User:Z3375263

From CellBiology

Cell Biology Lab Nine

Aim:

To investigate the mechanism of which apoptosis occurs in adipose cells in human tissue.


Hypothesis:

The primary mechanism by which apoptosis occurs in adipose cells in human tissue is intrinsic.


Key Techniques/Procedures:

  • Immunofluorescence - Uses the specificity of antibodies to their antigen to target fluorescent dyes to specific biomolecule targets within a cell. These tissues are observed under a fluorescence microscope.
  • Fas Ligand (CD95L) ELIDA Kit
  • Caspase-9 Human ELISA Kit


Suppliers:


Flow Diagram:

Prepare tissue → Follow protocol on use of Fas Ligand kit → Image tissue → Detect for presence of Fas Ligand

Prepare tissue → Follow protocol on use of Caspase 9 ELISA kit → Image tissue → Detect for presence of Caspase 9


Experimental Outcomes

Staining that shows ligand binding indicates an extrinsic pathway. Activated caspase 9 (Caspase 9 Human ELISA KIT) will indicate apoptosis formations (mitochondrial or intrinsic pathway)

Cell Biology Lab Eight

Group One

  • Good Headings and stucture - Just need to sit the references section (there are two and also need to fix some spacing between headings and paragraphs so it flows better)
  • Are the external links through out the page supposed to be references?
  • Introduction provides a good overview of the topic
  • More focus on the transport mechanism itself is needed
  • Could be supported with more diagrams especially on the different stages of phagocytosis


Group Two

  • Good coverage of information over each heading (very relevant and detailed)
  • Diseases should just be one sub heading not a sub-sub heading
  • More pictures could help illustrate the explanations in the text
  • More flow in the writing - less short sentences
  • Introduction is very good providing a great overview of the topic


Group Three

  • Fix capitalisation of words in headings and sub-headings (make consistent throughout)
  • More information need under the headings in general
  • Referencing is done really well
  • Use of more images would enhance the pages


Cell Biology Lab Seven

--Z3375263 (talk) 16:03, 1 May 2014 (EST)

Cell Biology Lab Six

--Z3375263 (talk) 16:19, 17 April 2014 (EST)

Graph of Neuro-Epithelial Cells.png

Cell Biology Lab Five

--Z3375263 (talk) 15:21, 10 April 2014 (EST) In-Class Lab Assessment


Cell Biology Lab Four

--Z3375263 (talk) 15:30, 3 April 2014 (EST)

1. Identify an antibody against an adhesion junction protein that is commercially available.

Anti-Kinesin Antibody

2. Add a link to the original data sheet page and identify the type of adhesion junction.

Anti-Kinesin Antibody Data Sheet

Type of Adhesion Junction:

3.Include the following information: type of antibody (polyclonal, monoclonal), species raised in, species reacts against, types of application uses, and if available any reference using that antibody.

Type of Antibody: Monoclonal

Species Raised In: Mouse

Species Reacts Against: Chicken, Mammals, Squid, Sea Urchin, Human

Types of Application Uses: Detects level of kinesin - Can be used to evaluate the effect of kinesin on axonal transoprt (activty, movement, direction). Other uses include immunocytochemistry and immunohistochemistry

Reference:

Ping Shi, Anna-Lena Ström, Jozsef Gal, Haining Zhu Effects of ALS-related SOD1 mutants on dynein- and KIF5-mediated retrograde and anterograde axonal transport. Biochim. Biophys. Acta: 2010, 1802(9);707-16 PubMed 20510358


Cell Biology Lab Three

--Z3375263 (talk) 16:09, 27 March 2014 (EST)

1. Select 4 reference papers related to your selected topic sub-section. Read these papers and write a brief description of their findings and relevance to the selected topic sub-section. The reference along with your description should then be pasted on both your group discussion page and your own personal page.

Article One Cold Induces Micro- and Nano-Scale Reorganization of Lipid Raft Markers at Mounds of T-cell Membrane Fluctuations This article investigates the genetics analysis of long-distance axonal transport between the synaptic terminal and the cell body. It provides an insight into the mutations of the axonal transport system and provides links between axonal transport and human neurodegenarative disease. Most significantly, it gives an overview of the basic features of the axonal transport system. It distinguishes the two different types of transport as being either fast or slow determining fast axonal transport occurs in the retrograde and anterograde directions at a rate of 0.5-10 μm/sec and includes the transport of membrane bound organelles. Further studies identified slow axonal transport occurring only in the anterograde direction at a rate of 0.01-0.001 μm/sec and includes cytoskeletal components. Jason E Duncan, Lawrence S B Goldstein The genetics of axonal transport and axonal transport disorders. PLoS Genet.: 2006, 2(9);e124 PubMed 17009871


Article Two Microtubule-Based Transport Systems in Neurons: The Roles of Kinesins and Dyneins This articles identifies the functions of the motor proteins, kinesins and dynenins in neuronal cells. It investigates transport systems in nonneuronal cells, features of the neuronal transport system, axonal transport, dendritic transport and specialised transport pathways in sensory neurons. In particular, it explores the diverse movements of transport mechanisms depending on the activity of the binding site and the motor. A major focus of the article is on kinesin and dynein and their effect on anterograde and retrograde movement. It finds kinesin is activated when dynein is inhibited leading to anterograde movement and vice versa. The balance of these two proteins controls direction of transport. L S Goldstein, Z Yang Microtubule-based transport systems in neurons: the roles of kinesins and dyneins. Annu. Rev. Neurosci.: 2000, 23;39-71 PubMed 10845058


