- 1 My Student Page
- 2 Lab Attendance
- 3 Lab 1 Assessment
- 4 Lab 2 Assessment
- 5 Lab 3 Assessment
- 6 Lab 4 Assessment
- 7 Lab 5 Assessment
- 8 Lab 6 Assessment
- 9 Lab 8 Assessment
- 10 References
My Student Page
|This year's main topic is Blood Cell Biology. Each group should discuss with group members the specific sub-topic that will be covered by their project.
Here is a list of some of the cell types (Structure and Function)
Cell Type (PuMed citations)
|Group Assessment Criteria|
Group Assessment Criteria
|Individual Lab Assessments|
- Z8600021 attended 11 practicals.
Lab 1 Assessment
How to make an in-text citation
Bacterial division protein Ftsz. 
What I have learned so far...
Today we began learning about how to correctly code information on the wikipedia page. After creating a Test Student page, we recorded our lab attendance using a simple code under the subheading "lab attendance". We then began accumulating a number of links to different external sources and learning how to code the information to allow for easy access and a neat page.
Differential staining of internal vacuole-like structures in B. subtilis 
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Lab 2 Assessment
- Z8600021 (5/5)
This article evaluates the positives and negatives of a number of conventional and modern staining techniques, with particular attention to the difficulty of visualising fine structures, such as neurons, due to poor lateral and axial resolution as a result of the diffraction barrier. In their experiment, Ke, MT. et al. aimed to reduce light scattering, spherical aberrations, maintain fine cellular structures and increase the stability and brightness of flurophores in order to achieve super-resolution imaging of thick tissues. The effectiveness of combinations of different clearing, staining and mounting techniques was tested on large tissue samples such as an embryo, a whole brain, hemi-brain and nasal bone. These results were then compared to the results of standard staining and mounting techniques. It was found that the use of the clearing agent SeeDB2S resulted in the maintenance of fine structures, minimisation of light scattering and spherical aberrations, however, produced a lower transparency than other techniques, such as CLARITY or CUBIC.The use of SeeDB2S established the deep tissue super-resolution imaging of intact tissues samples up to 100 nanometer scale, a magnitude deeper than previously possible in conventional mounting. This meant that the combination of super-resolution fluorescent imaging and SeeDB2S was applied to large scale synapse mapping of whole-neurons in mammals and whole brains in flies and resulted in the successful imaging of fine structures of axonal boutons and dendritic spines. 
Lab 3 Assessment
- Z8600021 (5/5)
The aim of this article was to analyse the relationship between mast cells and the glycoslphosphatidylinositol-anchored molecule CD48, and the role of this relationship in the recognition (and immune response) of pathogenic E. coli via FimH. Malaviya et.al. demonstrated that CD48 binding to E. coli that expressed FimH could be inhibited by pretreatment of mast cells with CD48 antibodies. It was further shown that FimH-expressing E. coli effectively binds to recombinant CD48 in a cell free system and that the insertion of cDNA encoding rat CD48 into CHO (Chinese Hamster Ovary) cells resulted in CD48 acting as functional FimH receptors. Additionally, they found that pretreatment of Bone Marrow mast cells with increasing concentrations of phospholipase C resulted in a significant reduction in mast cell ability to release TNF-a (therefore decreasing neutrophil chemotaxis) after exposure to FimH-expressing E. coli. Therefore, it was shown that mast cells TNF-a response to FimH expressing bacteria is mediated by CD48 molecules which could be clinically significant in the immune response to pathogenic E. coli in the immunocompromised. 
This article would be useful when talking about the role of mast cells in disease as it talks about the relationship between mast cells and the FimH expressing bacteria (specifically E. coli). An understanding of the mechanisms of recognition and the immune response to bacterial pathogens is an important section of the cells role in disease. This study also explains the implications of the environment surrounding the mast cell on their ability to efficiently carry out normal functions and the effects that would have on the pathogenesis of a disease. Finally, the study also provides an explanation of the clinical significance of its findings and a possible treatment for the immunocompromised.
