From CellBiology

Lab Attendance

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Red White Blood cells 01.jpg


Individual Assessments

Lab 1

Phylogenetic distribution of Eukaryotes and Prokaryotes.png

Phylogenetic distribution of bacterial, cyanobacterial and eukaryotic in Alchichica microbialites.

Estelle Couradeau, Karim Benzerara, David Moreira, Emmanuelle Gérard, Józef Kaźmierczak, Rosaluz Tavera, Purificación López-García Prokaryotic and eukaryotic community structure in field and cultured microbialites from the alkaline Lake Alchichica (Mexico). PLoS ONE: 2011, 6(12);e28767 PMID:22194908

Copyright: © 2011 Couradeau et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

Lab 2

Phylogenetic distribution of Eukaryotes and Prokaryotes.png

Phylogenetic distribution of bacterial, cyanobacterial and eukaryotic in Alchichica microbialites.[1]

Super Resolution Microscopy [2]

Super resolution microscopy is an important investigative instrument used by many scientists to gain a higher resolution. The research article 'Super-Resolution Microscopy Reveals Specific Recruitment of HIV-1 Envelope Proteins to Viral Assembly Sites Dependent on the Envelope C-Terminal Tail'investigates the mechanism of Envelope Glycoprotein recruitment and virus incorporation of human immunodeficency(HIV-1). Super resolution microscopy was used to visualise the Gag assemnly sites and Envelope Glycoproteins in infected, virus producing cells. Dual-Colour Super-resolution microscopy allowed the scientists to bypass the resolutions provided by Fluorescence microscopy and Confocal microscopy by allowing the researchers to obtain a reoslution that is near molecular level. By using the super resolution microscopy to look at distribution patterns of Gag and Envelope proteins the research article concludes that Envelope proteins have a larger role in mediating the viral infection. Technology of this magnitude allows us to almost investigate to a near molcular level of mechanisms in the body.

--Mark Hill (talk) 10:15, 11 April 2013 (EST) References are formatted correctly. The research article is both recent and uses stochastic super-resolution microscopy in its findings (as well as combined PALM and dSTORM). You have explained how this is relevant.

Lab 3

Paper 1

Transient nuclear envelope rupturing during interphase in human cancer cells [3]

The research article ‘Transient nuclear envelope rupturing during interphase in human cancer cells’ explores the rupturing of the nuclear envelope in cancer cells using various techniques such as cell culture, siRNA transfection as well as live and confocal imaging and the use of the electron microscope. Cancer cells can be diagnosed by the presence of nuclear envelope invaginations and extrusions. However despite this clinical pattern it is unclear why changes in structure of the nuclear envelope is present in cancer cells. The findings of the paper illustrate that the nuclear lamina, intermediate filaments that provide support to the nuclear envelope, was not properly formed in cancer cells that had ruptured nuclear envelopes. Furthermore it was found that nuclear envelope rupture occurred when there was an entrapment of cytoplasmic in the nuclear interior. This research article is relevant to the sub-topic of 'nuclear envelope at the onset of mitosis' as it looks at the rupturing of the nuclear envelope during interphase in cancer cells furthermore it can also be used for the sub topic 'current research'. As there is a clinical correlation between abnormal nuclear envelope and cancer cells it is important to gain an understanding into the causation of this relationship.

Mislocalization of nuclear and cytoplasmic components.jpeg

Mislocalization of nuclear and cytoplasmic components

Paper 2

The SUN Protein Mps3 Is Required for Spindle Pole Body Insertion into the Nuclear Membrane and Nuclear Envelope Homeostasis [4]

The article 'The SUN Protein Mps3 Is Required for Spindle Pole Body Insertion into the Nuclear Membrane and Nuclear Envelope Homeostasis' explores the mechanism of spindle pole body (SPB) into the nuclear membrane in budding yeast cells. The research paper states that the action of integral membrane proteins facilitate changes in the nuclear envelope. The investigators looked at an SPB component called Mps3. By observing a mutant of Mps3 known as MPS3-G186K through the means of an electron microscope it was revealed that Mps3 directly affects lipid homeostasis. As the nuclear envelope is composed of lipids the paper suggested that Mps3 mediates the insertion of SPBs in the nuclear membrane. Previous studies suggested that Mps3 was involved in the intiation of SPB duplication however this study broadens this concept by revealing that it is responsible for membrance homeostasis which constitutes insertion of SPB into the nuclear envelope. This study is important in not only understanding the the nuclear envelope during spindle formation but also reveals a certain direction current ressearch is heading. Hence it is useful for the subheading 'current research'.

