User:Z5016456

From CellBiology

Welcome to Cell Biology 2017!

Lab 1 Assessment

Lab 2 Assessment

  1. Identify a chemical SDS and the risks and hazards of that chemical in text. Add a link to the original SDS
  2. Select 4 reference papers papers related to your selected group project topic sub-section. Read the research papers and write a brief description of their findings and relevance to the selected topic sub-section. The reference along with your description should then be pasted on both your group discussion page and your own personal page.

Lab 3 Assessment - Endo/Exo worksheet questions.

Lab 4 Assessment

  1. Identify a cytoskeletal antibody.
  2. Identify the species deriving the antibody.
  3. Identify the working concentration for the antibody.
  4. Identify a secondary antibody that could be used with this antibody.
  5. Identify a paper that has used this antibody.

This assessment will be due by the next lab (Lab 5).

Lab 7 Assessment

The following peer assessment exercise should be completed before next lab (Lab 8 - 2 May) as your individual assessment for this week (lab missed due to public holiday).

Your answer should be pasted in 2 places

  1. onto each project discussion page (Note you should add anonymously to the discussion page)
  2. your own individual student page for my assessment.

Each individual will provide a brief assessment of the other groups projects. This should take the form of a brief critical (balanced) assessment identifying both the positive (good) and negative (bad) aspects of the project page as it currently exists online.

You may if you choose, use the final project assessment criteria as a guide. Though you are also welcome to use your own criteria.

Group Assessment Criteria

  1. The key points relating to the topic that your group allocated are clearly described.
  2. The choice of content, headings and sub-headings, diagrams, tables, graphs show a good understanding of the topic area.
  3. Content is correctly cited and referenced.
  4. The wiki has an element of teaching at a peer level using the student's own innovative diagrams, tables or figures and/or using interesting examples or explanations.
  5. Evidence of significant research relating to basic and applied sciences that goes beyond the formal teaching activities.
  6. Relates the topic and content of the Wiki entry to learning aims of cell biology.
  7. Clearly reflects on editing/feedback from group peers and articulates how the Wiki could be improved (or not) based on peer comments/feedback. Demonstrates an ability to review own work when criticised in an open edited wiki format. Reflects on what was learned from the process of editing a peer's wiki.
  8. Evaluates own performance and that of group peers to give a rounded summary of this wiki process in terms of group effort and achievement.
  9. The content of the wiki should demonstrate to the reader that your group has researched adequately on this topic and covered the key areas necessary to inform your peers in their learning.
  10. Develops and edits the wiki entries in accordance with the above guidelines.

Attendance

Z5016456 (talk) 16:04, 7 March 2017 (AEDT)

Z5016456 (talk) 15:10, 14 March 2017 (AEDT)

Z5016456 (talk) 15:58, 28 March 2017 (AEDT)

Z5016456 (talk) 15:18, 3 April 2017 (AEDT)

Z5016456 (talk) 15:06, 2 May 2017 (AEDT)

Z5016456 (talk) 15:11, 9 May 2017 (AEST)

Z5016456 (talk) 15:05, 16 May 2017 (AEST)

Z5016456 (talk) 15:32, 27 May 2017 (AEST)

Tutorials

Individual Assessment

Lab One

T-Lymphocyte Basal Plasma Membrane.png


Immunofluorescent demonstration of Dynamin2 colocalisation with and regulation of signaling molecules within T-lymphocyte basal plasma membranes[1]


Mark Hill (talk) 12:12, 28 March 2017 (AEDT) All good with the image upload and your associated summary was also good. You only needed to add the image a title and the reference to your page (as below) the additional information goes with the image file. (5/5)

Lab Two

Chemical Safety:

Pentane-1,5-dial, commonly referred to as glutaraldehyde, is a common fixative for electron microscopy, used to crosslink cellular proteins to stabilise the specimen prior to embedding and microscopy. The Globally Harmonised System (GHS) of classification of gluteraldehyde recognises the potential toxicity of this substance, specifically:

