Planar lipid bilayer experiments revealed that the evolutionarily conserved assembly factor Omp85 recognizes the signature motif present at the C termini of bacterial OMPs. doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.0040399.g001
Hoff M (2006) Picking the Right Parts at the Beta Barrel Factory. PLoS Biol 4(11): e399. doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.0040399
© 2006 Public Library of Science. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
Reference: Lab 1 image
Intravital observation of Plasmodium berghei sporozoite infection of the liver.
In this study, confocal laser scanning microscopy was used to determine the location of green fluorescent protein (GFP) in the sinusoidal endothelia of a mouse which had been infected with green fluorescent Plasmodium berghei Sporozoites. This research was carried out in order to seek to understand more about the Plasmodium sporozite invasion of hepatic cells, known from secondary observations to pass through Kupffer cells; therefore the aim was to directly observe the process of infection. Confocal laser scanning microscopy allowed for a view of the internal microscopic structure of the mice livers who were then examined for the presence of the GFP-expressing sporozites.
--Mark Hill (talk) 13:59, 11 April 2013 (EST) References are formatted correctly. The research article does use CLSM (Immunofluorescence-labeled frozen liver sections were examined with a Zeiss LSM 510 laser scanning microscope) that is critical to the papers findings and you have explained correctly here. I prefer the reference to sit within the paragraph, as you would see in a research article or your project page, rather than within the heading, I have not penalised you for this.
- If the chromosome tips are damaged during anaphase then cytokinesis cannot occur and therefore the cell cannot divide into two daughter cells, not sure if this is in relation to both mitosis and meiosis but should be interesting to further research. The experimental removal of chromosomal tips shows cell division being delayed, the furrow itself being delayed or even regressing from its ready to divide state.
- Anaphase-Promoting-Complex mutants of C. elegans demonstrate defects in germline proliferation, the development of the female vulva and male tail and the metaphase to anaphase transition in meiosis I. Therefore irregularities in the APC contribute to physical deformities in this species.
- The Anaphase-Promoting-Complex has many important roles in the development, function and survival of the nervous system. Incorrect ACP activity leads to some neurological and psychiatric disorders. Research into the APC's role in neurobiology may grant us ways to use the APC to manage neurological disorders such as mental retardation and autism to even neurodegenerative disorders.
- When the chromosomes do not separate properly in Anaphase, referred to as "nondisjunction" aneuploidy results. This refers to an abnormal number of chromosomes. A well known one is Trisomy 21 or Down's syndrome in which there are three copies of the 21st chromosome.
- Anaphase bridges can cause mutations such as the structural rearrangement of chromosomes which usually lead to the formation of isochromosomes (chromosomes which, after losing one of their arms are replaced with a copy of another arm) and whole-arm translocations, the loss of the entire chromosome through mitotic spindle detachment or faulty cytokinesis in which the failure to divide results in polyploidy (more than 2 copies of a chromosome) and additional centrosomes which may lead to multipolar spindle formations in future mitosis. The presence of chromatin bridges in Anaphase is also linked to chromosomal instability which may contribute to cancer.
[Rabbit N Cadherin polyclonal antibody manufacturer website] --Mark Hill (talk) 13:50, 12 June 2013 (EST) Only a single square bracket required for external links. As in the Wiki information sheet handed out in the first practical class.
Name: N Cadherin Antibody, CD325, CDHN, CDw325, NCAD, N-cadherin 1; cadherin 2, N-cadherin (neuronal); cadherin-2; calcium-dependent adhesion protein, neuronal; neural cadherin; neural-cadherin
Type of antibody: Polyclonal
Type of Immunoglobulin: IgG
Species grown in: Rabbit
Species recognized: Xenopus laevis (Xl) Human (Hu) Mouse (Ms) Rat (Rt)
Applications: immunoprecipitation, immunofluorescence, immunohistochemistry (paraffin, frozen), Western blot, and flow cytometry
Paper: A potential role for N-cadherin in mediating endothelial cell-smooth muscle cell interactions in the rat vasculature
- Hand in
Group A: Tm4 overexpressing
Group B: Control
1. Do you see any change in the phenotypes between group A and group B?
According to my results in the counting exercise I do notice a shift between the phenotypes. Group A (the Tm4 overexpressing group) are mostly pronged, with a circa 7% increase in percentage and a 10% increase in stringed phenotypes. There is a large drop of around 15% in the stumped phenotype while group B (the control) have roughly equal numbers of stumped and pronged, with 15% less stringed phenotypes and small increases in the percentages of both broken fans and pygnotic types. There is also a little decrease in the presence of fans.
