From CellBiology

My Student Page

Group Projects
This year's main topic is Blood Cell Biology. Each group should discuss with group members the specific sub-topic that will be covered by their project.

Here is a list of some of the cell types (Structure and Function)

Cell Type (PuMed citations)

Below are the groups to which students have been randomly assigned. You should now on the project discussion page add your own suggestion for a specific topic. Once your group has agreed on the topic, add this as a heading to the project page before Lab 3.

2016 Projects: Group 1 | Group 2 | Group 3 | Group 4 | Group 5 | Group 6 | Group 7

Group 1: User:Z5017493 | User:Z3330991 | User:Z5020043 | User:Z5020175 | User:Z3489355

Group 2: User:Z5018320 | User:Z5015980 | User:Z3376375 | User:Z3461106

Group 3: User:Z5019595 | User:Z5019962 | User:Z5018925 | User:Z3461911

Group 4: User:Z5020356 | User:Z3463895 | User:Z3376502 | User:Z3423497 | User:Z5021149

Group 5: User:Z5015719 | User:Z3462124 | User:Z3463953 | User:Z5017292

Group 6: User:Z5018866 | User:Z3329177 | User:Z3465531 | User:Z5105710

Group 7: User:Z5021060 | User:Z5016365 | User:Z5016784 | User:Z3414546 | User:Z3417773

Group Assessment Criteria

Group Assessment Criteria

  1. The key points relating to the topic that your group allocated are clearly described.
  2. The choice of content, headings and sub-headings, diagrams, tables, graphs show a good understanding of the topic area.
  3. Content is correctly cited and referenced.
  4. The wiki has an element of teaching at a peer level using the student's own innovative diagrams, tables or figures and/or using interesting examples or explanations.
  5. Evidence of significant research relating to basic and applied sciences that goes beyond the formal teaching activities.
  6. Relates the topic and content of the Wiki entry to learning aims of cell biology.
  7. Clearly reflects on editing/feedback from group peers and articulates how the Wiki could be improved (or not) based on peer comments/feedback. Demonstrates an ability to review own work when criticised in an open edited wiki format. Reflects on what was learned from the process of editing a peer's wiki.
  8. Evaluates own performance and that of group peers to give a rounded summary of this wiki process in terms of group effort and achievement.
  9. The content of the wiki should demonstrate to the reader that your group has researched adequately on this topic and covered the key areas necessary to inform your peers in their learning.
  10. Develops and edits the wiki entries in accordance with the above guidelines.
Individual Lab Assessments
Lab 8 Assessment
2016 Lab 8 - Lab 8 Assessment (to be completed before Lab 9)
  1. Add your peer assessment to your own student page to the site.
  2. Add your peer assessment to each project discussion page to the site.
Lab 6 Assessment
2016 Lab 6 -
  1. Identify an antibody against your group blood cell protein that is commercially available.
  2. Add a link to the original data sheet page and identify the type of group blood cell protein.
  3. Include the following information: type of antibody (polyclonal, monoclonal), species raised in, species reacts against, types of application uses, and if available any reference using that antibody.
Lab 2 Assessment
2016 Lab 2 - Super resolution microscopy
  1. Find a recent research article (not review) that uses super resolution microscopy technique.
  2. Write a brief summary of the paper (referenced) and what the super resolution microscopy technique showed.
    1. This should not simply be the abstract of the paper.
    2. This can be 2-3 paragraphs no longer.
  3. Include a super resolution microscopy image from the paper.
    1. Therefore the paper must be from a source that you can reuse.
    2. Image uploaded as in Lab 1 (summary box - description/reference/copyright/student image)
    3. Image should appear as a "thumbnail" (thumb) next to your paper summary (with citation legend) See Test page
Lab 1 Assessment
2016 Lab 1 - Lab 1 Assessment (to be completed before Lab 2) The test page I set up in the Lab
  1. Add your own student page to the site.
  2. Add your signature for Lab attendance.
  3. Add a sub-heading.
  4. Add an external Link.
  5. Add an internal Link.
  6. Add an image from PubMed, PloS or BioMed Central journal related to prokaryote cellular component. Make sure it includes both the reference and copyright information, with the file and where it appears on your page.