  • Acute oral toxicity (category 4)
  • Acute inhalation toxicity (category 4)
  • Skin corrosion/irritation (category 1)
  • Serious eye damage/eye irritation (category 1)
  • Respiratory sensitisation (category 1)
  • Skin sensitisation (category 1)
  • Specific target organ toxicity - single exposure (category 3), respiratory system
  • Acute aquatic toxicity (category 1)
  • Chronic aquatic toxicity (category 2)

Further information on the safety hazards and use of gluteradahyde can be obtained below:

Gluteraldahyde Safety Data Sheet (SDS)


Research Papers Pertaining to Pancreatic Delta Cells:

The respective subsection here explored is the current research into pancreatic delta cell function. The following articles represent research published within the past three years and indicate the direction of both current and future investigations.

Juliane Zibolka, Eckhard Mühlbauer, Elmar Peschke Melatonin influences somatostatin secretion from human pancreatic δ-cells via MT1 and MT2 receptors. J. Pineal Res.: 2015, 58(2);198-209 PubMed 25585597

The circadian clock and melatonin has a known effect on pancreatic islets. Indeed, whilst the inhibitory effects of melatonin upon insulin secretion from α-cells is well known, melatonin-mediated effects on islet δ-cells had been previously unstudied. In this experiment, analysis of a human pancreatic δ-cell model, cell line QGP-1, and the use of a somatostatin-specific radioimmunoassay demonstrated that melatonin primarily has an inhibitory effect on somatostatin secretion when in the physiological concentration range. Interestingly, in the pharmacological range, melatonin elicited slightly increased somatostatin release from δ-cells. Somatostatin levels released from the δ-cells at low glucose concentrations was significantly inhibited during co-incubation with 1 nm melatonin, an effect which was less pronounced at higher glucose levels.
These results indicate that melatonin has a significant effect on both pancreatic δ-cells and somatostatin release.

Hong-Mei Wang, Jun-Hong Dong, Qing Li, Qiaoxia Hu, Shang-Lei Ning, Wenshuai Zheng, Min Cui, Tian-Sheng Chen, Xin Xie, Jin-Peng Sun, Xiao Yu A stress response pathway in mice upregulates somatostatin level and transcription in pancreatic delta cells through Gs and β-arrestin 1. Diabetologia: 2014, 57(9);1899-910 PubMed 24947582

Somatostatin secretion from islet δ-cells plays an important role in regulating islet function and is tightly controlled by environmental changes. Activation of the adrenergic system promoted somatostatin secretion from islet δ-cells; however, the role of the adrenergic system in regulating somatostatin content and transcription had not previously been defined. An imbalance between the somatostatin content and its secretion may cause dysfunctions in the islet δ-cells, thus this study investigated the role of the adrenergic system in the modulation of somatostatin content and transcription in pancreatic δ-cells and the detailed underlying mechanisms of this regulation. Adrenaline-specific adrenergic agonists or specific adrenergic antagonists were applied to islets from either wild-type or specific adrenergic receptor knockout mice and pancreatic δ-cell lines to investigate their effects on somatostatin content and transcription. Adrenaline and isoprenaline increased somatostatin content and transcription through the activation of β1-/β2-adrenergic receptors (β1-/β2ARs). The somatostatin content in knockout mice was 50% lower than in wild-type mice.
It was found that dysfunction of β-adrenergic agonism may impair pancreatic δ-celll function.

Lukáš Alán, Tomáš Olejár, Monika Cahová, Jaroslav Zelenka, Zuzana Berková, Magdalena Smětáková, František Saudek, Radoslav Matěj, Petr Ježek Delta Cell Hyperplasia in Adult Goto-Kakizaki (GK/MolTac) Diabetic Rats. J Diabetes Res: 2015, 2015;385395 PubMed 26236746

Goto-Kakizaki rat models of diabetes have frequently demonstrated reduced β-cell mass within pancreatic islets, however, knowledge of δ-cells has been scarce. The present study aimed to compare δ-cell physiology and pathology within these models to Wistar rats, and found that the δ-cell number increased over time with amplified somatostatin mRNA and δ-cell distribution in pancreatic islets in diabetic rat models. A disruption of cytoarchitecture was observed over time with the maturation of the rats, with irregular β-cells accompanied by δ-cell hyperplasia and loss of pancreatic polypeptide positivity. Whilst somatostatin was seen to increase over time, glucose-stimulation index decreased, with a similar decrease in rat body weight and an increase in hyperglycaemia.
This study concluded a significant local δ-cell hyperplasia and suspected paracrine effect of somatostatin diminishing β-cell viability and contributing to the deterioration of β-cell mass.

