- 1 My Student Page
- 2 Attendance
- 3 Lab 1 assessment
- 4 Lab Assessment 2
- 5 Lab Assessment 3
- 6 Lab assessment 5
- 7 Lab assessment 6
- 8 Peer reviews
- 9 References
My Student Page
|This year's main topic is Blood Cell Biology. Each group should discuss with group members the specific sub-topic that will be covered by their project.
Here is a list of some of the cell types (Structure and Function)
Cell Type (PuMed citations)
|Group Assessment Criteria|
Group Assessment Criteria
|Individual Lab Assessments|
- Z8600021 attended 10 practicals.
Lab 1 assessment
How to make an in-text citation
Bacterial division protein FtsZ.
External link Sydney morning herald
Internal link Test 8600021
Learnt the different methods and my way around the wikipedia page. This includes learning how to make headings, sub headings and sub-sub-headings. Also learnt how to link databases such as PubMed and BioMed Central under these subheadings. By using a specific code <...>article ID </>, a formatted reference of that specific article was created. Internal links to other wikipedia pages was also made possible by copying and pasting the URL between 2 double square brackets: URL. If you need to link a specific website, but do not want the URL present, the title of the website is entered next to the URL, all within 2 single square brackets, this will show the title of the page with a link that will lead you to that specific linked page. Besides learning about the ways around wikipedia, it was also important to understand the issue of copyright when writing about other articles or using other images present within the article. It is important that the article has a copyright disclosure, this would allow the material to be published on the wikipedia webpage. In-text citation was also learnt. To place an image on your wikipedia page, the image is most likely to have been obtained from a credible source (e.g. PubMed, BioMed Central). To choose an image, it is important to make sure that a copyright disclaimer is present so the image can be used on the wikipedia page. Once the image is copied on the page, it is essential to have the copyright and student disclaimer along with the fully formatted reference. A description of the image in your own words can also be present on the same page beneath the image.
Domain interface of GLIC and ELIC
Lab Assessment 2
- Z8600021 (5/5)
Throughout this article the challenge of deep imaging techniques that are used to image the particular tissue are discussed, mainly concerning monitoring neuronal activity and imaging neuronal brain circuits. Super-resolution imaging on its own is difficult to produce clear images as a result of light scattering and spherical aberrations, therefore an optical clearing agent for high-resolution fluorescence imaging (SeeDB2) is used as it reduces light scattering. The fluorescent molecule (SeeDB2) allows super-resolution microscopy of various tissue samples up to a depth of 100μm, which is much greater in comparison to methods using super-resolution microscopy on its own. Using this method, accumulation of inhibitory synapses on spine heads was demonstrated looking at the fly medulla. A range of methods was used to minimize the effect of light scattering. A number of considerations had to be taken into play including to maintain fine structures, so to be able to differentiate between fine and deformed structures, which can be accomplished using SeeDB methods.
Throughout many microscopic testings of super-resolution imaging with fluorescence, it is known that SeeDB2 is able to maintain fine neuronal morphology maintaining cytoskeletal structure of the cell, showing no signs of deformation. In super-resolution fluorescence imaging, it was required to obtain photons from smaller volumes per pixel, therefore using stable fluorphores. This allowed the fluorescence signals to remain stable over a longer period of time without the accumulation of autofluorescence signals. From this study it can be concluded that volumetric super-resolution microscopy of cleared tissues is an effective strategy in concentric studies at a synaptic level, by maintaining the fine structure and integrity of the cell.
Lab Assessment 3
- Z8600021 (5/5)
(Vokurkova. M, et al.)  Growing and proliferating cells change their morphology and their function. Examples of such changes an erythrocyte can go through include altered response to a variety of vasoactive agents, abnormal cell calcium handling and different changes of receptors, ions transporters and intracellular signalling pathways. It is known that immature human erythrocytes have lower mean cellular haemoglobin content (MCHC), increased K+ content and augmented activity of sodium/potassium ion pump and reduced activity of sodium/potassium ion cotransport - in comparison to mature erythrocytes. The main aim of this study was to find a relationship (correlation) between erythrocyte maturity, lipid composition of the erythrocyte membrane and the activity of ion transporters tested on rat erythrocytes. Rats were subjected to haemorrhage to increase number of immature erythrocytes circulating blood. Findings presented in immature erythrocytes of haemorrhaged rats included: increased Na/K pump activity, reduced Na/K co-transport activity and increased Rb+ leak. In accordance with these ion changes, these immature erythrocytes also had a higher concentration of total phospholipids in the cell membranes.
