User:Z5105710

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My Student Page

Group Projects
This year's main topic is Blood Cell Biology. Each group should discuss with group members the specific sub-topic that will be covered by their project.

Here is a list of some of the cell types (Structure and Function)

Cell Type (PuMed citations)


Below are the groups to which students have been randomly assigned. You should now on the project discussion page add your own suggestion for a specific topic. Once your group has agreed on the topic, add this as a heading to the project page before Lab 3.


2016 Projects: Group 1 | Group 2 | Group 3 | Group 4 | Group 5 | Group 6 | Group 7

Group 1: User:Z5017493 | User:Z3330991 | User:Z5020043 | User:Z5020175 | User:Z3489355

Group 2: User:Z5018320 | User:Z5015980 | User:Z3376375 | User:Z3461106

Group 3: User:Z5019595 | User:Z5019962 | User:Z5018925 | User:Z3461911

Group 4: User:Z5020356 | User:Z3463895 | User:Z3376502 | User:Z3423497 | User:Z5021149

Group 5: User:Z5015719 | User:Z3462124 | User:Z3463953 | User:Z5017292

Group 6: User:Z5018866 | User:Z3329177 | User:Z3465531 | User:Z5105710

Group 7: User:Z5021060 | User:Z5016365 | User:Z5016784 | User:Z3414546 | User:Z3417773

Group Assessment Criteria

Group Assessment Criteria

  1. The key points relating to the topic that your group allocated are clearly described.
  2. The choice of content, headings and sub-headings, diagrams, tables, graphs show a good understanding of the topic area.
  3. Content is correctly cited and referenced.
  4. The wiki has an element of teaching at a peer level using the student's own innovative diagrams, tables or figures and/or using interesting examples or explanations.
  5. Evidence of significant research relating to basic and applied sciences that goes beyond the formal teaching activities.
  6. Relates the topic and content of the Wiki entry to learning aims of cell biology.
  7. Clearly reflects on editing/feedback from group peers and articulates how the Wiki could be improved (or not) based on peer comments/feedback. Demonstrates an ability to review own work when criticised in an open edited wiki format. Reflects on what was learned from the process of editing a peer's wiki.
  8. Evaluates own performance and that of group peers to give a rounded summary of this wiki process in terms of group effort and achievement.
  9. The content of the wiki should demonstrate to the reader that your group has researched adequately on this topic and covered the key areas necessary to inform your peers in their learning.
  10. Develops and edits the wiki entries in accordance with the above guidelines.
Individual Lab Assessments
Lab 8 Assessment
2016 Lab 8 - Lab 8 Assessment (to be completed before Lab 9)
  1. Add your peer assessment to your own student page to the site.
  2. Add your peer assessment to each project discussion page to the site.
Lab 6 Assessment
2016 Lab 6 -
  1. Identify an antibody against your group blood cell protein that is commercially available.
  2. Add a link to the original data sheet page and identify the type of group blood cell protein.
  3. Include the following information: type of antibody (polyclonal, monoclonal), species raised in, species reacts against, types of application uses, and if available any reference using that antibody.
Lab 2 Assessment
2016 Lab 2 - Super resolution microscopy
  1. Find a recent research article (not review) that uses super resolution microscopy technique.
  2. Write a brief summary of the paper (referenced) and what the super resolution microscopy technique showed.
    1. This should not simply be the abstract of the paper.
    2. This can be 2-3 paragraphs no longer.
  3. Include a super resolution microscopy image from the paper.
    1. Therefore the paper must be from a source that you can reuse.
    2. Image uploaded as in Lab 1 (summary box - description/reference/copyright/student image)
    3. Image should appear as a "thumbnail" (thumb) next to your paper summary (with citation legend) See Test page
Lab 1 Assessment
2016 Lab 1 - Lab 1 Assessment (to be completed before Lab 2) The test page I set up in the Lab
  1. Add your own student page to the site.
  2. Add your signature for Lab attendance.
  3. Add a sub-heading.
  4. Add an external Link.
  5. Add an internal Link.
  6. Add an image from PubMed, PloS or BioMed Central journal related to prokaryote cellular component. Make sure it includes both the reference and copyright information, with the file and where it appears on your page.

Peer Review

  • Z8600021 You have put some effort into your peer assessment, well done. I think the comments you make are a balanced review of the projects as they stood for assessment. (18/20)


Group Assessment Criteria

1. key points clear


2. choice of content, headings and graphs.


3. Referencing


4. own innovative diagrams, tables or figures and/or using interesting examples or explanations.


5. Evidence of significant research relating to basic and applied sciences that goes beyond the formal teaching activities.


6. Relates content to cell biology.


7. Formatting

Megakaryocyte Group 1

1. key points clear

  • This article would definitely help me to learn about thrombocytes. Hence, you would have definitely fulfilled that critera
  • compared e.g. with group 2, your article sometimes hard to follow as a lot of terms are used and there reading-flow is sometimes interfered with by your writing style. This also comes from the fact that you often use bullet points or very short paragraphs instead of complete flow-text


2. choice of content, headings and graphs.