Z5021060 (talk) 11:53, 10 March 2016 (AEDT)

Z5021060 (talk) 11:06, 17 March 2016 (AEDT)

Z5021060 (talk) 11:15, 24 March 2016 (AEDT)

Z5021060 (talk) 11:20, 7 April 2016 (AEST)

Z5021060 (talk) 11:07, 21 April 2016 (AEST)

Z5021060 (talk) 11:19, 28 April 2016 (AEST)

Z5021060 (talk) 11:04, 5 May 2016 (AEST)

Z5021060 (talk) 11:13, 26 May 2016 (AEST)

I forgot to time-in last week

Z5021060 (talk) 11:05, 2 June 2016 (AEST)

Lab 1 Assessment

Search PubMed

prokaryotic cytoskeleton

PMID 26756351

Katherine Ann Hurley, Thiago M A Santos, Gabriella M Nepomuceno, Valerie Huynh, Jared T Shaw, Douglas B Weibel Targeting the bacterial division protein FtsZ. J. Med. Chem.: 2016; PubMed 26756351

How to make an in-text Citation

Targeting the bacterial division protein FtsZ[1]


Carnegie stage table

Lecture 1

SMH Sydney Paper

BioMed Central


What I've Learnt this Lesson

I've learnt how to do different programming/coding techniques on a wiki page. I feel like I'm in a IT class hahaha

Individual Assessments

Lab 1

Pore-loop Ion Channels in Prokaryotes.png

Topology diagrams of pore-loop ion channels FtsZ[2]

Copyright: © 2010 Ger et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

Lab 2

Summary of Research Article

SpoIIIE clusters localisation[3]

Molecular motors are often utilised during the process of transportation of DNA through the use of ATP [3]. This specific research article uses the process of sporulation in Bacillus subtilis to look into how a large amount of a chromosome is transported by the protein, SpoIIIE ATPase, for separation during cell division. Sister chromosomes are used in the experiment and remodelled and the site of division, the septum, is relocated to produce a mother cell, which contains three-quarters of the chromosome, and the forespore, which contains the other quarter of the chromosome. FtsZ[4] How the SpoIIIE assembles itself around the mother cell and forespore, whilst fuelling itself via ATP hydrolysis FtsZ[5]was then studied.

It was found that SpoIIIE were directed towards the septum even before the cell division began. This was discovered through the use of super resolution microscopy. Photo-activated localization microscopy was used to study the location and movement of SpoIIIE. Structured illumination microscopy was then used to form 3D images of the reassembled SpoIIIE, and fluorescence fluctuation microscopy was used to obtain images of the chromosomal DNA.

Lab 3

Paper 1

Eosinophils migrating to different tissues in the body are part of its function[6]. Eosinophils that are part of the circulatory system remain inactive until they reach the tissue[7]. The article looks at what occurs in terms of the surface markers and release of leukotriene C4 when eosinophils reach these endothelial cells[7]. It was found that when eosinophils migrated to the endothelial cell, interleukin (IL)-4 or IL-Beta would encourage further migration. The rate of this process further increased if a chemoattractant was used. In the culture, the endothelial cells that were treated to prevent this chemotactic event would lead to a decrease in the expression of CD68. CD69 is an early marker and CD35 is a receptor[8]. Both of these are controlled by endothelial cells and thus their expression increased when the eosinophils migrated to the endothelial cells[8].

M J Dallaire, C Ferland, N Pagé, S Lavigne, F Davoine, M Laviolette Endothelial cells modulate eosinophil surface markers and mediator release. Eur. Respir. J.: 2003, 21(6);918-24 PubMed 12797482

Paper 2

Eosinophils can often be seen during allergic reactions and in parasitic diseases [9]. This can be investigated by looking at granules granule proteins of eosinophils. During parasitic infection, the granules such as eosinophil peroxides (EPO) and major basic protein-1 (MBP-1) eosinophil-derived neurotoxin and eosinophil catatonic protein can deposit its contents onto the helminth to kill it [10]. Thus the article looks at the presence or absence of these proteins to see its effects on parasitic disease.The article looks at the parasite Brugia malayi microfilariae for the investigation. It was found that eosinophils were needed for eliminating the microfilariae during primary infection as its absence would allow for the microfilariae to survive in the body for a longer period of time [9]. The absence of EPO lead to the increase in levels of Immunoglobin E (IgE) which meant that eosinophils have a role in the controlling the levels of IgE [9]. The article also states that eosinophils can have both a positive and negative effect as the removal of MBP-1 lead to increased mucus production by goblet cell[9]s but the physiology of the respiratory system did not change with its absence [11].