(Bokori-Brown, M. et al.)  The effect of biochemical and biophysical properties of the plasma membrane along with the membrane morphology on the susceptibility of human red blood cells to the cholesterol-dependent cytolysis pneumolysin - this is a key virulent factor of streptococcus pneumoniae. A correlation is made between the physical properties of the membrane (bending, rigidity, surface dipole electrostatic potentials) and the susceptibility of RBC to pneumolysin-induced haemolysis. By changing factors of the human red blood cells such as inducing oxidative stress, lipid scrambling and artificial cell ageing modulate the cell response to the toxin (the virulent factor). Diabetic RBC are used to show a difference in reactivity when exposed to the virulent, thus correlating with levels of glycated haemoglobin showing that properties of the plasma membrane in RBC alter with diabetes. It is also presented that diabetic RBC are more resistant to the virulent compared to a healthy RBC. Factors such as surface charge density are able to modify interactions of the membrane with charged molecules.
(Bissinger, R. et al) The objective of this paper was to test if accelerated rates of eryptosis would participate in the pathophysiology of anaemia associated with lung cancer and its treatment. Anaemia is a common clinical manifestation in malignancy which can result in blood loss, impaired RBC production (erythropoiesis) as a result of reduced production of erythropoietin, decreased availability of iron or the decreased lifespan of circulating erythrocytes. Anaemia in malignancy can result in accelerated eryptosis that is characterised by changes in cell structure or exposure of phosphatidylserine at the cell surface - tis is recognised by phagocytes as foreign material. Results confirm that anaemia is paralleled with lung cancer. Erythropoietin is known to inhibit eryptosis but when in the presence of high levels of erythropoietin, erythrocytes generate high susceptibility to triggers of eryptosis, resulting in enhanced erythrocyte turnover. Other factors such as increased phosphatidylserine exposure on erythrocytes present in lung cancer patients also contributes to anaemia.
(Pretorius, E. et al) Investigation of biological markers that can help identify at-risk individuals is a major trend in Parkinson’s disease research. Inflammatory responses is a hallmark of Parkinson’s disease which is what is focused on throughout this article. Specific signalling molecules such as cyclooxygenases, prostaglandins, thromboxanes are used in pathophysiology and in aberrant coagulation/hematology systems. It is tested that these signalling molecules could have an affect on erythrocytes of of Parkinson’s disease patients. Changes in morphology was observed between the RBCs of Parkinson’s disease patients and healthy controls. It is observed that RBCs of Parkinson’s disease patients exhibit dramatically changed morphology and undergo eryptosis. It is shown in the image on the right (ultrastructure images of RBCs) that the RBCs have a changed shape, mainly displaying an eryptotic shape. Many forms of microscopy were used to observe these RBC of Parkinson’s disease patients and normal healthy controls. This method can act as a morphological indicator for diagnostic and prognostic features.
Lab assessment 5
Lab assessment 6
Anti-Red blood cell antibody [34-3C] (ab106101)
- Group Blood cell Protein: IgG2a
- Type of antibody: monoclonal
- Species raised in: mouse (specifically)
- Species reacts against: reacts with mouse only; does not react with rat, sheep, rabbit, horse or human
- Application uses: This antibody binds to Fc receptors on macrophages and induces anemia due to quick Fc receptor mediated erythrophagocytosis of opsonised RBC in spleen and livers. The ability of this antibody to react with these Fc receptors is responsible for haemolytic activity.
- Study using [34-3C] antibody: PMID 2193744
- Z8600021 very good, you have not included a practical technique using this antibody. (4/4)
- Z8600021 good detailed critical assessment. (18/20)
- Introduction and history provided a good opening on your topic, however the history section was not referenced.