  • intro:love that you explain the latin roots of the world. However, this was actually initally greek (like most of biology and anatomy) and latin is just adapted by greek. Still, love that you explain the ethymology, this is very common in german wikipedia articles and regrettably, very rare among english ones
  • To introduction: not quite sure if platelets are really cells, and it seems to be still very controversial (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4335469/), so you might want to say that it's not clear whether platelets are cells or not.
  • structure:I don't quite get why we devide the megakaryocytes into three distinctive zones. You might want to start off that paragraph by saying what's the idea behind this sub-division. And you definitely need pictures to show these zones, the bi-concave form of the platelets and the different organelles if possible.
  • To structure: you really need a picture for the three zones ( Innermost (Perinuclear) Zone ... )
  • Figure 4: You can't just use wikipedia images, this is an academic page. Plus the picture has elements in it that are not readable at all, throw out that picture.
  • development: before you start to just list down the steps, why dont you start of with a vertical picture of the steps on top. Fig. 3 shows the stages, with the abbreviations etc. this doesn't seem to be a very suitable picture though. As a reader I am highly confused without having a clear diagram first which I can refer to.
  • Function and Role: Adapt the first headings in that subsection so that we know that the first three are functions of the megakaryocytes. This would be more uniform as you later talk about the platelet function.



3. Referencing

  • In text: Very scarce in text citations, sometimes completely lacking ( eg. in Thrombopoietin receptor and Essential Thrombocytosis) You really need to add more references
  • Figures: Figure 1. from Lutz Slomianka not referenced in image(fun fact: coincidentally, this was my histology professor at the ETH)

4. own innovative diagrams, tables or figures and/or using interesting examples or explanations

  • Banner was own creation, unique and well designed. Not in a research article but on a wiki certainly not out of place. Like it
  • Different figures own creation, really professional and nice looking.
  • Really liked your complete and comprehensive glossary collapsibles, clean and tidy formatting.

5. Evidence of significant research relating to basic and applied sciences that goes beyond the formal teaching activities

  • This article definitely covers more in depth and more based on basic research than what is being covered in the lecture, however, as pointed out earlier, some of the subheadings look a little skinny.


6. Relates content to cell biology

  • You covered the two main topics of cell biology, structure and function, reasonably well. I like that you included sizes everywhere, as it's nice to put things in context (e.g. where you compare the size of megakaryocytes with RBC, this just gives a better understanding than just numbers. Thumbs up!)
  • I like the signaling section, do, however, not fully understand why TPO, GATA1 (fun fact, this was one of the earliest identified transcription factors, which was discovered by a professor here at UNSW, you might want to include that! :)) are not in the signaling section or why the signaling section forms a seperate section (I would devide it into dev. when its for dev. and function, when it play a role in activity and function of Thrcyts.

7. Formatting

  • You need to work on the order of your pictures. In Dev. and Mat. Process, you talk about the dev. stages first, so why don't you put the flow chart of differentiating (Fig. 3) first? And why are you putting the histology picture in development, it belongs to structure
  • This is probably just my taste, but the development section at the moment looks just like a list of bullet points. why not make a diagram vertical on top with the different steps and then have a nicely flowing text instead of bulky bulletpoints?
  • I would highly recommend putting in function first. After all, think about who is reading the article: a student like you who wants to know all about thrombocytes/megakaryocytes as fast as possible. First, I want to know: How do they look like (picture in the introduction). Then I want to know: what to they do (put function as the first heading). Then I want to know what how they are built of and the last bit should be current (not already publiced studies from 2010 like the one by khetawat about some receptor) research area with some fun facts about it (no student really cares whether S1P is finally found to contribute to proplatelet formation, this subsection should contain interesting stuff that makes you excited to learn more about it and maybe go into research.

Final Remarks In general, like it. Main points is the structuring of the article with headings and subheadings, plus the lacking of nice pictures.

RBC Group 2

1. key points clear

  • Really really agreeable writing style. Was so nice to read!
  • "This page also discusses some current research being performed on red blood cells such as"obvious one, but just so you don't forget to complete that sentence.
  • "The levels of Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP) within Red Blood Cells is integral in the maintenance and integrity of their membranes. The depletion of ATP within Red Blood Cells results in a deformity in the cell membrane from the Biconcave Disc Shape to a Disc-Sphere Shape" why?
  • "Erythrocytes have a cytoskeleton which is composed of a spectrin-actin lattice which has the ability to contract in response to electrolytes and changes in pH. [24] This elasticity and mechanical strength is crucial for the red blood cell to be able to traverse the microvasculature of the body as it constantly needs to deform and reshape" you say: this elasticity. Which elasticity? What is elastic about the spectrin-actin lattice, how is it contractile and what role plays spectrin in it?
  • "Some red blood cells are hemolyzed with the bloodstream (eryptosis)" what is hemolysis?
  • what is capsizes and ceramide?


