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Glycosaminoglycan Components Schematic
Dermatan Sulphate GlcA, IdoA, GalNAc IdoABeta GalNAcBeta.png
Chondroitin Sulphate GlcA,GalNAc GlcABeta GalNAcBeta.png
Keratan Sulphate Gal, GlcNAc GalBeta GlcNAcBeta.png
Heparan Sulphate GlcA, GlcNAc GlcABeta GlcNAcAlpha.png
Heparin Sulphate IdoA, GlcNAc IdoAAplha GlcNAcAlpha.png
Hyaluronic acid GlcA, GlcNAc GlcABeta GlcNAcBeta.png

Synthesis Regulation

Proteoglycan synthesis can be dictated by growth factors and cytokines.

Dexamethasone increases decorin decreses biglycan production

transforming growth factor-beta increase biglycan, decorin and fibromodulin production cell density dependant

General proteoglycan synthesis suppresssed by interleukin-1beta

General proteoglycan synthesis suppressed by tumor necrosis factor alpha

FGF2 decreases biglycan production

Endoglin downregulates lumican

Dexamethasone modulates the synthesis of decorin and biglycan in both human bone marrow stromal osteoprogenitor cells and mature osteoblasts such that elevation of dexamethasone results in increased decorin and decreased biglycan production.[1]

The degree to which growth of biglycan, decorin, and fibromodulin is promoted by transforming growth factor-beta is dependent on cell density.[2], [3]

Proteoglycan synthesis is suppressed by interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α).[4]

Anabolic action of Parathyroid hormone stimulates FGF-2 resulted in strong downward regulation of biglycan transcription/protein expression.[5]

Expression of endoglin downregulates lumican at the level of transcription[6]

  1. <pubmed>7988427</pubmed>
  2. <pubmed>10625699</pubmed>
  3. <pubmed>12623288</pubmed>
  4. <pubmed>7814444</pubmed>
  5. <pubmed>21834878</pubmed>
  6. <pubmed>14996436</pubmed>