Paper 3

Formation of the postmitotic nuclear envelope from extended ER cisternae precedes nuclear pore assembly [5]

The article by Lei Lu and peers deal with formation of the postmitotic nuclear envelope. The study mentions two models, the insertion model and the prepore model. The insertion model suggests that the nuclear pore complexes are embedded in the nuclear envelope after the formation while the prepore model suggests that the nuclear pore complexes aggregate on the chromatin as nucleoporins before the nuclear envelope formation. Through the use of techniques and intruments such as Live-cell imaging and electron microscope tomography the study concludes that the assembly of the nuclear envelope originates from ER cisternae. The study furthermore supports the insetion model to a degree as it concludes that nuclear pore complexes accumulate on the already formed nuclear envelope. This article is relevant to the sub-topic of 'current research' as it looks at the origination of nuclear envelope reformation it can also be used for the sub topic 'reformation of the nuclear envelope'. Overall while this article does not offer significant information to our project it still provides relevant information.

Paper 4

Nuclear envelope structural defects cause chromosomal numerical instability and aneuploidy in ovarian cancer [6]

The study 'Nuclear envelope structural defects cause chromosomal numerical instability and aneuploidy in ovarian cancer' explores the expression of nuclear envelope proteins lamin A/C in ovarian cancer. The investigation uses teachniques such as siRNA and immunofluorescence microscopy to look at nuclear morphology in conjuction with flow cytometry to inveatigate cellular DNA content. The study found that the proteins lamin A/C are absent in 47% of ovarian cancer cells which indicates that there may be an underlying relationship between the absence of these proteins and the occurance of ovarian cancer. The study concludes that the loss of protiens lamin A/C may lead to a morphological change in the nuclear envelope this then leads to the diagnostic characteristic of cancer. This article is relevant for the sub-topic of 'current research' as it looks at the nuclear envelope in cancer cells which is a future and current topic that is being investigated.

Lab 4

Connexin 30 Antibody, pAb, Rabbit

Genscript [1]-gap junctions (protein connexin)

The web page above allows purchase of antibodies online. The antibody Connexin 30 Antibody, pAb, Rabbit is developed in rabbit hosts and is a highly purified rabbit serum. The antigen species however is mice (species reacts against) and the antibody is polyclonal. The antibody targets gap junction proteins known as connexin. It can be used in applications such as Western blotting and ELIZA. Furthermore no references could be found for this specific antibody.

Lab 5

In class assessment on knock-out techniques

Lab 6

Morphological Phenotypes in Tm4 over-expressing B35 Neuro-epithelial cells.png

1) Do you see any change in phenotypes between group A and group B?

By stuudying the graph above a difference in the morphological phenotype between Group A(Over-expression of Tm4) and Group B(Control) of Neuro-epithelial cells can be observed. Group A, which constituted the cells that overexpressed Tm4 had a significantly higher percentage(42%) of the morphological phenotype D(Pronged)compared to Group B. Furthermore Group B cells had a significantly higher percentage(29%)of the morphological phenotype B (Broken Fan) compared to Group A.

2) If you see a difference, speculate about a potential molecular mechanism that has lead to the change

Tropomysin is an important structural protein found in muscle cells. It has over 40 isoforms which have functions that are relevant to their structure. Tm4 is an isoform that can be found in non muscle cells that are motile such as Neuro-epithelial cells; it facilitates motility. As Tm4 promotes branching and neurite growth it can be established that cells that are overexpressing Tm4 would constitute a higher percentage of morphological phenotypes such as pronged, stumped and stringed. This is consistent with the results above as Group A cells had higher percentages of the phenotype pronged and stumped than the phenotypes fan and broken fan. This trend can be observed as branching and neurite formation is apparent in phenotypes such as pronged, stumped and stringed as opposed phenotypes such as fan and broken fan. While Group A cells exhibited fan and broken fan phenotypes it can be observed that a high percentage of Group A cells exhibited the pronged phenotype. This could be due to Tm4 having a function that deals with the length of neurite formation and the degree of branching in neuro-epithelial cells. As the classification of the cells into the certain phenotypes is somewhat subjective it is best to compare and contrast data from other individuals and groups to make a conclusive statement.

Lab 7

In class assessment.

Lab 8

Group 7-Mitochondria


  • The image in the introduction is not there maybe upload it again or upload another one.
  • There are some mistakes in the text at the end of the section.
  • The introduction is relevant to the topic.
  • You might want to briefly talk about what the project will have (the main heading).
  • Add an image.


  • The structure is written well and is referenced well.
  • Possibly upload a student made image here.
  • The image uploaded doesnt offer as much as another image could. You might want to uplaod or draw an image with labels of the structure you are mentioning.


  • This section is referenced well
  • Maybe make a table for all the complexes.
  • You might want to take out the part "i will discuss" and reword it.
  • Need to write descriptions for the images uploaded.


  • The table is very informative which is excellent.
  • Each point made is supported with references except for 1990.
  • Add more points after 1996.
  • The information is very relevant to the topic.