Emma T Cadman, Katherine A Thysse, Siobhan Bearder, Anita Y N Cheung, Ashleigh C Johnston, James J Lee, Rachel A Lawrence Eosinophils are important for protection, immunoregulation and pathology during infection with nematode microfilariae. PLoS Pathog.: 2014, 10(3);e1003988 PubMed 24626328

Paper 3

Eosinophils are a type of leukocyte that has many functions in terms of inflammatory response: has a role in parasitic, bacterial and viral infection, allergies, tumours and injuries to tissues[12]. Therefore, maintaining a certain level of eosinophils via activation and programmed cell death is important for the immune system, as eosinophils can regulate antigens, tissues, as they can also encourage the inflammatory process via release of cytokines and lipid mediators[13]. This article further studies the regulation activation and apoptosis of eosinophils via the influence of Natural Killer (NK) cells. In humans, eosinophil activation can be influenced by the increase in the CD69 protein activity and the decrease in CD62L activity. On the other hand, eosinophil apoptosis can also be influenced by NK which could be seen as the rate of apoptosis was higher in the culture that was incubated with NK cells.

Ali Awad, Hanane Yassine, Mathieu Barrier, Han Vorng, Philippe Marquillies, Anne Tsicopoulos, Catherine Duez Natural killer cells induce eosinophil activation and apoptosis. PLoS ONE: 2014, 9(4);e94492 PubMed 24727794

Paper 4

EoP count in eosinophila patients[14]

Eosinophils are created from the eosinophil lineage committed progenitors (EoP), CD34+ cells [15], [16]. They get produced in response to infections and diseases that cause an inflammatory responses which leads to an increase in amount of eosinophils present in the blood due to cytokine interleukin 5 (IL-5) [17], [18]. EoPs develop into its mature form via the influence of the regulatory molecules that control IL-5 [19], [14], [20]. The alteration of IL-5 levels affects the rate at which EoPs can mature but does not effect the ability of the bone marrow to produce CD34+ [21].

Lab 6

1) Clone BMK13 is an Anti-Eosinophil Major Basic Protein Antibody

2) It is an Anti-Eosinophil antibody as stated above. The data sheet is available on,MM_NF-CBL419?bd=1

3) It is a monoclonal antibody that is raised in mice and reacts againts humans. The types of applications are ELISA, WB, IH(P)

  • Z8600021 For techniques you need the full description, not acronyms. (4/5)

Lab 8

  • Z8600021 Good concise critical feedback. I appreciate that you have also "ranked" the projects in your feedback. (18/20)

Group 1

The first thing I noticed was that the way that the assignment was structured was very logical. It progresses from the most broadest topic to the more detailed topics. It also follows a good chronological order as it addresses the history of megakaryocytes earlier on in the project and then goes onto how they develop and mature. This is good for students who are unfamiliar with the topic as it makes it easier to absorb information. One of the things I would however suggest to add is a picture in the structure section. When learning about structures of things, it is often easier to visualise or interpret the information if there is a picture as reading all the descriptions of the different structures can be a bit overwhelming. I also noticed that there were sections without referencing throughout the project, especially in the Introduction, Thrombopoietin receptor, Maintenance of Haematopoietic Stem Cells in the Quiescent State and Essential Thrombocytosis sections. Basically, every time a statement is made, it should be followed up with a reference. Other than those small issues, it seems like the assignment is heading in a good direction.

Group 2

With this groups' assignment I noticed that they also had a very good structure. Things were written in a logical order that built up the readers knowledge of the basics on red blood cells before going more and more in depth. One thing that I did notice however, while reading the assignment was that, in the sections with diagrams/pictures the paragraphs did not seem so hard to read. Under each heading is quite a large portion of writing. Having no bullet points or tables makes it quite difficult to read for a university student who is being newly introduced to the topic. It is not that the information is difficult to absorb, but more that it makes the reader lose concentration, especially the Diseases and Abnormalities section. If there were more pictures or as mention bullet points/tables to simplify the large paragraphs that were written, I think that would make the assignment seem more interesting.

Group 3

This group also had a good structure. Starting from the introduction, which gives a good overview on lymphocyte B-cells, going on to structure, function and then it's role in disease. The information written by this group is easy to read and simple but in depth enough for a third year medical science student. Although the information was found and written was good, this group also wrote in large paragraphs which tends to cause students to lose interest. Having a more visual approach could be a good option. Pairing the information with more images and utilising bullet points and table to summarise instead of lengthy paragraphs could possibly make the project seem more interesting. Another problem I noticed was this this group did not include any in-text citations at all! They did however have the references at the end. It is important to add an in-text citation with every statement to indicate which information came from where.