2. choice of content, headings and graphs

  • The electron micrograph picture under structure is absolutely great, love it!
  • Good and well structured headings
  • Include a picture for the cytoskeleton
  • Include a picture for function and include equations (gas exchange, equations instead of "CO2 is then converted into bicarbonate HCO3- and a proton + by Carbonic Anhydrase", e.g. CO2 + H2O <-> H2CO3 <-> HCO3- H+ (actually its h3o+ as water will just buffer the proton). HbO2 + H+ -> HbH + O2)
  • In the Gaseous Exchange, you forgot to emphasize the key participation of the pH. The whole gaseous exchange is partly driven by O2 tension (which is just the osmotic gradient) but another key player definitely is pH. high CO2 concentration in the periphery will lead to generation of h2co3 (by carboanhydrase, h2o + co2 -> H2CO3). H2CO3 is a strong bronsted acid and will decrease the pH. The affinity of Hb for O2 is highly decreased with low pH, this will lead to the fact that O2 will leave Hb and diffuse through the endothelial layer into tissue, and Hb will bind H. (HbO2 + H+ -> HbH + O2). The opposite happens in the lung, low CO2 in the alveolae will lead the balance of the equation CO2 + H2O <-> H2CO3 <-> HCO3- H+ to shift towards the left, increasing the pH and thus the affinity of Hb for O2 AND lead the H+ to dissociate from Hb to buffer the increasing pH. Its particularly crucial to mention this as you later mention the extremely crucial function of Hb as a buffer, and is it's affinity for O2 is negatively affect by Temp, H+ (low pH), 2,3-DPG. So pH is an extremely crucial part of RBCs
  • Functions: Erythrocytes have an extreme crucial function in immunology in the formation of immune complexes. Erythrocytes have a C1R receptor which will bind to C3b (opsonin). C3b binds to antibody-bound antigens (e.g. bacteria) and coagulates them and activate the complement system, essentially forming a complex of antibodies, antigen, complement and RBCs, called immune complex. The RBC will then transport the immune complex to the Spleen and lead to degradation of it, partaking as a key player in pathogen clearance.
  • How to erythrocytes communicate, with whom and to what extent?
  • What receptors do they have?
  • you have extremely much on pathologies, in comparison to the other paragraphs. may wanna put that into collapsible boxes and talk more about cell biology

3. Referencing

  • "Erythrocytes are typically biconcave in shape and contain endovesicles which are intracellular membrane vesicles (Dinkla et al.)" use the wikipedia referencing style instead of Dinkla et al.

4. own innovative diagrams, tables or figures and/or using interesting examples or explanations.

  • Picture about RBC circulation is comprehensive and interesting. However: Pictures have legends, include it


5. Evidence of significant research relating to basic and applied sciences that goes beyond the formal teaching activities.

  • I would expect more in depth infos about molecular players, cell structures, signaling etc. It's a nice, really interesting read, but you may go a bit more in depth about those points
  • Include a structure of the haemoglobin molecule


6. Relates content to cell biology

  • Central dogma of biology is form follow function. I love how you emphasized that principle in your text, e.g. in the introduction (biconcave shape provides the greatest surface-area to volume ratio for maximum diffusion efficiency)
    • You guys but in an awesome work to understand the basics of RBC. I would, however, expect to have more in depth information concerning molecular basis, cell signaling, molecules involved etc. This is a really nice physiology and anatomy article, does, however, not feel like a cell biology article


7. Formatting

  • More Pictures, except that its a really well structured and formated page

B-Cell Group 3

1. key points clear

  • Development: Why do you start the development section with how they get activated? Structure chronologically, I would even suggest putting that in function in a subsection activation
  • "microenvironment encourages hematopoietic stem cells to differentiate into progenitor B (pro-b) cells " Why? If you mention it, explain it. if you can't, don't mention it.
  • "H and L chain genes must be rearranged to yield a new, unique IgM molecule." Why abbreviation? at least refer to them as heavy and light chains once
  • "gene rearrangement occurs". How? Why?
  • "Signalling form this new Pre-BCR stimulates the cell to proliferate as a large pre-b cell. After 3-5 rounds of division, these cells are stimulated through BCR signalling to differentiate into small non-dividing pre-b cells (Zhang, 2004)." Not clear, what signaling makes them big, why big, and what signaling makes them small and why small again?
  • "In the transition stage of development, B cells undergo various checkpoints to test for auto-reactivity" How?
  • "Transitional cells that are found to be auto reactive are either deleted, undergo receptor editing or become anergic" How? what's anergic?
  • This is mostly found in organisms that lack t cells". That's incorrect. it doesn't depend on the species but on the antigen. highly repetitive antigens, such as Lipopolysaccharides of gram negative bacteria. Humans have specific B cells that are particularly involved in T independent activation, called B1 and Marginal zone B cells. (source: janeways immunobiology, 2012, http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2193734/). Also you should include BAF (B Cell activating factors) released by makrophages.
  • Types of B Cells: B1 cells have a lot more additional features. They produce primarily IgM and only rarely switch to IgG etc. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2193734/
  • B2 cells: key point about B2 is that they are activated by thymus dependent (TD) antigens in contrast to B1, you have to mention those
  • Really like reading the structure section, in contrast to other section it has some meat. but here aswell, you need at least 30 references for such a huge paragraph.
  • "As is discussed later, these receptors play a critical role in B cell maturation and development": development and maturation is before, and no, they are not discussed.
  • "A study by Robert et al. (1978)[11] utilized immunoprecipitation techniques to detect Lyb-3 (a 68 000 d polypeptide) in the membrane of a specific subpopulations of B-cells. The results demonstrated that Lyb-3 is distinct from IgD and IgM surface components. This suggested that Lyb-3 is involved in the triggering of B-lymphocytes by antigen, and indicate that Lyb-3 may act as a receptor for a T-cell dependent signal." what is lyb-3? what do you want to say with that, why is it there?
  • "Another study by Vogel & Haustein (1989)[12] investigated possible mechanisms and candidate proteins involved in transmitting the signal from Ig-crosslinking with the antigen or anti-Ig antibody to eventually elevate expression of MHC Class II molecules within B-cells. Utilising radiolabelling procedures, the researchers tested how the Ig proteins (from spleen cells) interact with the plasma membrane. The study discovered proteins that are disulphide-linked to IgM, one of which traverses the plasma membrane and therefore might be involved in transmitting the signal to the interior of B-cells." same here, don't understand what this means or why it is there.