During Cell Division

  • The information is relevant and referenced well.

Mitochondrial Fission and Fusion

  • You refer to Fusion and Fission with capitals during the paragraph and sometimes use the terms without having capitals.
  • Research is very good and succinct.
  • I feel it would be better if you compared the two processes directly rather than talking about each separately.
  • Good use of sub headings

Physiological Significance

  • There is a lot of information here that is very detailed and excellent as it shows the research you have done.
  • The image uplaoded supports the information
  • Include a description for the image you uploaded

Overall The project is on the way towards completion. You seem to be missing Current and Future research but apart from that there are only minor changes that need to be made to this project.

Group 6-Anaphase


  • In the information there are spelling mistakes that need to be corrected.
  • There is no table of contents
  • You need to talk about what you are covering in the project in the introduction.
  • The image uploaded needs to be uploaded properly eg description of the image, reference, copyright information.
  • You are talking about specific things that you can talk about later on.

Meiosis Vs Mitosis

  • I think this section should come after the history.
  • You need to reference the information posted.


  • The history is very brief.
  • There needs to be points made after 1943.
  • You might want to choose another colour rather than purple as it is hard to read the information.
  • The points have been correctly referenced and the information is relevant.
  • I think the picture you have posted on the far right hand side shoudl be pasted in the history table rather than out onto the side.

Metaphase to Anaphase Transition

  • The information is good and well researched but does not flow. The sentences are short so it seems like you are just stating facts.
  • Excellent use of the student made image.

Process of Chromatid Separation

  • There needs to be references in the first paragraph.
  • A possibly image would be good.

Anaphase to Telophase

  • You might want to include a brief description of the cell cycle or explain the chronology of the cell cycle so that this and the section above makes more sense.
  • Again a possible image?


  • good referencing and use of image.
  • The image is uploaded has a description which is good.
  • The explanation of what kinetochores is excellent.
  • There are some grammatical errors that need to be fixed.
  • There are random numbers in brackets which dont belong there.

Chromosomal Motors

  • Where are these chromosomal motors as in maybe a diagram because im not sure where these chromosomal arms are.
  • Good use of references.

Molecular aspects of Anaphase

  • I think you shoudl put a table for this information as the there isnt much text so a table would be appropriate and itll be better than a list.
  • You have referenced very well.


  • Get rid of "no references part at the top"
  • The information is succinct and informative
  • It is accompanied with images that are relevant.

Current Research/Suggested Research

  • Researched well and it is excellent that youve segregated the information by time.
  • It is referenced sufficiently for this section
  • Good information in the suggested research as it is detailed and specific.

Overall The format of this project needs to be fixed however the projeact is researched well and certain sections just need to be fixed up and some sections need to be proof read.

Group 4-Spindle Apparatus


  • The large picture on the top is uploaded correctly however it is very large and maybe it could be made smaller.
  • The introduction is good however it isnt focusing on the spindle apparatus rather cell division itself. While it is important to giev a brief overview of the process there is no relevance to your overall topic if you just talk about cell division in your introduction.
  • The images used are uploaded properly and are relevant.
  • This section also needs referencing.

Historical Research

  • There is to much history on the cell rather than the spindle apparatus.
  • You need to reference all the points made in the history.
  • The research carried out is very good and the information given is very detailed.
  • The table isnt finished and there are no points from 2000 onwards.
  • The incorporation of images in the table is excellent.


  • Good use of images, there are many and they are uploaded correctly and the descriptions you have provided are excellent.
  • This section is presented very well as things such as the microtubules were explained very well.
  • Maybe add more references.


  • You are re-stating that the spindle apparatus is made out of microtubules.
  • There are references every paragraph rather than a few per paragraph, maybe add more.
  • The section is very informative and relevant

Mechanism of Formation

  • It is good that you have supported your text with images.
  • The comparing of the two models within the paragraphs is very good and helps to better understand.

Current and Future Research

  • There is relevant current research that is summarised well.
  • There is no paragraph on future research.
  • The information on the current research also has specific papers which is excellent.


  • The complications are well researched and suprisingly relevant images have been uploaded.
  • Referenced well.

Overall The project is well written and relevant however certain sections need to be fixed up such as the introduction and history as it is not relevant for all the information. Certain sections need to be researched more but overall however the project is researched well and presented well.

Group 3-The Golgi Apparatus


  • Good overview of what is going to be on the page.
  • Good explanation of what The Golgi Apparatus is.
  • History is in the introduction it is brief but you have it in the history as well so you dont need it here.
  • Maybe make the image bigger?
  • The image is referenced properly.


  • Good use of references.
  • Maybe draw the golgi yourself and upload that.
  • The image of the Golgi Apparatus is not uplaoded with all the right information such as reference, description,copyright etc.


  • This section is well written.
  • You might want to shorten this section or summarise it.