2. If you see a difference, speculate about a potential molecular mechanism that has lead to this change, if you don't see a change, speculate why that could be.
Tropomyosin (of which there are >40 isoforms) are proteins associated with Actin whose function it is to strengthen and stabilise filaments, they are one of the important binding proteins whom influence Actin structure. I propose that since each type of Tropomyosin is intended for different purposes in the body then maybe some sort of stress stimulated a shifting of Tropomyosin types. A possible molecular mechanism could be that since there is a shift towards pronged/stringed phenotypes, then Troponin 4 act as a cytoplasmic/membrane stabiliser for Actin in B35 cells allowing for longer chains of Actin to be be formed and in turn demonstrating the phenotypic change. The cytoplasm/membrane extends, even forming fibrils because of longer Actin chains resulting from greater numbers of Actin monomers polymerising, made possible due to its newfound stability from Tropomyosin 4.
- Hand in
- 1. The key points relating to the topic that your group allocated are clearly described.
- 2. The choice of content, headings and sub-headings, diagrams, tables, graphs show a good understanding of the topic area.
- 3. Content is correctly cited and referenced.
- 4. The wiki has an element of teaching at a peer level using the student's own innovative diagrams, tables or figures and/or using interesting examples or explanations.
- 5. Evidence of significant research relating to basic and applied sciences that goes beyond the formal teaching activities.
- 6. Relates the topic and content of the Wiki entry to learning aims of cell biology.
For having chosen such a broad and difficult to cover topic, I think the website is progressing nicely. Seems that you guys are covering important areas that are key, but not so many that it becomes confusing - especially when we must keep in mind that the website is also being designed for people who may be new to the topic(1) Headings seem appropriate, although there is some overlap, perhaps current and future research should be divided into two separate headings so they may be both easier to follow and easier to find on the table of contents, it also seems to flow better. Tables are nice, I appreciate how they match and are not too bright nor too pale - however maybe the darker green makes it slightly harder to see the top row of the tables, but this is a minor thing. Images clearly explain what the words express, but more pictures would be nice! The inclusion of a movie/clip is an interestingly diverse take on our websites, and quite unique - I hope it will nicely complement the rest of the website as it is to be in the introductory section from what I can see. Seems like a fine way of introducing a new topic to someone who is learning, or even refreshing someone on something they may already be familiar with(2+4). Referencing seems done correctly, however may I suggest references are moved from the end of the sentence to inside the sentence? Also references 16 & 17 repeat in your reference list, just to remind you - this is easily fixable!(3) Research seems to have been done on your topic, but judging from empty sections and lack of references in the reference list so I can't judge too much because clearly its not yet near completion(5). With the topic being regulation of the cell cycle and our project topic being cell division, I'd say its very relevant. You guys talk about many of the things we discuss in class such as the cell cycle, checkpoints etc.(6) I hope to see students suggestions such as mine might help shaping your project, with a little more content and tweaking I think it should be a fine turnout!.