2. choice of content, headings and graphs.

  • insert histology picture of B-Cell
  • insert picture of BCR structure and Antibody structure
  • Talk more about memory cells, difference between memory cell and plasma cell structre and morphology etc.
  • Insert picture of secondary lymphoid organ in Location and Activation
  • T-cell Dependent Activation: what molecules are involved etc.?
  • You have to add more content, very lean at the moment.
  • Really iked the internal structure of Plasma cells, and that the central dogma form follows function is apparent in ER and Golgi etc.
  • Generally, way more pictures guys.

3. Referencing

  • Really lacking referencing (Location and Activation) and the few there is, is wrong (not wiki-style but paper-style)
  • B_cell_functions image is not referenced


4. own innovative diagrams, tables or figures and/or using interesting examples or explanations.

  • Not there

5. Evidence of significant research relating to basic and applied sciences that goes beyond the formal teaching activities.

  • Various in depth basic research is include


6. Relates content to cell biology.

  • Signaling is not really present, why don't you add singaling e.g. in "Class Switching", this subsection is anyway really thin.

7. Formatting

  • Please write the B of B cell big. I read 20 times t and b cells which is just not professional
  • "How cell surface markers vary in different stages of B-cell differentiation": random bullet points in the text

Conclusion Guys, you have to put in work. Loads of pictures and content is missing, and you have to completely overthink your referencing. there's loads to do and this is way below the average level of the pages

Natural Killer Cell Group 4:

1. key points clear

  • "Structurally NK cells can be divided into either Immunoglobin super family or killer cell lectin like receptors" what do you want to say? They can be devided based on their receptors, one group expressin IG the other C-type Lectin receptors?
  • "Previously NK cells were not thought to have any similarities amongst all mammal species as well as to each other, this has changed due to the discovery of NKp46 which appears in all NK cells of all species whilst not being expressed by any other cell type.[6]" What? how do they not have any similarities, what is NKp46, what is different by species... elaborate
  • You have to focus more strongly on the three main functions of NK cells: Killing of virus infected cells (regulated by IFNalpha/beta) and killing of cancer cells and killing of antibody-opsonized cells.


2. choice of content, headings and graphs.

  • "Natural killer cells destroy their targets by injecting it with a toxin. This toxin creates holes in the membrane and is the start of a programmed cell death, apoptosis. The membrane is destroyed and the DNA is cleaved into many pieces." This is wrong, *Toxins can be small molecules, peptides, or proteins that are capable of causing disease on contact with or absorption by body tissues interacting with biological macromolecules such as enzymes or cellular receptors. Toxins vary greatly in their severity, ranging from usually minor (such as a bee sting) to almost immediately deadly (such as botulinum toxin)." they are not toxins, perforin and granzyme are TWO proteins that induce apoptosis (controlled! cell death), perforin is a monomer which will polymerize to form channels. The channels will 1. disrupt osmotic gradient and thus interfere with mitochondria etc. and 2. allow granzyme, a serine protease, allow to enter the cell and will activate the caspase cascade
  • these are granular lymphocytes, write more about granules
  • Where is development?
  • insert picture of immune synapse and cytoskeleton and how this works
  • "NK cells are able to discriminate target cells from 'self' cells. These interactions are regulated by activating and inhibitory receptors to create a dynamic equilibrium for NK cell function" How? This is probably one of the most important parts in NK function, this shouldn't just be covered by one sentence but by a elaborate paragraph with pictures
  • You lack activation, the three activation processes, one dependent on innate immunity in an unspecific system (TLRs, C-type Lectins, Scavengers, LPS receptors) and two dependent on the adaptive immune system (IAR System, inhibitory activatory receptor system, MHCI and CD8) and ADCC (antigen-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxity, Fc receptors)
  • Talk about markers to distinguish from other lymphocytes, NK are CD56+, CD3- (in contrast to CTLs), CD8+
  • Diseases is probably as big as the rest of the article. THis is really disproportionate, opt for at max a 4:1 ratio
  • Current research and you cite research from 1999 and 2001? that's not current that's nearly two decades old? and you need to put interesting bits in this subsection not just random studies you couldn't fit in other sections. NK in cancer treatments, NK in autoimmune treatments, genetic engineering stuff, something interesting that makes you excited for the future of NK cells. your content is not really interesting.

