoskeleton 3 Microfilaments
Cytoplasmic anaerobic organelle related to mitochondria adaptated to extreme cellular anaerobic lifestyle. Lecture - Eukaryotes and Prokaryotes |
Cytoskeleton filament system required for cell mechanical stability and integrity. The name comes from the filaments being "intermediate" in cross-sectional size between microfilaments and microtubules. Lecture - Cytoskeleton - Intermediate Filaments
A sea sponge metabolite which binds and stabilizes actin microfilaments competitively with phalloidin. Also can cause nucleation. Lecture - Cytoskeleton 3 Microfilaments
Cytoskeleton intermediate filament protein of epithelial cells required for cell mechanical stability and integrity. Humans have 54 functional keratin genes. Lecture - Cytoskeleton - Intermediate Filaments | PMID: 18461349
A genetically engineered mouse in which genetic information is inserted into a particular locus in the genome. The mouse can now express this inserted gene/protein. Lab - Cell Knockout Methods
A genetically engineered mouse in which genetic information is deleted from a particular locus in the genome. The mouse can now not express this modified or deleted gene and therefore protein. Lab - Cell Knockout Methods
An extracellular matrix adhesive glycoprotein. Major component of epithelial basal lamina and also functions to direct cell migration and growth. Lecture - Extracellular Matrix 2
(Latrunculin A) A sea sponge metabolite which binds monomeric actin in a 1:1 complex and inhibits polymerization of actin microfilaments. Lecture - Cytoskeleton 3 Microfilaments
Cytoplasmic phospholipid enclosed depots of neutral lipids found in many cell types. PMID: 18546013
Acronym for Laser Scanning Microscope. Lab 7 - Confocal Microscopy
Cytoplasmic organelle for the degradation of both endocytosed extracellular and autophagy of intracellular materials. Lecture - Cell Import - Endocytosis
(MDBs) liver disease associated protein aggregates consisting of ubiquitinated K8/K18, chaperones and sequestosome1/p62 (p62).
(MMPs) secreted family of proteins that can degrade or modify components of the extracellular matrix, cellular receptors, and cytokines. In humans, 24 different MMPs have roles in normal and pathophysiological cellular events. Lecture - Extracellular Matrix
A phase of mitosis in when the chromosome pairs have lined up at the equator of the mitotic spindle. Lecture - Cell Division
Cytoskeleton filament system required for cell shape and motility. The name comes from the filaments being the smallest in cross-sectional size of the three filament systems including intermediate filaments and microtubules. Lecture - Cytoskeleton 3 Microfilaments
Cytoskeleton filament system required for intracellular transport and motility. The name comes from the system filaments forming "tubes", they are also the largest in cross-sectional size of the three filament systems including microfilaments and intermediate filaments. Lecture - Cytoskeleton 3 Microtubules
Cytoplasmic double membrane organelle, main functions include energy production from aerobic cell respiration and cell death by apoptosis. Lecture - Cell Energy Production - Mitochondria
multivesicular bodies (MVB)
(entactin) Ubiquitous basement membrane component that binds laminin and consists of three globular domains (G1–G3) connected by extended segments.
The eukaryotic double membrane enclosed organelle that contains genetic material DNA and processes messenger RNA. Cell Nucleus
Functional domain within the nucleus that contains genes encoding ribosomal RNA (rRNA), highly transcriptionally active and formed from DNA located at the ends of chromosomes. Cell Nucleus
A microtubule-stabilizing agent used in cancer therapy. Originally isolated from the Pacific yew tree (Taxus brevifolia) and called taxol, it is a member of the taxane family. Cytoskeleton 2 Microtubules
A fungal metabolite which binds and stabilizes actin microfilaments. Lecture - Cytoskeleton 3 Microfilaments
(cell membrane) The lipid based bilayer forming the container for each cell Lecture - Compartments and Cell Membranes
A protein complex that degrades cellular proteins by proteolysis. Lecture - Cell Import - Endocytosis
(PBs) cytoplasmic plant organelles that accumulate storage proteins in seeds, formed from endoplasmic reticulum or vacuole.
Human severe blistering skin disease caused by autoantibodies against desmosomal cadherins. Lecture - Cytoskeleton - Intermediate Filaments
Cytoplasmic structure formed from RNA and proteins that assembles to synthesise proteins. Ribosomes may be either free in the cytoplasm or attached to the endoplasmic reticulum, forming rough endoplasmic reticulum. Cell Export - Exocytosis Ribosome
A protein involved in cell division (anaphase). Functions in nuclear transport of separase and to inhibit its activity. Lecture - Cell Division
Family of secreted transmembrane and GPI-linked proteins that alter the cytoskeletal organization of micofilaments and microtubules. Humans have 20 semaphorins, defined by cysteine-rich semaphorin protein domains, expressed in the nervous system and other tissues.
A highly conserved GTPase family found in fungi and animals implicated in a diversity of cellular processes including cytokinesis, formation of diffusion barriers and vesicle trafficking. Septin2 partially co-localises with actin bundles in mammalian interphase cells. Lecture - Cytoskeleton 3 Microfilaments
A bacterial protein toxin produced by Shigella dysenteriae is transported directly from the plasma membrane to the endoplasmic reticulum by early endosomes and the Golgi apparatus. Lecture - Cell Import - Endocytosis | PMID: 11514628
(S1P) A protease functions to convert latent membrane-bound transcription factors to the active free form. In cartilage, necessary for specialized ER stress response of chondrocytes for the formation of normal cartilage and then endochondral ossification. PMID: 18025304
(Ub) PMID: 17689064
Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein
(WASP) Protein involved in signal trasduction to the microfilament cytoskeleton. Other family members are N-WASP (neuronal Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome protein) and Scar. Lecture - Cytoskeleton 3 Microfilaments
Cytoskeletal protein that sits in the major groove of the actin microfilament system. Many different different isoforms of this protein from 4 genes. Lecture - Cytoskeleton 3 Microfilaments | Cytoskeleton Exercise
Protein that forms microtubules, 55-kd polypeptides of α-tubulin (alpha-) and β-tubulin (beta-) form a a dimer, which is the basic subunit of microtubules. A third type of tubulin γ-tubulin (gamma-) is located at the centrosome. Cytoskeleton 2 Microtubules
Membrane-bound organelles in the cytoplasm that are used for storage and digestion. Lecture - Eukaryotes and Prokaryotes
Bacterial protein toxins produced by enterohemorrhagic strains of Escherichia coli these are transported directly from the plasma membrane to the endoplasmic reticulum by early endosomes and the Golgi apparatus. Lecture - Cell Import - Endocytosis | PMID: 11514628