Very interesting choice of topic! Areas of interest I'd hoped to be covered were done quite nicely, as well as concisely - I appreciate how the process is laid out and even plants are mentioned!(1) Good subtopic coverage with nice subheading breakdowns and images, although there is a lot of extra room just waiting for a image to break up all the text - perhaps the inclusion of more images may even allow you to actually cut out some text as it seems a bit overwhelming, especially to the eyes of a person unfamiliar with our topic seeking to understand more. Although easy to follow, you may agree that there are A LOT of subheadings, maybe less is more with these?. Nice table, however maybe there are too many colours? Also your introduction is very short and sweet, I like how it is to the point so visitors know exactly what you will be talking about. The image arrangement is also different, this is nice as it breaks up all the text and isn't so boring as if they were all on the same side. I suggest only the first word in the subheadings be capitalized, and other be only if necessary - this just seems more correct, why Capitalise Something Which Need Not Be?(2) Content seems correctly referenced/cited, however may I suggest the references are moved from the end of the sentence to the inside? Just seems more cohesive, plus they seem a bit random just hanging off the end with not much of a guide as to what they actually refer to(3) The videos are a nice touch, as is the glossary, I feel it is both helpful to newcomers and fellow students looking for information(4) It is clear that significant research has been done, this is evident by the page's CONTENT, but then why are there only 40 references? Perhaps you guys found some excellent papers which were very helpful, if this was the case then well done! Abundant research must have also been put into finding the videos and images, however as I said, more images would be great(5) Cytokinesis is extremely important to proper cell division, and so I think your topic is well-chosen and relevant, I also find it interesting as we are not taught much about it in classes; so I think many like me will look forward to reading it(6)
Seems as though you guys have mentioned most relevant key points and there is a nice sense of flow between topics, the introduction gets right to the point which may be VERY useful for someone visiting your page in order to learn more about your topic(1) I like how the page is divided into very easy to read and follow paragraphs separated by subheadings; so I commend your use of layout. Detailed timeline, however "Up to 1950's" and other vague dates like that are no help to people who require the actual dates should they need them; plus you guys have the dates in the discovery column so just make more rows and add them in! Nice table colour! not too bright or dark, a nice calming colour with easy to read text inside it. Informative images which are well distributed and placed! But maybe you guys could find a nice one to put in near the introduction just to make it look more eye-catching?(2) Referencing has been done correctly, however two things: there are many repeats in your reference list just to remind you, and try not to have the reference at the end of a sentence, it just looks more tied in if its included in the actual sentence itself instead of randomly hanging off the end. Some minor typing errors which could be easily fixed in the actual text itself too(3) I think your website is very much suitable for people both new and old to the topic, its easy to understand and follow and this is critical for our projects and not very easy to do, so well done!(4) I can see plenty of research has been done, this is evident just by scrolling and by the number of references at the bottom - however they are duplicates(5) The golgi apparatus is an interesting organelle, and we're not usually taught much about it apart from it's function in the cell, and from our lectures I know it is an important organelle which carries out important functions - and so your topic seems very relevant to cell division so well done and nice topic(6)
Your topic has been nicely broken down with appropriate headings, subheadings, images and content(1) At first glance your webpage looks amazing, but when you read the table you find that it sort of refers to all events in the discovery/study of cells - yet YOUR focus is on the spindle apparatus, thus logically your timeline should focus on that. Maybe you guys did this to fill it up or something, but it just seems unnecessary because we ALL could have put that information in each one of our timelines and it would have been appropriate. I do appreciate how it gives insight into the whole history of cells, which many may be interested in, I know I for one enjoyed reading it; so maybe it's an interesting take on the timeline that is unique. Really liked the layout, the alternating image positions break up the text and prevent it from being boring. Maybe you guys could include some videos as I'm sure there have just gotta be some fantastic ones out there someplace! Also in the table of contents, 1.2.1 seems like a big of a large title, you might want to just shorten it so it fits better(2) References well done, however in case you guys haven't noticed numbers 60 and 62 are repeats! Also maybe you guys could move the references from the end of sentences to be included in the sentence? I feel it would flow better, also you might want to double-check the grammar for there seem to be some small issue easily dealt with(3) Your page has a nice feel to it and promotes learning through the variety of image types, positioning and textual layout(4) Seems like much research has gone into it judging from the referencing and image assortment, especially all the effort put into the timeline(5) The spindle apparatus is important to cellular division, so well done with your choice of topic(6)