3. Referencing

  • Too few/not present references in diseases subsection
  • Most of the pictures are not in text referenced, and you don't need to put the "original link" in the picture, that's not how we learned it

4. own innovative diagrams, tables or figures and/or using interesting examples or explanations.

  • not present

5. Evidence of significant research relating to basic and applied sciences that goes beyond the formal teaching activities.

  • This does not cover half of the content you should talk about the least. Loads of important information, e.g. killing mechanism's, signaling and general depth is lacking


6. Relates content to cell biology.

  • Partially done (actin meshwork in IS etc.) but you have to elaborate that a lot: how do the granules move, how does exocytosis function, granules release cytotoxic proteins into the extracellular space, why do other cells not get attacked? etc.

7. Formatting

  • Why do you insert a picture of a table with a subpar resolution? Just make your own table with references

Mast Cell Group 5

1. key points clear

  • Really good and extensive page in general, a few things to adapt:
  • After reading an introduction I want to know what the cell type does and why is it different from all the other immune cells. After your introduction I don't know anything: "Mast cells are highly granulated which typically contain proteases, particularly tryptase and chymase, that are influenced and regulated by the presence of cell mediators such as Interleukin-4." what for? what to they do? "Armed with these preformed granules, mast cells can alter their phenotype depending on their environment, demonstrated by selective cytokine production and the altering of transcription processes and storage of preformed mediators." This sentence sound fancy but does not tell anything at all. what are performed mediators, why selective cytokines, how to they alter phenotype? What's in the granules? what is their function? "The presence of preformed granules allows mast cells to respond quickly to pathogen invasion, establishing their major role in the immediate phase of response to allergic pathogen" Again. this sentence doesn't explain anything at all just sounds fancy. What role in the immune system? respond quickly how? any cell can respond quickly in some fashion to some stimulus which establishes it's major role in something.
  • "Mediators[edit]

Mast cells produce an array of bioactive molecules. These are released either by vesicular exocytosis or de novo synthesised and secreted through membrane channels. Moon et al.(2014)[63] performed a review of the literature and showed the major stored mediators in one table (below)." what do mediators do? what do they mediate?


2. choice of content, headings and graphs.

  • Loads of good content, extensive article that gives all the necessary information. One of the most elaborate articles!
  • Why did you print screen a table? just copy the data in your own and reference it, the resolution is not good too. Plus reference is missing in text and in the picture file
  • "when in loose connective tissue they will appear rounded, whereas in dermal fibres they appear spindle shaped, and when in close proximity to blood vessels they can appear elongated." Why not explain this? Obviously in loose connective tissue there is not a lot of mechanical strain/stress, thus they are round, In vessels they need to be elongated for spatial reasons and in dermal fibers, where a lot of tensile strength is required, they adapt to the spindly form of dermal fibers.
  • Like the numbers and sizes, gives a good feel
  • You need to upgrade the function section. just as the introduction you keep being very fuzzy with what they actually do. "his eventually leads to degranulation and the release of mediators by the mast cell. [36]Not only do mast cells release chemical mediators, they also have the ability to participate in phagocytosis, and can also produce antimicrobial peptides that have been shown to kill bacteria.[3" what do the molecules do exactly? What molecules? why? How do they participate in phagocytosis, they are not antigent presenting cells? what antimicrobial peptides, how do they kill the bacteria? Function is the key heading, this should be the most elaborate section. "Mast cells have the ability to release selective mediators without degranulation, which means that an anaphylactic reaction will not occur" why not? what is anaphylactic reaction caused by?

"Mast cells also possess an interesting ability to be triggered by certain molecules and then activate or degrade them. [39]For example, they can synthesis the cytokine endothelin, but can also degrade it." what's that good for, what do you mean exactly? rephrase


3. Referencing

  • Both Pictures about lineage is lacking in text referencing, also synthesis eicosanoids and the table about mast cell mediators
  • Proper and extensive in text referencing, probably only group besides T Cells that have sufficient references for an academic work

4. own innovative diagrams, tables or figures and/or using interesting examples or explanations.

  • Own picture really low quality compared to others, names of molecules in picture partly not readable


5. Evidence of significant research relating to basic and applied sciences that goes beyond the formal teaching activities.

  • As said, very extensive article, loads of in depth-info.


6. Relates content to cell biology.


7. Formatting

  • Really nice formatting of history and other tables, thumbs up!
  • like the collapsible boxes
  • "Here is a video depicting degranulation in real time: Video: Mast cell degranulation" put in the video, not just a link

Final thoughts Work on your picture referencing and the function subsection, the rest is really good. and maybe make a nicer picture

Eosinophils Group 7

1. key points clear

  • "Significant amounts of MBP have been found in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid" explain
  • " rats with AD showed eosinophilic esophagitis in response to an allergen with migration of " what's AD?
  • "The role played by eosinophils in vasculitis has mainly been examined in conjunction with eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis (EGPA), which was renamed from Churg–Strauss Syndrome in 2012 to better reflect the disease pathology [54]. " so what what's the patholoty?