Jia Zhang, Lindsay B McKenna, Clifford W Bogue, Klaus H Kaestner The diabetes gene Hhex maintains δ-cell differentiation and islet function. Genes Dev.: 2014, 28(8);829-34 PubMed 24736842

Whilst the homeodomain transcription factor HHEX (hematopoietically expressed homeobox) has been repeatedly linked to type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) using genome-wide association studies, it has previously been unknown as to whether it is involved in glycemic control. The present study found that HHEX was selectively expressed in the δ cells of the adult endocrine pancreas. By using two mouse models with HHEX deficiency, it was shown that HHEX is required for δ-cell differentiation. Decreased somatostatin levels in HHEX-deficient islets cause disrupted paracrine the inhibition of insulin release from β-cells, identifying HHEX as the first transcriptional regulator specifically required for islet δ cells.
This suggests that compromised paracrine control is a contributor to T2DM.


Mark Hill (talk) 19:20, 24 April 2017 (AEST) Very good (10/10) For the SDS you could have also identified the Globally Harmonized System. The 4 papers are relevant to the project and have been summarised well, hopefully they can be used in the final group project.

Lab Three

Current research

Lab Four

Actin Polyclonal Antibody is a primary rabbit actin antibody (IgG) which can be used for IHC (working concentration 1:10-1:50), IF (1:10-1:50) and WB (1:1000) within mouse or human models.

Goat anti-Rabbit IgG (H+L) Highly Cross-Adsorbed Secondary Antibody, Alexa Fluor 568 can be used as a secondary antibody for this primary antibody. A recent study into the body of mouse oocytes have used this secondary antibody in their research [2].


Mark Hill (talk) 20:43, 24 April 2017 (AEST) Very good all questions answered. (5/5)

Lab Five

Z5016456's Mean Phenotype Expressions in B35 Genotype.png Z5016456's Breakdown of Percentage of Neuron Phenotypes in B35 Cells.png

Statistical analysis of images of B35 cells provided for laboratory class. Cells over-expressing tropomyosin 4.2 demonstrate a greater proportion of phenotypes which show neurite outgrowth than control cells. This can be seen from both mean calculations (left) and the breakdown per image (right). Phenotype discernment was conducted according to the B35 cell guideline established by Nikki Curthoys.


Mark Hill (talk) 20:51, 24 April 2017 (AEST) This lab assessment will be marked by the guest presenter and the mark added here when I have received.

Lab Seven

Group 2 (Ductal Cells)

Most of the information thus far seems really good, I think more images would be beneficial, and the use of different forms e.g. microscopy/research-based images in combination with drawn diagrams would also be a great way to convey some of your content. Structure seems good, but experimenting with formats e.g. tables, collapsable folders, etc. could provide some visual interest. Be sure to check your referencing before the final submission, because the raw reference is used under your 'Structure' subheading (instead of a footnote). Otherwise, the bones of your project look good and I'm excited to see when it's fully fleshed out!

Group 3 (Beta Cells)

Clearly there has been some steady research that has gone into the project thus far. The headings are appropriate, and although there is obviously some content missing I think it's a great start. I like the addition of a glossary, but if it gets too large perhaps consider putting it into a collapsable format so it doesn't get too long or dominate the page. Additionally, perhaps consider making the embedded video slightly larger- I feel this would ease use for page-visitors. The Structure subsection, including the part about the similarities/differences between mice and human beta cells has very few references, so this may need some attention. I like the images used, but do feel that it could benefit from some more- not only does it visually break-up the paragraphs of text, but are also a great way of summarising the ideas you're talking about. There is A LOT of research out there about beta cells and diabetes, so perhaps a section on some current research beyond stem cells could be beneficial for your page. This being said, I think it's an excellent start!

