Difference between revisions of "2009 Lecture 21"

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==Adult Stem Cells==
 
==Adult Stem Cells==
 
[http://stemcells.nih.gov/info/basics/basics4.asp NIH - What are adult stem cells?]
 
[http://stemcells.nih.gov/info/basics/basics4.asp NIH - What are adult stem cells?]
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==Induced Pluripotent Cells==
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* non-pluripotent cells engineered to become pluripotent
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** a cell with a specialized function ‘reprogrammed’ to an unspecialized state
  
 
==Stem Cell Markers==
 
==Stem Cell Markers==

Revision as of 23:36, 25 May 2009

Stem Cells

Introduction

Week 1 Human Development - Embryonic Stem Cells
NIH - stem cell cartoon

The term "stem cell" is used so freely these days in many different forums that it is difficult sometimes understand without context what scientists, politicians, ethicists and commentators are discussing. This lecture will focus on the cell biology of stem cells and the current research on growing and differentiating theses cells.

Background information can also be found at UNSW Embryology Stem Cells and Week 1 Development.

Embryonic Stem Cells

NIH - What are embryonic stem cells?

Cord Blood Stem Cells

  • Blood collected from the placental umbilical cord of a newborn baby shortly after birth
    • blood stem cells that can be used to generate red blood cells and cells of the immune system
    • suggested use to treat a range of blood disorders and immune system conditions such as leukaemia, anaemia and autoimmune diseases
  • can be stored in a cord blood bank
    • available for use by the donor and compatible siblings

Adult Stem Cells

NIH - What are adult stem cells?

Induced Pluripotent Cells

  • non-pluripotent cells engineered to become pluripotent
    • a cell with a specialized function ‘reprogrammed’ to an unspecialized state

Stem Cell Markers

In order to carry out research on stem cells, it is important to be able to identify them. A number of different research groups in the late 90's generated several antibodies which specifically identified undifferentiated, differentiating or differentiated stem cells from a number of different sources and species. Note that the nomenclature in some cases is based upon the antibody used to identify the cell surface marker.

  • Stage-Specific Embryonic Antigen-1 (SSEA-1) cell surface embryonic antigen which has a role in cell adhesion, migration and differentiation and is often differentially expressed during development. Can be identified by Davor Solter monoclonal antibody MC-480 (SSEA-1).
  • Stage-Specific Embryonic Antigen-4 (SSEA-4) cell surface embryonic antigen of human teratocarcinoma stem cells (EC), human embryonic germ cells (EG) and human embryonic stem cells (ES) which is down-regulated following differentiation of human EC cells. Antigen not expressed on undifferentiated murine EC, ES and EG cells but upregulated on differentiation of murine EC and ES cells. Can be identified by Davor Solter monoclonal antibody MC-813-70 (SSEA-4)
  • Tumor Rejection Antigen (TRA-1-60) Sialylated Keratan Sulfate Proteoglycan expressed on the surface of human teratocarcinoma stem cells (EC), human embryonic germ cells (EG) and human embryonic stem cells (ES).
  • Tumor Rejection Antigen (TRA-1-81) antigen expressed on the surface of human teratocarcinoma stem cells (EC), human embryonic germ cells (EG) and human embryonic stem cells (ES).
    • Both TRA antibodies identify a major polypeptide (Mr 240 kDa) and a minor polypeptide (Mr 415 kDa).
  • Oct-4 (Pou5f1 – Mouse Genome Informatics) gene has an essential role in control of developmental pluripotency (Oct4 knockout embryo blastocysts die at the time of implantation). Oct4 also has a role in maintaining viability of mammalian germline.
  • Stem Cell Antigen 1 (Sca-1) member of the Ly-6 family of GPI-linked surface proteins (Mr 18 kDa) and a major phenotypic marker for mouse hematopoietic progenitor/stem cell subset.
  • CD133, AC133, prominin 5 transmembrane glycoprotein (865 aa) expressed on stem cells with hematopoietic and nonhematopoietic differentiation potential.

Alpha 6 integrin

References

Textbooks

Essential Cell Biology

  • Chapter

Molecular Biology of the Cell

Alberts, Bruce; Johnson, Alexander; Lewis, Julian; Raff, Martin; Roberts, Keith; Walter, Peter New York and London: Garland Science; c2002

Molecular Cell Biology

Lodish, Harvey; Berk, Arnold; Zipursky, S. Lawrence; Matsudaira, Paul; Baltimore, David; Darnell, James E. New York: W. H. Freeman & Co.; c1999

The Cell- A Molecular Approach

Cooper, Geoffrey M. Sunderland (MA): Sinauer Associates, Inc.; c2000

  • The Cell - A Molecular Approach - IV. Cell Regulation Chapter 14. Cell Proliferation in Development and Differentiation
  • Stem Cells

Search Online Textbooks

Books

PubMed

Reviews

  • Jensen J, Hyllner J, Björquist P. Human embryonic stem cell technologies and drug discovery. J Cell Physiol. 2009 Jun;219(3):513-9. Review. PMID: 19277978

Articles

  • Allen ND, Baird DM. Telomere length maintenance in stem cell populations. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2009 Feb 11. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 19419691
  • Kenji Matsumoto, Takayuki Isagawa, Toshinobu Nishimura, Takunori Ogaeri, Koji Eto, Satsuki Miyazaki, Jun-ichi Miyazaki, Hiroyuki Aburatani, Hiromitsu Nakauchi, and Hideo Ema Stepwise Development of Hematopoietic Stem Cells from Embryonic Stem Cells PLoS ONE. 2009; 4(3): e4820. Published online 2009 March 16. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0004820. PMCID: PMC2653650

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