2. choice of content, headings and graphs.

  • Start with a introduction, if I am a student and am in a hurry I want to read within 5 phrases what Eo's are good for, how they look and what's special about them.
  • Nice histology pictures
  • Like how you try to explain function by structure, e.g. nucleus bi-lobed but that does not carry function.
  • "Granules are trilaminar..." explain more, insert picture
  • Need to add a lot more content within the Granules section, you can't just use bullet points, elaborate further.
  • "This is because eosinophils can regulate antigens" how can they regulate antigens? do you mean antibodies?
  • "Forms crystalloid structure of granules" how, why?
  • "Toxic to helminthic worms [27]

Cytotoxic to airways (partialy responsible for tissue damage in asthema)" how, why?

  • Same goes for all the other components, you need to add a lot of content there
  • The skeleton of information is good, you just need to elaborate further
  • Include current research section
  • Separate function from structure in structure section
  • good pictures

3. Referencing

  • Picture referencing is either non existent or wrong
  • In text referencing seems good, but make sure you declare reviews as reviews.
  • Pictures, such as https://cellbiology.med.unsw.edu.au/cellbiology/index.php/File:Eosinophil_Cytolysis.jpg, are really messy. Give comprehensive names, such es electtron micrograph of eosinophils instead of Fimmu-05-00496-g005.jpg. Why should we have numbers in the name? Then work on the formating not only in the article but also in the picture files, make them just as shown by mark in the intro course. (referencing not correct yet in file and in text for that specific picture e.g., you picture doesn't have a title in the description. You can just copy and paste the code from mark's example and then change the text and title and file name


4. own innovative diagrams, tables or figures and/or using interesting examples or explanations.

  • not included yet

5. Evidence of significant research relating to basic and applied sciences that goes beyond the formal teaching activities.

  • You really need to add more in depth info, this is not suitable yet for a assignment with this scope. Needs a lot of work still guys, hard to assess as a lot is still lacking.


6. Relates content to cell biology.

  • Not really apparent yet, introduce more signaling, effects of cytokines and inflammatory pathways, include pictures of cytoskeleton, migration, structure of surface molecules, what they are good for, how do they signal

7. Formatting

  • Picture legend formatting is wrong
  • Pictures are too small not readable
  • Helminth video: good placement, but you have put in twice

Attendance

Z5105710 (talk) 11:10, 19 May 2016 (AEST)

Z5105710 (talk) 12:00, 12 May 2016 (AEST) Forgot to log in as we were rushing with our group page

Z5105710 (talk) 11:06, 5 May 2016 (AEST)

Z5105710 (talk) 11:53, 10 March 2016 (AEDT)

Z5105710 (talk) 11:06, 17 March 2016 (AEDT)

Z5105710 (talk) 11:50, 24 March 2016 (AEDT)

Z5105710 (talk) 11:13, 7 April 2016 (AEST)

Z5105710 (talk) 11:12, 14 April 2016 (AEST)

Z5105710 (talk) 22:54, 22 April 2016 (AEST) forgot to log in as everything was a little in a hurry this prac.

Lab 6 Assessment

  • Z8600021 All good, but do not use acronyms for the applications. (5/5)

This is a mab against mouse T-Cell receptor. Host was Mouse, and it is specific against mice. Its a IgG, more specifically IgG2a. Flow Cyt, ELISA are the applications. References used: Haskins et al. 1983. [1] Commercial Supply

  1. K Haskins, R Kubo, J White, M Pigeon, J Kappler, P Marrack The major histocompatibility complex-restricted antigen receptor on T cells. I. Isolation with a monoclonal antibody. J. Exp. Med.: 1983, 157(4);1149-69 PubMed 6601175

Lab 5 Assessment

This chart shows the relative proportion of morphological phenotypes in a cell count for two groups. Group A: Overexpressed TM4 tropomyosin, Group B: Wildtype (WT).


This chart shows the relative proportion of morphological phenotypes in a cell count for two groups. Group A: Overexpressed TM4 tropomyosin, Group B: Wildtype (WT). Cell count was performed on "Images for Analysis - Group 1" in 2016 Lab 5

Lab 3 Assessment

  • Z8600021 Image is fine and includes the required information (ref, copyright and student template). Your paper summaries relate to the group project, I hope you had a chance to use this information in the actual project. (5/5)


1. T lymphocytes need less than 3 min to discriminate between peptide MHCs with similar TCR-binding parameters, Brodovitch, A., et al. [1]

Summary

Brodovitch et al. investigated the kinetics of the interaction between MHCs and TCRs. MHC and TCR interaction plays a crucial role in the foundation of "immunological synapses" and discrimination of self and non-self. 1G4 TCR carrying human T-Lymphocytes are dropped on a surface functionalized with various different types, formes (diamonds, squares, crosses) and amounts of pMHCs. To determine the time necessary to differentiate between the distinguished pMHC types, interference reflection microscopy (IRM) was used to quantify the spreading area in real time. The results indicate, that the differentiation process is completed already after 2 minutes, a reflection of how fast our immune system is able to process attacks on our system.