Group 4

Just like all the other groups, the first thing I noticed about this groups' project is that it followed a good structure. It started with the most broadest information in the introduction section and then led to more in-depth information in the sections about disease and current research (the inverted triangle technique). It was great that this group included a photo in the section about the structure of Natural Killer Cells (NKC). This was very helpful as that section is essentially trying to allow the reader to form an image of what NKCs look like. Surprisingly not all the groups did this so that was good. On the other hand, the images with the caption "Receptors of Natural Killer Cell" and "Natural Killer Cell effector function" were so small you could not see the diagrams on those images clearly. In that case it would be better not to use those photos at all. Try to download large images so that you can expand them/shrink them to your preferred size. Also, to me personally, I thought the Rheumatoid Arthritis portion under the heading "Abnormalities in Disease" was abnormally long. This could mean that the reader could lose interest. The information was good however it was just a little overwhelming. The group however did make up for this issue by including a table! This table was to summarise the diseases. This was a great idea!

Group 5

Out of all the projects, I think this groups one was one of the best ones. It had a good structure and flow. It started with the introduction and gave more descriptive information as it got to the sections on. The information they wrote was paired with images or tables that supplemented the information that was written. There were sections of the project where it did seem like the information was almost too lengthy but the tables that were created allowed the reader to absorb the information easily. If you did not understand the paragraphs, you could refer to the paragraphs. The only thing I could suggest for this group is to possibly use some bullet points in the other paragraphs that are quite lengthy but do not have a table for image to support it.

Group 6

By reading this groups' project, you can easily see how much effort they put into their work. This can be seen from the amount of information they have gathered through research. This is great but the amount of information provided is definitely overwhelming for someone who is new to the topic of T Lymphocytes. In each section of the project, so much time and effort has been put in which is great! I think it would however be easier to read if the group could use bullet points or more tables. It is very difficult to absorb large amounts of information at once, especially if they are written in a paragraph format. The group did couple images with the lengthy sub-sections which was helpful in terms of absorbing information. As mentioned before, I think adding bullet points as well as tables along with the images would be good if the group was planning to keep all the information they have written.