This study analyses the quantity of mast cell infiltration into colon tissues identified with different pathologies, including colonic polyps, well-differentiated colonic adenocarcinoma and poorly-differentitated colonic adenocarcinoma. The analysis of mast cell infiltration aimed to understand the relationship between mast cell presence and the development of colorectal cancer. Bone Marrow mast cells were co-cultured with colon cancer cells for 24-48 hours and the increase in the rate of colon cancer cell proliferation in the co-cultutred group compared to a control group indicated that colon cancer cell proliferation is significantly promoted by mast cells. It was also identified that colon chance cell migration occurred quicker in the co-cultured group where mast cells were present. After confirming that mast cell play a significant role in colon cancer cell proliferation and migration, both in vivo and in vitro, regulatory pathways of this process were analysed. It was demonstrated that mast cells promote colon cancer cell invasion and angiogenesis through MAPK/Rho-GTPase/STATs pathways. Finally, it was determined that colon tumour development can be significantly controlled via Fcε-PE40 chimeric toxin, killing mast cells without inducing degranulation and anaphylactic reaction. 
The major benefit and relevance of this article to the sub-section of the role of mast cells in disease, is that it demonstrates and explains an example of the negative role of mast cells in the pathogenesis of a disease. This study provides an interesting perspective on the role of mast cells in disease as they are typically thought to be cells that aid the hosts defence system rather than a stimulant of the pathogen. This article also provides an explanation of the clinical significance on their findings and suggests a possible treatment in reducing colon tutor development.
In this study, the underlying mechanisms of extracellular anti-microbal activity and mechanisms of mast cells was analysed using the bacteria S. pyogenes to exclude influence of mast cell phagocytic function. Results demonstrated that extracellular anti-microbal activity was carried out through the production of extracellular traps. It was observed that S. pyogenes growth was inhibited by human mast cells when in close proximity in a co-culture, but phagocytosis of the pathogen did not occur. Fluorescent staining of the human mast cell DNA, S. pyogenes and cathelicidin LL-37 (release by mast cells) depicted the entrapment of the pathogen in a highly defined structure containing DNA. This structure was associated with the extracellular presence of LL-37. Histones and tryptase were also recognised to be other structural components of the mast cell extracellular trap. Mast cell extracellular trap formation was demonstrated to be a result of mast cell death, a process dependent on the production of reactive oxygen species which indicated that mast cell extracellular trap formation was an active and controlled process in response to specific stimuli. This study is the first to demonstrate the formation of extracellular traps by immune cells other than neutrophils. 
This article is beneficial to the understanding of the role of mast cells in disease because it provides information on additional ways that mast cells influence immune response. The study outlines the formation of extra-cellular traps, a mechanism initially thought to be exclusion to neutrophils, and their role in the response to pathogens. Furthermore, it broadens the knowledge and understanding of the physiology of mast cells by presenting it as a complex cell with many mechanisms in the immune response.
The effect of histamine release, by mast cells, on the maturation of immature dendritic cells and the subsequent differentiation of naive CD4+ T cells into either Th1 or Th2 phenotypes and cytokine release was analysed in the above study. It is already known that histamine plays a major role in atopic diseases such as allergy, anaphylaxis and even asthma, however, this study demonstrates that histamines direct action on immature dendritic cells can influence the development of adaptive responses. This was supported by the observation that dendritic cells matured in a histamine rich culture polarised naive CD4+ T cells towards the Th2 phenotype. It was observed that the histamine secretion by mast cells was able to regulate the secretion of cytokines and chemokines, particularly down regulating the production of IL-12, a cytokine crucial for the development of Th1 responses. The data collected in the study also demonstrated that histamine can upregulate the expression of CD86 within dendritic cells (a component necessary for Th2 phenotype responses). Therefore, this study proposes that elevated levels of IgE and Th2 cells often present in atopic diseases could be established by a positive feedback loop of mast cell histamine release promoting Th2 phenotype differentiation and therefore IgE production, ultimately resulting in further histamine production and the positive feedback loop. 
Similarly to the above article, this study produces another mechanism that mast cells utilise to aid in the body's response to pathogens. This article is particularly interesting because it presents mast cells as a complex mediator of T cell maturation (towards the Th2 phenotype) through the establishment of a positive feedback loop of histamine secretion.