2. The direction of migration of T-lymphocytes under flow depends upon which adhesion receptors are engaged, Dominiquez, GA., et al. [2]

Summary

The movement of leukocytes within vascular environments has given invaluable insight in the progression of auto-immune diseases such as multiple sklerose. The effort of basic research has been promptly rewarded by the discovery of one of the most effective treatments against MS, a monoclonal antibody called Natalizumab, which opts against the delocalisation of lymphocytes from the blood stream into nervous tissue[3]. In the light of such discoveries, further emphasis has been placed on the research of Lymphocyte movement. This paper tried to observe the interaction between lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1 (LFA-1; αLβ2), very late antigen-4 (VLA-4; α4β1) and their ligands, intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1), cell adhesion molecules expressed on the vascular endothelial lining. VCAM and ICAM was printed on a silicone polymer (PDSM) to inquire, whether ligand type and engagement strenght would influence the migration direction. It was found that direction and cell polarity are well influenced by ligand type and engagement strenght.

3. Broad T-cell receptor repertoire in T-lymphocytes derived from human induced pluripotent stem cells, Chang, CW., et al.[4]

Summary

Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC) are one of the biggest promises nowadays. The standard approach, also used in this paper, is viral transfection with Oct3/4, Sox2, c-Myc, and Klf4 [5]. These are the four transcription factors with the power to push cells back to the initial steps of their development. The therapeutic options for iPS are mind-boggling, from Leukemia to Multiple Sclerosis, an uncountable number of diseases is a direct consequence of a malfunctioning immune system. Chang et al. achieved for the first time to induce pluripotent human T-Lymphocytes with expression of various different T Cell Receptors (TCRs). The number of TCRs decreases with the advancing T-Cell development, an increase of incorporation of different TCRs thus signals dedifferentiation. The observed iPSC showed normal patterns of differentiation, as shown in subsequent expression of CD7 and CD3. Furthermore, cytokine signaling strongly resembled natural patterns. The importance of the findings in this paper are emphasized if one takes into account one of the major difficulties with iPSC: directed differentiation. Current approaches focus on mimicking the natural cell environment and copy it from in-vivo to in-vitro, an approach which has been successfully applied by the authors of this paper.

4. Restrictions to HIV-1 replication in resting CD4+ T lymphocytes, Pan, X., et al.[6], a review

Summary

Schematic model of HIV-1 replication and restrictions thereof in activated and resting CD4+ T lymphocytes[6]

Inarguably one of the most important Type of T-Cells are Cells expressing a CD4 surface glycoprotein (not in the Paper, but on a side note: In the range of T-Lymphocytes, CD4 is mainly expressed by T-Helper cells, but also found on other Leukocytes, such as NK-Cells[7]). As reviewed in the paper, besides physiological functions, T-Helper Cells also serve as the main host for HIV1, but only as long as they are in a active state. Active T-Helper Cells primarily reside in lympnodes and replicate not only its own, but also the viral genome. As CD4+ T-Lymphocytes become inactive, a actin structure forms around the cell nucleus and the cell becomes insusceptible for HIV invasion. The review states the cell restriction factor SAMHD1, a deoxynucleoside triphosphate triphosphohydrolase, a key player in inactive CD4+ Cell defense against reverse transcriptase and insertion of viral genom into nuclear DNA.

References

  1. Alexandre Brodovitch, Eugene Shenderov, Vincenzo Cerundolo, Pierre Bongrand, Anne Pierres, Philip Anton van der Merwe T lymphocytes need less than 3 min to discriminate between peptide MHCs with similar TCR-binding parameters. Eur. J. Immunol.: 2015, 45(6);1635-42 PubMed 25782169
  2. George A Dominguez, Nicholas R Anderson, Daniel A Hammer The direction of migration of T-lymphocytes under flow depends upon which adhesion receptors are engaged. Integr Biol (Camb): 2015, 7(3);345-55 PubMed 25674729
  3. Chris H Polman, Paul W O'Connor, Eva Havrdova, Michael Hutchinson, Ludwig Kappos, David H Miller, J Theodore Phillips, Fred D Lublin, Gavin Giovannoni, Andrzej Wajgt, Martin Toal, Frances Lynn, Michael A Panzara, Alfred W Sandrock, AFFIRM Investigators A randomized, placebo-controlled trial of natalizumab for relapsing multiple sclerosis. N. Engl. J. Med.: 2006, 354(9);899-910 PubMed 16510744
  4. Chia-Wei Chang, Yi-Shin Lai, Lawrence S Lamb, Tim M Townes Broad T-cell receptor repertoire in T-lymphocytes derived from human induced pluripotent stem cells. PLoS ONE: 2014, 9(5);e97335 PubMed 24828440
  5. Kazutoshi Takahashi, Shinya Yamanaka Induction of pluripotent stem cells from mouse embryonic and adult fibroblast cultures by defined factors. Cell: 2006, 126(4);663-76 PubMed 16904174
  6. 6.0 6.1 Xiaoyu Pan, Hanna-Mari Baldauf, Oliver T Keppler, Oliver T Fackler Restrictions to HIV-1 replication in resting CD4+ T lymphocytes. Cell Res.: 2013, 23(7);876-85 PubMed 23732522
  7. Helene B Bernstein, Mary C Plasterer, Sherrie E Schiff, Christina M R Kitchen, Scott Kitchen, Jerome A Zack CD4 expression on activated NK cells: ligation of CD4 induces cytokine expression and cell migration. J. Immunol.: 2006, 177(6);3669-76 PubMed 16951326

