| This year's main topic is Blood Cell Biology. Each group should discuss with group members the specific sub-topic that will be covered by their project.
Here is a list of some of the cell types (Structure and Function)
Cell Type (PuMed citations)
|Group Assessment Criteria|
Group Assessment Criteria
|Individual Lab Assessments|
- 1 My Student Page
- 2 Attendance
- 3 Lab 1 Assessment
- 4 Individual Assessment
- 4.1 Lab 1
- 4.2 Lab 2
- 4.3 Lab 3
- 4.3.1 Role of B cells in the pathogenesis of systemic sclerosis
- 4.3.2 B cell-targeted therapy with anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody in a mouse model of Graves’ hyperthyroidism
- 4.3.3 PAX5 promotes pre-B cell proliferation by regulating the expression of pre-B cell receptor and its downstream signaling
- 4.3.4 Abnormal B-cell cytokine responses a trigger of T-cell-mediated disease in MS
- 4.4 Lab 5
- 4.5 Lab 6
- 4.6 Peer Assessment
- 5 References
My Student Page
- Z8600021 Attended 10 practical classes.
Lab 1 Assessment
Katherine Ann Hurley, Thiago M A Santos, Gabriella M Nepomuceno, Valerie Huynh, Jared T Shaw, Douglas B Weibel Targeting the bacterial division protein FtsZ. J. Med. Chem.: 2016; PubMed 26756351
How to make an in-text citation
Bacterial division protein FTsZ.
What I have learnt
I learnt how to make headings, sub headings and sub-sub headings. I learnt how to input links and rename them for easier reading. I also learnt how to reference articles from pubmed. Additionally I have learnt about copyright laws and to look out for them before using an article.
Schematic diagram of a T. brucei procyclic cell, showing cell polarity and organelle location Citation: Doranda Perdomo, Mélanie Bonhivers, Derrick R Robinson The Trypanosome Flagellar Pocket Collar and Its Ring Forming Protein-TbBILBO1. Cells: 2016, 5(1); PubMed 26950156
Copyright: © 2016 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons by Attribution (CC-BY) license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/). cells-05-00009-g001-1024
- Z8600021 Relates to super resolution, reference, copyright or student template with the image you have uploaded. (5/5)
Microscopy tools for the investigation of intracellular lipid storage and dynamics
Lipids have always been hard to observe for various reasons. Due to it being only a few nanometers thick, it is invisible in traditional light microscopy. The bilayer of the lipid is held together by non-covalent bonds. This makes it a fragile structure and careful handling is required as its structure is irreversibly destroyed if removed from water. However, due to recent advancements in microscopy, lipids can now be studied with greater ease and detail. This research article takes advantage of super resolution microscopy to identify the role and dynamics of intracellular lipids.
Lipid droplets were investigated to study shape, localisation, remodeling and coating proteins. The lipid droplets were first probed to provide fluorescence which allowed it to be suitable for live-cell imaging by being both visible and keeping the cell alive. By using several forms of super resolution microscopy such as stimulated emission depletion (STED) microscopy and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM), lipids can be seen to be operating as active organelles with central roles in cellular metabolism. It is concluded that super resolution microscopy is extremely useful for clear imaging and can be utilised to further research lipids such as the interaction between PLIN5 (a lipid droplet coat protein) and mitochondria.
- Z8600021 Summares are fine and relate to group project. (5/5)
Role of B cells in the pathogenesis of systemic sclerosis
In this article it is speculated that B cells play a significant role in the pathogenesis in systemic sclerosis. B cells are therefore observed in both within damaged organs and at a systemic level to determine their role in the inflammatory and fibrotic phases during systemic sclerosis. Through this observation, the B cells subset, marginal zone B cells, are found to be harmful through their synthesis of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as TGF beta and IL-4. These cytokines are also growth promoting cytokines which in turn lead to the development of systemic sclerosis.
B cell-targeted therapy with anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody in a mouse model of Graves’ hyperthyroidism
Graves’ disease is characterised by an overproduction of thyroid hormones and thyroid enlargement, which is a result of B-cell- and T-cell-mediated inflammation. This particular study (Ueki et al., 2011) administered anti-mouse CD20 monoclonal antibodies in mouse models of Graves’ disease, which eliminated B cells from the periphery and spleen. In effect, this suppressed serum immunoglobulin levels, splenocyte secretion IFN-γ, and development of hyperthyroidism. B cell depletion was found to be highly effective in preventing disease development.