Lab 4 Assessment
Sickle cell disease is a debilitating genetic disease that's only cure is the heavily invasive bone marrow transplant . Developing a prevention strategy such as in vivo genetic correction would be the key to curing this disease. The aim of this experiment is to use CRISPR to investigate whether genetically correcting the Sickle cell anemia point mutation can cure the disease in vivo.
That mice that have the human sickle cell anemia gene can undergo CRISPR to correct the mutation in vivo.
Sickle cell disease involves a single point mutation in the seventh codon in the β-globin gene in humans.  As in other studies , human induced sickle mice will be analysed. Those identified with the pathogenic single point mutation will undergo CRISPR methodology to edit and correct this point mutation. The method that will be used for the genetic recombination of the embryos will mirror the Hampton et al. in their study CRISPR-Cas gene editing reveals RsmA and RsmC act through FlhDC to repress the SdhE flavinylation factor and control motility and prodigiosin production in Serratia, which edited the point mutation in fLhC.  As a control, a group of wild type mice will also undergo analysis using the same CRISPR techniques.
The results for this experiment can be tested and interpreted using PCR amplification. Samples of DNA will be taken from the bone marrow of the mice to be amplified. PCR amplification is able to detect and validate the gene edit that we performed during the experiment and can also be used to analyse the effects of the edit. 
Lab 5 Assessment
Lab 6 Assessment
- Z8600021 (5/5)
1. Identify an antibody against your group blood cell protein that is commercially available.
Anti-Mast cell Tryptase antibody [MCG35].
2. Add a link to the original data sheet page and identify the type of group blood cell protein.
Mouse monoclonal [MCG35] to Mast cell.
3. Include the following information: type of antibody (polyclonal, monoclonal), species raised in, species reacts against, types of application uses, and if available any reference using that antibody.
Type of Antibody; Mouse Monoclonal
Species Raised in: Mouse
Species Reacts against: Humans
Types of Application of uses: IHC-Fr (Immunohistochemistry Frozen sections)
References that use this antibody: Rimmer EF et al. Human mast cells detected by monoclonal antibodies. J Clin Pathol 37:1249-55 (1984). 
Rimmer EF & Horton MA Origin of human mast cells studied by dual immunofluorescence. Clin Exp Immunol 68:712-8 (1987). 
Lab 8 Assessment
- Z8600021 very good feedback, your comments can be used by the groups to improve their project before submission. (18/20)
Over all I think this is a great page and you guys have done a great job! All the sections are really well writing and explain the concepts in appropriate language and enough detail to provide a sound understanding.
- The history section again is really well written and provides a lot of detail but there are no references. References for each year would be great and would also add another level of depth to the assignment so students could undertake further reading if necessary.
- The structure section provides awesome detail, especially the information on platelets which was really interesting and actually taught me something I didn't know. Some pictures or diagrams for this section would be really helpful in visualising the information.
- One of the criteria set by Mark was to have one student generated or drawn image and I think that the development section; specifically the explanation of the hematopoietic stages of development is a great opportunity for you guys to draw a nice diagram or flow chart of the stages.
- One area of concern is that the Essential Thrombocytosis section has no references at all. Even if you used only one source, it's super important to include it. It also provides an opportunity for further research for students if they're interested.
- The glossary section is insane! I was really impressed, especially with the acronyms table- AMAZING!!
Great job guys!
I really enjoyed reading your assignment, its was very well written and super easy to read so that made it very enjoyable. You also referenced your work very well, which is evident in the amount of references that you have!!
- The function section is well written and well referenced (keeping in tone with the entire page) but there are no images, which means that there's just a large block of text which can be quite daunting to read. If you included a few images or maybe a student drawn diagram (one of the requirements set by Mark) of gaseous exchange for example, it would add a lot to the page and really break up the amount of information and retain the readers interest.
- Again, the disease and abnormalities is great, well written and pretty easy to read. However, most of them are just huge chunks of information that are really dense and can result in loss of interest. Something you could do would be to try incorporate some bullet points or even some collapsable tables just to break up those chunks of writing.
- The current research section is awesome and is really interesting as well, if you had time it would be great if you guys could add a few more things to it and really flesh out that sections. It would provide a good starting place for students who are interested in further researching red blood cells as well.