Group 4 (Alpha Cells)

Clearly there is a lot of filling-out that needs to occur, but the structure that's there does seem to be logical and well thought-out. I agree that the images and videos there are great, but perhaps think about the prospect of increasing the size of the embedded videos to ease in watching. Additionally, I feel some microscopy images in addition to the drawn diagrams already provided would be beneficial. The details in the notes of the 'Development' subheading seem really detailed and excellent, but other areas such as 'Current Research' have no notes at all. I think that once the full extent of your content has been added, the page will greatly benefit from the formatting already in place. The lack of references thus far obviously requires some attention- it would be far easier to do this as you go, rather than leave filling them in until the last-minute. Otherwise I think there's a lot of potential and think it will look good come completion.


Good feedback, a little brief. you need a better balance of +/- feedback for this critical assessment exercise (7/10)

References

Search Locations

Articles

Hong-Mei Wang, Jun-Hong Dong, Qing Li, Qiaoxia Hu, Shang-Lei Ning, Wenshuai Zheng, Min Cui, Tian-Sheng Chen, Xin Xie, Jin-Peng Sun, Xiao Yu A stress response pathway in mice upregulates somatostatin level and transcription in pancreatic delta cells through Gs and β-arrestin 1. Diabetologia: 2014, 57(9);1899-910 PubMed 24947582

Javier U Chicote, Rob DeSalle, Antonio García-España Phosphotyrosine phosphatase R3 receptors: Origin, evolution and structural diversification. PLoS ONE: 2017, 12(3);e0172887 PubMed 28257417

Jia Zhang, Lindsay B McKenna, Clifford W Bogue, Klaus H Kaestner The diabetes gene Hhex maintains δ-cell differentiation and islet function. Genes Dev.: 2014, 28(8);829-34 PubMed 24736842

Juliane Zibolka, Eckhard Mühlbauer, Elmar Peschke Melatonin influences somatostatin secretion from human pancreatic δ-cells via MT1 and MT2 receptors. J. Pineal Res.: 2015, 58(2);198-209 PubMed 25585597

Lukáš Alán, Tomáš Olejár, Monika Cahová, Jaroslav Zelenka, Zuzana Berková, Magdalena Smětáková, František Saudek, Radoslav Matěj, Petr Ježek Delta Cell Hyperplasia in Adult Goto-Kakizaki (GK/MolTac) Diabetic Rats. J Diabetes Res: 2015, 2015;385395 PubMed 26236746


2017 Course Content

Moodle

Lectures: Cell Biology Introduction | Cells Eukaryotes and Prokaryotes | Cell Membranes and Compartments | Cell Nucleus | Cell Export - Exocytosis | Cell Import - Endocytosis | Cytoskeleton Introduction | Cytoskeleton - Microfilaments | Cytoskeleton - Microtubules | Cytoskeleton - Intermediate Filaments | Cell Mitochondria | Cell Junctions | Extracellular Matrix 1 | Extracellular Matrix 2 | Cell Cycle | Cell Division | Cell Death 1 | Cell Death 2 | Signal 1 | Signal 2 | Stem Cells 1 | Stem Cells 2 | Development | 2017 Revision

2017 Laboratories: Introduction to Lab | Fixation and Staining |


2017 Projects: Group 1 - Delta | Group 2 - Duct | Group 3 - Beta | Group 4 - Alpha

Dr Mark Hill 2015, UNSW Cell Biology - UNSW CRICOS Provider Code No. 00098G
  1. Felix J Eppler, Thomas Quast, Waldemar Kolanus Dynamin2 controls Rap1 activation and integrin clustering in human T lymphocyte adhesion. PLoS ONE: 2017, 12(3);e0172443 PubMed 28273099
  2. Galina N Pochukalina, Nadya V Ilicheva, Olga I Podgornaya, Alexey P Voronin Nucleolus-like body of mouse oocytes contains lamin A and B and TRF2 but not actin and topo II. Mol Cytogenet: 2016, 9;50 PubMed 27347007