PAX5 promotes pre-B cell proliferation by regulating the expression of pre-B cell receptor and its downstream signaling
This article examines the Pax5 gene and its role in the development in B cells. It is well known that Pax5 contributes to B cell development but the impact of Pax5 on pre-B cells is unknown. To identify this relationship, the Pax5gene was knocked out of mice and the levels of marker proteins present at various stages of B cell development were monitored. Most marker proteins were observed to be lower than if the Pax5 gene was still present. Due to the lowered amounts, a signalling cascade could not form and therefore the B cells were not able to develop from the pre-B cells.
Abnormal B-cell cytokine responses a trigger of T-cell-mediated disease in MS
The depletion of B cells can have immune consequences are hypothesised to have influence on multiple sclerosis. This article explores this hypothesis by comparing B cell effector-cytokine responses in mulitsclerosis patients. These experiments were conducted both in vivo and ex vivo. Results showed low amounts of proinflammatory responses for cytotoxic and helper T cells. The remaining B cells then made up for these low amounts of T cells. From these results, the article states that lowered B cells mediate " bystander activation" of T cells which result in the relapse of multiple sclerosis.
- Z8600021 (5/5)
Anti-Human B-Cell-Specific Activator Protein
Features: Monoclonal, IgG1 Kappa, anti-human BSAP
Species raised in: Mouse
Species reacted with: Human
Uses: For immuno-histochemistry. Antibodies to B-cell-specific activator protein (BSAP) may be useful for the identification of pro-, pre-, and mature B cells and in the classification of lymphomas (1-4). Together with a panel of antibodies it is particularly useful in the differential identification of classic Hodgkin’s disease versus anaplastic large cell lymphoma of T- and null-cell type (1, 3).
References which use Anti-Human B-Cell-Specific Activator Protein: (Krenacs 1998).
- Z8600021 These are good peer reviews. Very specific comments (which are useful, mainly around what could be improved not what was good) but you should also try and give an overview to each project and perhaps rank them against each other to give the group additional constructive feedback. (16/20)
Group 1: Megakaryocytes
General pointers :
- A few grammatical and tense errors
- the flow is a bit stuttered
- Attempt to not use colloquial language, try to write like how wikipedia pages write
- Proof read before final submission.
A few more specific pointers:
- If possible try find a few references for the history of megakaryocytes
- Do not need the small intro at the beginning of structure subheading. That can be fitted into the introduction.
- Several Images can be inserted into the Structure subheading to visualise the different zones
- Would be good to provide a brief explanation of functions of secretions when mentioned e.g alpha granules in the "Outer (Marginal) Zone" section
- In "Common Myeloid Progenitor Cells", the first sentence is a bit long. Maybe split it up
- Hide the youtube video in Pathology subheading like how the glossary is hidden.
- A bit self explanatory but finish osteoporosis and also maybe add in another disease involving malfunctioning platelets if you have time.
Group 2: Red Blood Cells
- stick to the same referencing style. Either Surname et al (year) or superscripts
- proof read, there are a few grammatical errors.
- some paragraphs are a bit too long. Consider breaking them up or inserting images.
A few more specific pointers:
- Maybe use subheadings for Deformability/ Fluidity and Structure under Membrane composition. Allows for less clustering
- A diagram for gaseous exchange under function would be good to illustrate the process.
- Focus on one subject at a time eg. "Erythrocytes come to full maturity in the bone marrow, and develop from hematopoietic stem cells" in Erythrocyte production. This can be restructured to list the developmental processes in chronological order to allow for better flow.
- Break down sentences which are too long e.g "Because the body's requirements for iron exceeds the maximum ... enhancers such as vitamin C " from Iron deficiency anemia in Disease and Abnormalities.
- Add additional current research on red blood cells if any.
Group 4: NK Cells
- restructure the info to allow for easy reading and processing of information
A few more specific pointers:
- The structure subheading also includes development and receptors. It would be better to separate the subtopics and address each individually. I would say structure into development then receptors which can then lead onto your next subheading, function.
- The last paragraph before receptors in structure addresses function. Either summarise the function and have the main focus on structure, or shift it over to be covered in the function subheading.
- expand and state a brief function/role of any new points that are introduced eg. NKp46 in structure. It provides context
- The function section should be re-structured. Either expand on "The are 3 main functions of NK cells" and provide information of these functions under their own subheadings, or use those points and create a brief summary paragraph that can lead on to the functions in immunity, cancer and pregnancy.
- Dont need that many NK cell related diseases. Maybe 4 or 5 in detail with a picture or two.