- Structure was well described, but could possibly add in an image that will coincide with the text. development and maturation: this section was well worded and referencing was good. Since there is a lot of wording regarding how the cell matures (i.e the hematopoietic stages and the affecters involved), probably adding in a flow diagram listing out the ages and where each factor acts in would help in the understanding process along with the text.
- signalling: references should be added in the thrombopoietin receptor section. The diagram was nice and helpful. TPR was explained well, however JAK/STAT section could be worded slightly differently - just small things such as changing ‘…TPO binding to 2 CD110 attached to JAK2s…’ to ‘…TPO binding to two CD110 attached to JAK2s…’ just so that it makes it easier to follow.
- function and role: This section was a good read. There was a good incorporation of references and diagrams to accompany the text. The ‘sub-subheadings’ in this section flowed well and gave an in depth view of the function. In the maintenance of haematopoietic stem cells in the quiescent state section, it is mentioned that ‘studies have demonstrated that megakaryocytes…’ however there was only one reference provided - just to provide another reference within the text will emphasise that there have been other studies conducted in this area.
- Pathology: The incorporation of the video was nice. References for essential thrombocytosis need to be added within the text. This section could also be re-worded just so that while reading it, it will flow better. Also to complete the osteoporosis section.
- Future: This section was interesting and enjoyable to read. The overall flow and structure of the page was well done and progressed logically. Each sub heading was thought out well and covered the vast majority of what there is to know about megakaryocytes for the targeted audience.
- Introduction ad history: This provided a good overview on what B-cells are and what they do. The history section was concise and gave the key points, however would there be more in text referencing?
- Development: just a few possible formatting changes such as the first paragraph to have ‘B cell can differentiate along 2 distinct pathways:
1. Differentiate to form extrafollicular plasmablasts that are essential for rapid antibody production and early protective immune responses.
2. Activated B cells can enter germinal centres, where they can differentiate into plasma cells or memory B cells. Some of these B cells remain in the follicles and become membrane Ig-expressing germinal center cells.
This could make it easier to flow through when reading. There are a few minor spelling mistakes and the second paragraph could be slightly re-worded so, again, it is easier to flow through whilst reading.
- Location and activation: There are a few grammatical errors that can be fixed and also some slight re-wording. Addition of references in the T cell dependent activation section should be provided. Also probably providing an image or flow diagram how T cell activation and B cell activation occur, from this it will aid in the understanding process and also compare and contrast between the two. Within the T cell dependent activation section, it would also be good to elaborate on immunoglobulin class switching, just to give an idea of what it actually is.
- Types of B cell: This section had good referencing. The use of a diagram would be helpful in this section with an explanation of each type of B cell - mainly for regulatory B cells whilst speaking about receptors involved.
- Structure: The overview of surface structure section seemed too wordy and could have been broken up into separate sub sections just to make it easier to read through. References should also be added throughout this section.
- Function: The overall readability of this section was good. The antibody isotypes could be placed in a table to make it easier to read through. In the first paragraph however, it could be focused more on antibody production rather than elaborate on the experiment. You could possibly explain the main idea of it and reference the article for the viewer’s interest.
- Role in disease: This section is well worded, just needs to be completed with the last 2 areas and add in references. Applications: could add in a current research done in that area
Overall: Information provided was great, just required a few formatting changes, the addition of references and slight re-wording in a few sections to make the flow of the page better, overall great work!
- Introduction/history: The introduction is concise and gives us the main functions of the natural killer cells, however the paragraphs could be expanded upon just to give extra insight on what will be further discussed on your page. History is also concise, but could possibly include more information on the discovery of the NK cell itself as it was briefly stated.
- Structure: The flow of this section was good and easy to read. It was good that you included a diagram of NK cell (microscopic image). Maybe you can include a flow diagram that will aid your readability of the text - for example when you speak of what NK cells can be divided into functionally and structurally. There were a few minor spelling mistakes that can be fixed.
- Function: Good information provided, you could expand on the difference in expression in NK cells involving CD56 (dim and bright) - would this give them different functions? You can add in an image of the process of recognition of target cells. Function in cancer and pregnancy was an interesting read. Slight formatting change - make the image of the natural killer cell effector function slightly larger so that the readers are able to see what it entails.