Your page is very nicely laid out, with the important points under neat headings and sub-headings(1) Diagrams complement the text nicely, however there are only 5 images for so much text? Perhaps you should try adding in a few more to break it up, and illustrate what you are explaining. The image layout, alternating on either side is a nice touch, the table is very nice and clear, with a lovely colour scheme - the entire page matches! This is nice because it gives a sense of continuity throughout the page. May I suggest you guys re-check the headings and subheadings? Words which do not need to be capitalized are, not a major issue but it just seems more professional(2) Information seems to be correctly referenced but there are many duplicates in the reference list at the bottom, some are even triplicates!!! Also I suggest you could try moving the references from the end of the sentences to be included in the sentence where relevant, seems more logical rather than just at the end of the sentence/paragraph(3) Your page seems appropriate for people wanting to learn more about your topic, whether they be familiar with it or not so well done on presentation and structure, informative diagrams and interesting ideas discussed!(4) It is clear that a lot of effort has been put into the page, and a lot of reading has been done, but I strongly suggest you guys consider including something else rather than cartoon-ish diagrams, I'd like to see more actual photographs, a time lapse would be fantastic!(5) The nuclear envelope is a nice choice of topic and very relevant to our larger topic of cell division, since its both important and interesting. Having learned about it in class a bit I hoped to see some new ideas/theories, and you guys have done just that, well done!(6)
Very thorough page, and you guys address the important issues that may come up when the mitochondria gets discussed, ranging from the function to structure then what happens to it during cell division(1) There is not too much text on your page and this is often a good thing - visitors won't be so overwhelmed by the sheer word volume, but I think you guys could make it even better with some more images perhaps? I think a nice photograph of a mitochondria might be nice instead of just cartoons, maybe one near the top to catch people's attention? I like how you have explained the scary TCA cycle diagram! Very useful to students!!! Amazing timeline! Maybe you could add a light colour instead of the gray just to liven it up? Small grammar errors you guys might wanna just double-check before the due date. Also you might want to try going over the references and moving them around so they're not just hanging off the ends of sentences/paragraphs - move them to where they are relevant within the text. Many are piled up, for example references 32-36 are named one after another, if you were reading your page would you be able to follow along with them like that? Large headings for very small amounts of text, sure this is good, but if it's important enough for a large heading then maybe it warrants elaboration?(2)Outstanding reference list, correctly done and demonstrates extensively thorough research and effort! No duplicates anywhere!!!(3+5) Since you have covered most issues about the mitochondria as I previously mentioned, its very suitable for learners and people who just want to brush up on it, so well done with this!(4) The mitochondria is important to cells as ATP is required for many important cellular functions, so well done on your choice of topic; it is relevant to cell division and looks to be coming along nicely(6)
- Mary Hoff Picking the right parts at the beta barrel factory. PLoS Biol.: 2006, 4(11);e399 PubMed 20076495
- Ute Frevert, Sabine Engelmann, Sergine Zougbédé, Jörg Stange, Bruce Ng, Kai Matuschewski, Leonard Liebes, Herman Yee Intravital observation of Plasmodium berghei sporozoite infection of the liver. PLoS Biol.: 2005, 3(6);e192 PubMed 15901208
- Norman M Baker, Samantha G Zeitlin, Linda Z Shi, Jagesh Shah, Michael W Berns Chromosome tips damaged in anaphase inhibit cytokinesis. PLoS ONE: 2010, 5(8);e12398 PubMed 20811641
- Diane C Shakes, Penny L Sadler, Jill M Schumacher, Maziar Abdolrasulnia, Andy Golden Developmental defects observed in hypomorphic anaphase-promoting complex mutants are linked to cell cycle abnormalities. Development: 2003, 130(8);1605-20 PubMed 12620985
- Sidharth V Puram, Azad Bonni Novel functions for the anaphase-promoting complex in neurobiology. Semin. Cell Dev. Biol.: 2011, 22(6);586-94 PubMed 21439392
- Tiffany Renee Oliver, Eleanor Feingold, Kai Yu, Vivian Cheung, Stuart Tinker, Maneesha Yadav-Shah, Nirupama Masse, Stephanie L Sherman New insights into human nondisjunction of chromosome 21 in oocytes. PLoS Genet.: 2008, 4(3);e1000033 PubMed 18369452
- Rebecca A MacCorkle, Tse-Hua Tan Inhibition of JNK2 disrupts anaphase and produces aneuploidy in mammalian cells. J. Biol. Chem.: 2004, 279(38);40112-21 PubMed 15262983
- David Gisselsson Mitotic instability in cancer: is there method in the madness? Cell Cycle: 2005, 4(8);1007-10 PubMed 16082199
- Diane R Hoffelder, Li Luo, Nancy A Burke, Simon C Watkins, Susanne M Gollin, William S Saunders Resolution of anaphase bridges in cancer cells. Chromosoma: 2004, 112(8);389-97 PubMed 15156327
- S K Gilbertson-Beadling, C Fisher A potential role for N-cadherin in mediating endothelial cell-smooth muscle cell interactions in the rat vasculature. Lab. Invest.: 1993, 69(2);203-9 PubMed 8350598