Lab 2 Assessment

  • Z8600021 Image is fine and includes required information. Your summary is also accurate for this paper. (5/5)

Endosomal sorting of readily releasable synaptic vesicles, Hoopmann et al. [1]

Summary

Fusion of recently endocytosed vesicles with bona fide endosomes[1]

Hoopmann et al. observed the dynamics of synaptic vesicle recycling within hippocampal pre-synapses using STED (stimulated emission depletion) microscopy and classic microscopy techniques. Special emphasis was laid on the role of early endosomes in the recycling, budding and reformation procedure of release ready synaptic vesicles. In this context, STED was applied to observe the endosome recycling process in normal culture.

To identify genuine endosomes, Rab5 is the predominant marker of choice. Rab5 is a small GTPase necessary for vesicle targeting and v/t-SNARE fusion[2]. A transgenic Rab5-GFP was incorporated into endosomes to label them fluorescently and further determine their nature as being genuine endosomes. To prove the occurrence of fusion of synaptic vesicles with endosomes, another protein, synaptotagmin, is dyed. Synaptotagmin is a crucial component of the synaptic t-SNARE complex[3], hence vital for vesicle fusion. The t-SNARE is found on the targeted membrane, id est endosomal membrane. Red fluorescent synaptotagmin antibodies are presented in the extracellular space and engulfed by synaptic vesicle endocytosis. Accordingly, If actual fusion takes place, synaptotagmin-antibody fluorescence (red) and Rab5 fluorescence (green) would coincide.

STED is generally used to increase the resolution of normal fluorescence microscopy and fairly helpful in this setting to readily distinguish the two fluorescent markers (red/green). Consequently, lateral resolutions of ~70-80nm have been achieved, greatly surpassing Abbe’s diffraction limit of 200-300nm [4]. With the use STED Hoopman et al. were in fact able to confirm the supposed colocalization of the aforementioned markers and thus infer the crucial role of endosomes in synaptic vesicle recycling.

References

  1. 1.0 1.1 Peer Hoopmann, Annedore Punge, Sina V Barysch, Volker Westphal, Johanna Bückers, Felipe Opazo, Ioanna Bethani, Marcel A Lauterbach, Stefan W Hell, Silvio O Rizzoli Endosomal sorting of readily releasable synaptic vesicles. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.: 2010, 107(44);19055-60 PubMed 20956291
  2. Anja Zeigerer, Jerome Gilleron, Roman L Bogorad, Giovanni Marsico, Hidenori Nonaka, Sarah Seifert, Hila Epstein-Barash, Satya Kuchimanchi, Chang Geng Peng, Vera M Ruda, Perla Del Conte-Zerial, Jan G Hengstler, Yannis Kalaidzidis, Victor Koteliansky, Marino Zerial Rab5 is necessary for the biogenesis of the endolysosomal system in vivo. Nature: 2012, 485(7399);465-70 PubMed 22622570
  3. Thomas C Südhof, James E Rothman Membrane fusion: grappling with SNARE and SM proteins. Science: 2009, 323(5913);474-7 PubMed 19164740
  4. Template:Cite web

Lab 1 Assessment

Search PubMed

prokaryotic cytoskeleton

PMID 26756351

Katherine Ann Hurley, Thiago M A Santos, Gabriella M Nepomuceno, Valerie Huynh, Jared T Shaw, Douglas B Weibel Targeting the bacterial division protein FtsZ. J. Med. Chem.: 2016; PubMed 26756351


eukaryotic cytoskeleton

How to make a in-text citation

Bacterial division protein FTsZ [1]

Links

Internal Cell Biology Introduction

External Lecture 1

External Biomed Central

What I have learned so far

I have learned that editing Wiki Pages is really basic.

  • So is making bullet points
    • or sub-bullet points
  1. or numbered lists
    1. or sub-numbered lists
also a definition list
or text
text

Student Image

Model of Structure of the BacA subunit (residues 37 to 139).jpg

Structure of the BacA subunit (residues 37 to 139)[2]

References

  1. Katherine Ann Hurley, Thiago M A Santos, Gabriella M Nepomuceno, Valerie Huynh, Jared T Shaw, Douglas B Weibel Targeting the bacterial division protein FtsZ. J. Med. Chem.: 2016; PubMed 26756351
  2. Chaowei Shi, Pascal Fricke, Lin Lin, Veniamin Chevelkov, Melanie Wegstroth, Karin Giller, Stefan Becker, Martin Thanbichler, Adam Lange Atomic-resolution structure of cytoskeletal bactofilin by solid-state NMR. Sci Adv: 2015, 1(11);e1501087 PubMed 26665178