- Abnormalities: the table was great and gave a good overview of what was going to be spoken about further on. Information provided under each subheading was great and readability was good. There was a lack of referencing however, mainly under rheumatoid arthritis.
- Current research: probably state what the research is about as a subheading rather than diving straight into it. Also below this, good idea to have a glossary.
Introduction/History: Very clear and concise. Good use of referencing. History also has good referencing, and it was good that you didn’t over crowd it with lots of information.
Physiology: - good use of subheadings
- flow of information within each sub heading was easy to follow and provided an easy read
- great referencing
- Hand made drawings and images provided were good and easy to follow - good to include a flow diagram of the production of mast cells could possibly add in a diagram in the function section, just to give a brief overview of mast cell activation
- the addition of the video was a nice touch
- the expanded images was also a good idea, to prevent the page from looking over crowded.
- overall work in this section was well done
Pathology: - good referencing in this section
- good use of tables and diagrams - really liked the H1 histamine receptor antagonist blocking image, this gave a real idea of the drug.
- readability in this whole section was good
- Having the pathogenesis of each disease is a good idea as it really gave an in depth view of the role of mast cells at this point.
Introduction: The introduction was well worded and flowed well between paragraphs. Some information however could be cut out and added in the development, as the introduction would just give a brief overview of T cells and what you would be speaking about throughout your page. Referencing is done well throughout this section, and it was good that you made a statement about a feature of the cell and provided the article that it was studied or reviewed in, but again this could have been added in another section.
Commonalities: This section is also well referenced and worded appropriately for your target audience. I found the use of the diagrams very handy and aided the text very well. There are a few grammatical errors that can be fixed. The information contained under each sub heading shows that you have done your research well, however, some sections do seem a bit too wordy and may be need to be cut down on or slightly simplified so it can be that much easier to follow - such as T cell receptor and co-receptors.
Development: This section is also referenced well and contained a useful diagram. The use of the expanded video in this section is great as it provides extra insight into the development of T cells. This provides a good opening point before the reader goes through this section.
History: This is well referenced and concise. I thought it would be good to place this after the introduction as it would give an overview of the discovery of the types of T cells and in turn their function. This can also prepare the reader on what to expect you will be speaking about throughout your web page.
Types of T cells: Each sub-heading was well planned out, by having expandable tabs to give us further information on the cell is a great idea as it provides the viewer the option to check it out rather than have everything in front of them and overcrowding the page. Under T regulatory cells there is a sub heading - clinical implications and disease - not sure if this is going to be elaborated on specifically towards the T regulatory cells, but I would probably suggest keeping this section simple and integrate implications and disease with current research. I have also noticed that lots of articles have been referenced throughout this passage with statements like ‘as reviewed in’. This is a good idea to provide the reader with the original source directly, however, I think if you can reduce this and focus on the your main statement and just have the reference, this would make it less distracting for the reader. Overall though I feel this section was done well.
Current research: This section was interesting for me and done well. Referencing was done well and the information provided was worded well.
History: This section was pretty concise and provided good information. It was also referenced well.
Birth, life and death in the body: I enjoyed reading this section, it was nicely worded and flowed between paragraphs well for me. There are a few minor grammatical errors, but that can be easily fixed. This section was referenced well and provided great imaged to accompany the text. If you would maybe separate this section into 3 sections of birth, life - possibly ‘role in circulation’, and death, this could give more of a specified structure of this section for the reader. This section is done pretty well anyway.
Structure: This section was also done well. It had good referencing and the layout of this section was thought out well. Having sections separated out as questions like ‘what are they?’ etc. would give the reader a direct answer to the question rather than searching for it through a large body of text. You could maybe elaborate more on what these granules contain in a table format. This would just provide extra insight. Overall, this section was done well.
Role in allergy and disease: Referencing in this section is done well and formatting as well. There are a few grammatical/spelling errors in this section. I feel that some sections could be expanded upon such as viral and bacterial infections, possibly speaking of treatment options for these diseases.
- <pubmed> 26972009</pubmed>
- <pubmed> 26988297 </pubmed>
- <pubmed> 25411230</pubmed> Cite error: Invalid
<ref>tag; name "PMID 25411230" defined multiple times with different content