  1. Katherine Ann Hurley, Thiago M A Santos, Gabriella M Nepomuceno, Valerie Huynh, Jared T Shaw, Douglas B Weibel Targeting the bacterial division protein FtsZ. J. Med. Chem.: 2016; PubMed 26756351
  2. Mao-Feng Ger, Gloria Rendon, Jeffrey L Tilson, Eric Jakobsson Domain-based identification and analysis of glutamate receptor ion channels and their relatives in prokaryotes. PLoS ONE: 2010, 5(10);e12827 PubMed 20949136
  3. 3.0 3.1 Jean-Bernard Fiche, Diego I Cattoni, Nele Diekmann, Julio Mateos Langerak, Caroline Clerte, Catherine A Royer, Emmanuel Margeat, Thierry Doan, Marcelo Nöllmann Recruitment, assembly, and molecular architecture of the SpoIIIE DNA pump revealed by superresolution microscopy. PLoS Biol.: 2013, 11(5);e1001557 PubMed 23667326
  4. P A Levin, R Losick Transcription factor Spo0A switches the localization of the cell division protein FtsZ from a medial to a bipolar pattern in Bacillus subtilis. Genes Dev.: 1996, 10(4);478-88 PubMed 8600030
  5. Jerod L Ptacin, Marcelo Nollmann, Eric C Becker, Nicholas R Cozzarelli, Kit Pogliano, Carlos Bustamante Sequence-directed DNA export guides chromosome translocation during sporulation in Bacillus subtilis. Nat. Struct. Mol. Biol.: 2008, 15(5);485-93 PubMed 18391964
  6. P F Weller, K Lim, H C Wan, A M Dvorak, D T Wong, W W Cruikshank, H Kornfeld, D M Center Role of the eosinophil in allergic reactions. Eur Respir J Suppl: 1996, 22;109s-115s PubMed 8871054
  7. 7.0 7.1 S D Mawhorter, D A Stephany, E A Ottesen, T B Nutman Identification of surface molecules associated with physiologic activation of eosinophils. Application of whole-blood flow cytometry to eosinophils. J. Immunol.: 1996, 156(12);4851-8 PubMed 8648134
  8. 8.0 8.1 M J Dallaire, C Ferland, N Pagé, S Lavigne, F Davoine, M Laviolette Endothelial cells modulate eosinophil surface markers and mediator release. Eur. Respir. J.: 2003, 21(6);918-24 PubMed 12797482
  9. 9.0 9.1 9.2 9.3 Emma T Cadman, Katherine A Thysse, Siobhan Bearder, Anita Y N Cheung, Ashleigh C Johnston, James J Lee, Rachel A Lawrence Eosinophils are important for protection, immunoregulation and pathology during infection with nematode microfilariae. PLoS Pathog.: 2014, 10(3);e1003988 PubMed 24626328
  10. K J Hamann, G J Gleich, J L Checkel, D A Loegering, J W McCall, R L Barker In vitro killing of microfilariae of Brugia pahangi and Brugia malayi by eosinophil granule proteins. J. Immunol.: 1990, 144(8);3166-73 PubMed 2324497
  11. Sophie Pégorier, Lori A Wagner, Gerald J Gleich, Marina Pretolani Eosinophil-derived cationic proteins activate the synthesis of remodeling factors by airway epithelial cells. J. Immunol.: 2006, 177(7);4861-9 PubMed 16982928
  12. C J Sanderson Interleukin-5, eosinophils, and disease. Blood: 1992, 79(12);3101-9 PubMed 1596561
  13. Simon P Hogan, Helene F Rosenberg, Redwan Moqbel, Simon Phipps, Paul S Foster, Paige Lacy, A Barry Kay, Marc E Rothenberg Eosinophils: biological properties and role in health and disease. Clin. Exp. Allergy: 2008, 38(5);709-50 PubMed 18384431
  14. 14.0 14.1 Yasuo Mori, Hiromi Iwasaki, Kentaro Kohno, Goichi Yoshimoto, Yoshikane Kikushige, Aki Okeda, Naokuni Uike, Hiroaki Niiro, Katsuto Takenaka, Koji Nagafuji, Toshihiro Miyamoto, Mine Harada, Kiyoshi Takatsu, Koichi Akashi Identification of the human eosinophil lineage-committed progenitor: revision of phenotypic definition of the human common myeloid progenitor. J. Exp. Med.: 2009, 206(1);183-93 PubMed 19114669
  15. Hiroko Saito, Koichiro Matsumoto, Avram E Denburg, Lynn Crawford, Russ Ellis, Mark D Inman, Roma Sehmi, Kiyoshi Takatsu, Klaus I Matthaei, Judah A Denburg Pathogenesis of murine experimental allergic rhinitis: a study of local and systemic consequences of IL-5 deficiency. J. Immunol.: 2002, 168(6);3017-23 PubMed 11884474
  16. R Sehmi, L J Wood, R Watson, R Foley, Q Hamid, P M O'Byrne, J A Denburg Allergen-induced increases in IL-5 receptor alpha-subunit expression on bone marrow-derived CD34+ cells from asthmatic subjects. A novel marker of progenitor cell commitment towards eosinophilic differentiation. J. Clin. Invest.: 1997, 100(10);2466-75 PubMed 9366561
  17. M Tomaki, L L Zhao, J Lundahl, M Sjöstrand, M Jordana, A Lindén, P O'Byrne, J Lötvall Eosinophilopoiesis in a murine model of allergic airway eosinophilia: involvement of bone marrow IL-5 and IL-5 receptor alpha. J. Immunol.: 2000, 165(7);4040-50 PubMed 11034415
  18. Pranabashis Haldar, Christopher E Brightling, Beverley Hargadon, Sumit Gupta, William Monteiro, Ana Sousa, Richard P Marshall, Peter Bradding, Ruth H Green, Andrew J Wardlaw, Ian D Pavord Mepolizumab and exacerbations of refractory eosinophilic asthma. N. Engl. J. Med.: 2009, 360(10);973-84 PubMed 19264686
  19. Hiromi Iwasaki, Shin-ichi Mizuno, Robin Mayfield, Hirokazu Shigematsu, Yojiro Arinobu, Brian Seed, Michael F Gurish, Kiyoshi Takatsu, Koichi Akashi Identification of eosinophil lineage-committed progenitors in the murine bone marrow. J. Exp. Med.: 2005, 201(12);1891-7 PubMed 15955840
  20. Maja Milanovic, Grzegorz Terszowski, Daniela Struck, Oliver Liesenfeld, Dirk Carstanjen IFN consensus sequence binding protein (Icsbp) is critical for eosinophil development. J. Immunol.: 2008, 181(7);5045-53 PubMed 18802108
  21. Andrew Menzies-Gow, Patrick Flood-Page, Roma Sehmi, John Burman, Qutayba Hamid, Douglas S Robinson, A Barry Kay, Judah Denburg Anti-IL-5 (mepolizumab) therapy induces bone marrow eosinophil maturational arrest and decreases eosinophil progenitors in the bronchial mucosa of atopic asthmatics. J. Allergy Clin. Immunol.: 2003, 111(4);714-9 PubMed 12704348