- Provide subheadings in current research, it allows for an easier time digesting info
Group 5: Mast Cells
- Separate large chunks of writing by inserting subheadings and/or breaking up paragraphs
- Pictures of pathways/activation can be inserted to degranulation and Parathyroid bone disease. The hand-drawn image can be utilised here as it probably is easier to draw a pathway than to find one.
Overall, well written. No major mistakes or things that need to be fixed. A good amount of detail is provided for each subheading.
Group 6: T Cells
- When referring to articles, use the Havard in-text referencing style i.e Surname et al (year), then follow with the superscript
- Not much more detail is needed. Focus should now shift to managing how information is presented
A few more specific pointers:
- shift the subheadings around. Start with Intro into History, then Yype of B Cells then Commonalities between T cells subtypes. Provides a more logical flow as the reader is introduced to the cell types then the similarities between them are identified.
- separate the development paragraph and form a differentiation/maturation/activation subheading to reduce clumps of text
- for types of T cells, try include a diagram to show the pathway of activation/mechanism of action. Can provide a little more detail without expanding that subtopic.
- expand on Cripr/Cas9. Include how it works and how it interacts with T cells.
- Work on the glossary. There is a lot of detail in total and a lot of new terms presented. A glossary would be necessary.
Good use of hiding information in the T cell types. The main points are outlined while additional information can be access if wished. Easy way of finding info.
Group 7: Eosinophils
- A little more detail is needed, try not to write out information in dot points.
- Proof read before final submission, there are a few spelling and grammar errors.
A few more specific pointers:
- include an introduction to provide a brief run down of eosinophil location, function, development etc. Just a brief touch on the topic.
- in structure, go into a bit more detail by explaining the morphology diagram. The granules section is fine though as that is the main point of eosinophils.
- Separate Role in Allergy and Disease into eosinophil function, and diseases.
- More detail into Atopic Dermatitis (Eczema) if possible and more eosinophil related diseases should be addressed.
- include a glossary
Good use of images. If more content is added to the page, more pictures should be inserted to maintain the current spaced out, easy to read display.
- Katherine Ann Hurley, Thiago M A Santos, Gabriella M Nepomuceno, Valerie Huynh, Jared T Shaw, Douglas B Weibel Targeting the bacterial division protein FtsZ. J. Med. Chem.: 2016; PubMed 26756351
- Sabine Daemen, Marc A M J van Zandvoort, Sapun H Parekh, Matthijs K C Hesselink Microscopy tools for the investigation of intracellular lipid storage and dynamics. Mol Metab: 2016, 5(3);153-63 PubMed 26977387
- M Reincke, W Winkelmann, C Jaursch-Hancke, D Kaulen, J Nieke, G Ollenschläger, B Allolio [Diagnosis and therapy of asymptomatic adrenal tumors]. [Diagnostik und Therapie asymptomatischer Nebennierentumoren.] Dtsch. Med. Wochenschr.: 1989, 114(22);861-5 PubMed 2721390
- I Ueki, N Abiru, M Kobayashi, M Nakahara, T Ichikawa, K Eguchi, Y Nagayama B cell-targeted therapy with anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody in a mouse model of Graves' hyperthyroidism. Clin. Exp. Immunol.: 2011, 163(3);309-17 PubMed 21235532
- Kai Xue, Jiazhe Song, Yan Yang, Zhi Li, Chunhua Wu, Jinhua Jin, Wenzhe Li PAX5 promotes pre-B cell proliferation by regulating the expression of pre-B cell receptor and its downstream signaling. Mol. Immunol.: 2016, 73;1-9 PubMed 27016671
- Amit Bar-Or, Lama Fawaz, Boli Fan, Peter J Darlington, Aja Rieger, Christine Ghorayeb, Peter A Calabresi, Emmanuelle Waubant, Stephen L Hauser, Jiameng Zhang, Craig H Smith Abnormal B-cell cytokine responses a trigger of T-cell-mediated disease in MS? Ann. Neurol.: 2010, 67(4);452-61 PubMed 20437580
- R Brodersen, A Robertson Ceftriaxone binding to human serum albumin: competition with bilirubin. Mol. Pharmacol.: 1989, 36(3);478-83 PubMed 2779527
- L Krenacs, A W Himmelmann, L Quintanilla-Martinez, T Fest, A Riva, A Wellmann, E Bagdi, J H Kehrl, E S Jaffe, M Raffeld Transcription factor B-cell-specific activator protein (BSAP) is differentially expressed in B cells and in subsets of B-cell lymphomas. Blood: 1998, 92(4);1308-16 PubMed 9694719