2010 Lecture 23

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Development

CSt1 zygote.gif Human CST23.gif

Introduction

The image above shows the first cell that forms following fertilization, and that cell's offspring 8 weeks later.

This lecture is about: – how the embryo makes use of cellular mechanisms (described during this term) to construct itself. It includes:

The meaning of the terms cell lineage, embryonic patterning, morphogenesis, cell commitment, determination, differentiation.

The utility of model organisms in research on developmental mechanisms

The conceptual importance of somatic cell nuclear transfer (cloning) experiments

Where embryonic stem cells come from

What induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells are and what are the therapeutic benefits of making them

The concept of lineage restriction

The concept of how lineage restriction is controlled by the expression of DNA-binding transcription factors

The concept of transcription factor patterning in time and space

How transcription factor expression can be controlled by signaling pathways

How the cytoskeleton of the cell can generate cell movements

How apoptosis can be used as a morphogenetic mechanism.


Honours Projects - Dr Steve Palmer

Project 1: Identification of genes involved in the specification of muscle fibre types. We have genetically altered the ratio of fast and slow twitch fibres in transgenic mice. This study will use molecular genetics and proteomics to identify the pathways that decide muscle fibre type. The cell biology aspect of this relates to the determination, development and differentiation of muscle fibres and their sub-specialization into specific twitch types. Also, the adult plasticity of skeletal muscle – ability to atrophy/hypertrophy and change fibre type in response to work demands.

Project 2: Characterising genes involved in the neurocognitive/behavioural disorder Williams syndrome. Two genes that are disrupted in the human condition Williams syndrome, Gtf2ird1 and Gtf2i, are implicated in aspects of human cognition and behaviour. Molecular genetic techniques and knockout mouse models will be used in this study to investigate the function of these genes. These proteins localize to the nucleus and although their role is not yet defined, the cell biology of this project relates to DNA binding proteins, gene regulation, nuclear function and chromatin organization e.g. histone modification by methylation. In addition, we are doing some neurobiology on the knockouts including starting up a collaboration with Gary Housely using 2-photon imaging to look at neuroanatomy of the cerebellum, hearing tests, electrophysiology and behaviour.


More? OMIM - Williams-Beuren syndrome | OMIM - GTF2I REPEAT DOMAIN-CONTAINING PROTEIN 1; GTF2IRD1 | OMIM - GENERAL TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR II-I; GTF2I


2010 Course Content

Lectures: Cell Biology Introduction | Cells Eukaryotes and Prokaryotes | Cell Membranes and Compartments | Cell Nucleus | Cell Export - Exocytosis | Cell Import - Endocytosis | Cell Mitochondria | Cell Junctions | Cytoskeleton Introduction | Cytoskeleton 1 Intermediate Filaments | Cytoskeleton 2 Microtubules | Cytoskeleton 3 Microfilaments | Extracellular Matrix 1 | Extracellular Matrix 2 | Cell Cycle | Cell Division | Cell Death 1 | Cell Death 2 | Signal 1 | Signal 2 | Stem Cells 1 | Stem Cells 2 | Development | Revision

Laboratories: Introduction to Lab | Microscopy Methods | Preparation/Fixation | Immunochemistry | Cell Knockout Methods | Cytoskeleton Exercise | Confocal Microscopy | Microarray Visit | Tissue Culture 1 | Tissue Culture 2 | Stem Cells Lab | Stem Cells Analysis

Dr Mark Hill 2015, UNSW Cell Biology - UNSW CRICOS Provider Code No. 00098G