Over all you guys have done an awesome job and really the most pressing things, in my opinion, would be to add in a few images!! Great job!
This was a super interesting assignment and I think it was really well written, providing a lot of in depth information about a range of aspects of B-cells.
- The first thing I noticed was the references, especially in the development section. To begin with, I thought that you hadn't referenced, but then I realised some just didn't appear as links. I think its really important that you stick to one type of referencing, especially so you supply a link or a full title for all the sources you've referenced and also provide a sense of continuity, as if only one person had written the page.
- I wasn't sure if the history section has been finished or not because it ends in the 1970's. If there is no more information to be added to this section, it could be an idea to ass a current or future research section.
- The structure section I think provides an awesome opportunity to add some really cool images and diagrams to break up the information. Maybe you could add some images for the surface structure or the antibody structure sections to enhance the really great and thorough information that you have provided.
- The section about the role in disease was really interesting but needs to be finished. The inclusion of the last two diseases that are already headings would add a lot of depth to the section.
- Similarly to structure, I think that the function section could use some images, for example to demonstrate the antibody isotypes and enhance that awesome information.
You guys have done an amazing job and the page provides so much great information that really just needs a few images to boost it and re-iterate some of the concepts. Awesome job!
Over all you guys have done a really good job, it reads quite well with only a few spelling mistakes and grammatical errors. There is a depth of information that makes the page informative without being confusing which is good.
- The structure is good so the entire page flows really well and I thought you used appropriate subheadings that makes the page easy to read and follow.
- The section on Rheumatoid Arthritis was a little bit confusing in terms of the reference; I was unsure whether all the information was from reference number 26 at the end of the paragraph or whether that referred to just the results discussed. Incorporating a few more references would also add more depth to the section and provide an opportunity for further research if students were interested.
- Like I said before, the subheadings you used were appropriate and made the page easy to follow, but making sure each heading has information underneath is important to make sure the flow of the page is effortless.
- The summary image of the abnormalities in disease is great!! I thought that was really interesting but a short sentence just before that to explain it a little bit would be a nice touch.
- The function section was interesting and the information was well communicated but a little bit of an explanation about the three main functions listed at the top would be really awesome; maybe some links to articles could be a nice touch and allow more in depth analysis without having to go into detail on the page itself.
You guys have done an awesome job so far and the major things I noticed was just final editing and maybe adding a few images!
Amazing page!! Really thorough and provides an enormous amount of detail.
- The structure and formatting is great; especially the use of collapsable tables for the different types of t cells- this really makes the page a lot less daunting than automatically displaying the huge amount of information. A great idea.
- Maybe reorder the over all structure however, ie moving history to below introduction to allow the page to flow a little better.
- Your use of images and videos is great. Each of them add to the information you have provided and also aid in explaining difficult concepts.
- The reference list is extensive and very impressive, highlighting how much research you guys have done. However, I was under the impression it was preferred we did not use review articles for information and only used the for sources of images/diagrams so you might want to double check this with Mark.
- I also really like the inclusion of research labs; especially those ones at UNSW. A really nice touch and provides students with a resource for finding more information that is current and relevant to the type of T-cells.
Over all there is not much that need fixing. I would suggest having another read through the do some last minute editing and ensuring all sections are written and flow really well (for example the structure section is really dense). Awesome job guys!
Really colourful page and well structured! I particularly like the pink table!!!
- An inclusion of an introduction would be really helpful; especially providing a brief overview of the topic as a learning resource for students
- I'm unsure of whether the history section is finished. The information provided so far is interesting and relevant, so a good start either way.
- I really liked the section "Birth, life and death.." but something that could make it polished would be a small subheading of for each section to point out where you are explaining birth, life and death.
- The layout of the structure section is good, the use of dotpoints is helpful to keep it short and straight to the point; however, a short sentence explaining each dot point would add so much more depth that most students would probably be looking for.
- Role in allergy and disease is a really interesting section and I learnt a lot of things that I didn't know. However, I think its important to briefly explain the diseases such a helminth. You could even do this in a glossary which would be a nice touch.
Overall you guys have produced a good page and its just the last finishing touches to add now. Great job!!
- <pubmed> 25733580 </pubmed>