  • HIstory is written up really well.
  • It is detailed and doesnt have huge gaps between the dates.
  • Add some information from 2000 onwards.
  • Personally i think the History section should be after the introduction (before structure and function).

Models of Division

  • POssibly provide more information on the first model and the second model.

Morphology and Molecular Mechanisms

  • Good use of sub headings to breakdown the information.
  • You have spelt Mechanism wrong in the title
  • There are a lot of images used and they have been uploaded correctly.
  • The section reads really well however there are a few puntuation mistakes such as ...during cell division under prophase in the first sentence there is no space between "At" and a fullstop.

Current and Limitations of Models

  • Excellent section as it reads well once again and referenced well.
  • The last paragraph of the current model section needs some referencing though.
  • An image showing either of the models in the limitations would be good.

Current and Future Research

  • There is no specific current research papers.
  • The first point needs to be elaborated on.
  • Link or reference the actual papers you got this information from to support your text.

Overall This project is researched well and the information put up is relevant. Small things like the glossary and certain points need to be fixed up but overall the project reads well and only minor amendments need to be made.

Group 2-Cytokinesis


  • Introduction is very brief but excellent. Maybe you can add some references.
  • Image is uploaded properly with the appropriate information.


  • The timeline is brief and maybe more poitns are needed but the ones listed are relevant and referenced well.
  • There are too many colours however, maybe stick with a pattern like the other tables used in projects.


  • Good use of the sub headings to break up the information. The information itself is excellent and well readable and it helps that you have linked the terms to the glosaary.
  • The image uplaoded is referenced correct and appropriate information is added. However possibly add more pictures to break up the rest of the section as it is mostly text.
  • The content of this part is easy to follow and is informative.

Microfilament organisation

  • The information is once again relevant and succinct
  • Need to add some references.
  • Maybe add pictures however i dont feel its too important as the section doesnt have too much content.

Animal Vs Plant Cells

  • Execellent structure and infromation is once again detailed and succinct.
  • There are no references however and adding references would strengthen the section.
  • Add an image if it is possible

Cytokinesis Failure

  • This section is almost perfect.
  • Good break up of section with the two sub headings.
  • Many images used and they are uploaded correctly as well.

Current and Future Research

  • Well researched information
  • What about future research?
  • Could an image be used?
  • The link to the pages is good.

Overall This project is researched very well and there is little to change and add. It reads well and informs well. Futhermore the use of external links is excellent as some other projects lack this part.

Group 1-Regulation of Cell Division


  • As this topic is specific to cell division more than the others i think its safe to say that you could incorporate a brief overview of the cell cycle.
  • An image here would also be very helpful. Maybe an image of the cell cycle that you made/drew yourself.
  • The use of the video is excellent however its not up yet.


  • History is incomplete and needs to be completed after 1992.
  • Each date is referenced and is relevant to what is discussed.
  • The light green colour is sufficient to read the information.

Entry into the M phase

  • This part lacks some references.
  • Futhermore you need to explain what M phase and the G2 phase is. You can either do this in the Introduction part or in this part. I see you have put up a small image of the cycle however you havnt explained the basic activities that happens in the cycle eg the M cycle is the mitotic part.
  • The information on the CDKs and Cylins is good as it covers what they are however you have put in history of the Cyclins in this part and i feel maybe the history should be posted in the history sub heading.
  • The student image uploaded isnt referenced properly. You need to description of the image (roughly a paragraph), copyright information, student image information etc.
  • I see you have referenced and copyrighted the image of the cycle however you might want to make it a thumb so theres information under it.

Metaphase to Anaphase Transition

  • Why is there text in the brackets? You might want to talk about what was done in that study and write a paragraph on it.
  • Information is to the point however i feel like its lacking (how is the spindle check point activated?)

Mitogens and Cell Division

  • Im sorry i dont understand Entry into Start? (Start of what).
  • The paragraphs about Mitogens is very succinct and flows very well.
  • The PDGF paragraph is also very well written and the image used is relevant to the information presented.
  • There are points at the end of this section that should be elaborated on.


  • Table format is excellent however it restricts the amount of information you can give. If you dont want to give a lot of information on the disease then the table is perfect.
  • The table needs to be completed

Current and Future Research

  • Good starting point however maybe have some specific references to the current and future research.


  • Number 20 has nothing there.

Overall This project is written well and certain parts just need to be completed. Just fix up certain things such as referencing and uploading the images properly and adding more images. Also add some more references if possible.


  1. <pubmed>22194908</pubmed>
  2. <pubmed>23468635</pubmed>
  3. <pubmed>22567193</pubmed>
  4. <pubmed>PMC3219597</pubmed>
  5. <pubmed>PMC3153650</pubmed>
  6. <pubmed>PMC3072346</pubmed>