Article Three Cooperation Between Microtubule and Actin-Based Motor Proteins Part of this article investigate transport in neurons, in particular axonal transport. It identifies that axonal transport, previously thought to have been solely microtubule based, instead involves different balance of cooperative interactions between two system. These would involved class V myosin as well as kinesin and dyenin. Both microtubule and actin based motors are also expected to interact with neuronal mitochondria. The information also provides a brief history of how research and findings regarding neuronal transport has developed over the years and different experiments involving mice and sea urchins neuronal transport and the effect of using different systems to inhibit or administer neuronal transport. S S Brown Cooperation between microtubule- and actin-based motor proteins. Annu. Rev. Cell Dev. Biol.: 1999, 15;63-80 PubMed 10611957


Article Four Axonal Transport Versus Dendritic Transport This article investigates axonal and dendritic transport, in particular the regulation of motors, cargo binding mechanism of motor molecules, the polarity of motor molecules in axons and dendrites, the polarised recognition of motor domains and the instability of transport machinery. It finds neurons have polarised processes essential for functioning. It recognises dendritic and axonal transport of molecules depends on scaffolding proteins that are recognised by molecular motors. It finds modifications of tubulin can influence morphogenic processes as well as acetylation, phosphorylation and methylation of histone proteins can result in differences in transcription, tublin proteins, binding of MAPs to microtubules. This research has widened possibilities to investigate the polarity of neuronal structure. Mitsutoshi Setou, Takahiro Hayasaka, Ikuko Yao Axonal transport versus dendritic transport. J. Neurobiol.: 2004, 58(2);201-6 PubMed 14704952



2.Select an image related to your selected topic sub-section (this can be from one of the 4 above or from elsewhere). The image should be uploaded (with all the required information: description, reference, copyright and student template) and pasted onto the project page sub-section and onto your own personal page.

Expression of NDRG1 in Cytoplasmic Membranes.[1]

The Effect of Kinesin Channel on Anterograde and Retrograde Transport in Neurons

Note - This image was originally uploaded as part of a student project and may contain inaccuracies in either description or acknowledgements. Please contact the site coordinator if the uploaded content does not meet the original copyright permission or requirements, for immediate removal.

Reference

Jason E Duncan, Lawrence S B Goldstein The genetics of axonal transport and axonal transport disorders. PLoS Genet.: 2006, 2(9);e124 PubMed 17009871

L S Goldstein, Z Yang Microtubule-based transport systems in neurons: the roles of kinesins and dyneins. Annu. Rev. Neurosci.: 2000, 23;39-71 PubMed 10845058

S S Brown Cooperation between microtubule- and actin-based motor proteins. Annu. Rev. Cell Dev. Biol.: 1999, 15;63-80 PubMed 10611957

Mitsutoshi Setou, Takahiro Hayasaka, Ikuko Yao Axonal transport versus dendritic transport. J. Neurobiol.: 2004, 58(2);201-6 PubMed 14704952

Yuanzheng Gu, Chen Gu Dynamics of Kv1 channel transport in axons. PLoS ONE: 2010, 5(8);e11931 PubMed 20694152


Copyright

© 2010 Gu, Gu. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

Cell Biology Lab Two

--Z3375263 (talk) 15:38, 20 March 2014 (EST)

1. On your own student page upload an image with the reference using the Pubmed formatting shown in the practical class tutorial last week.


Cytoplasmic Membrane Features

Expression of NDRG1 in Cytoplasmic Membranes.[2]

The Expression of NDRG1 in Cytoplasmic Membranes or Membrane-Associated Structures in Hypoxic (24 h) Trophoblastic Lines.


Note - This image was originally uploaded as part of a student project and may contain inaccuracies in either description or acknowledgements. Please contact the site coordinator if the uploaded content does not meet the original copyright permission or requirements, for immediate removal.


2.Identify a recent research article (not review) that uses either confocal microscopy or super-resolution microscopy as one of the study's techniques. Explain briefly (1 paragraph) how the microscopy technique specifically contributed to the article's findings.

Cold Induces Micro- and Nano-Scale Reorganization of Lipid Raft Markers at Mounds of T-cell Membrane Fluctuations.

This article investigated the distribution pattern and the cold-induced microscale and nanoscale re-distributions of two different putative lipid raft markers (GM1 and CD59). It used the technique of confocal microscopy by demonstrating the polish of lipid rafts or the damage of cells as a result of cholesterol depletion in cell membranes. Cells were treated with M βCD at different strengths to cause cholesterol-depletion and then underwent confocal microscopy. These confocal images assisted in identifying the cold-induced lateral rearrangement of of raft-related membrane heterogeneity. Furthermore, it assisted one's understanding of the cold-induced activation of signalling pathway in T cells.

Reference

Yong Chen, Jie Qin, Jiye Cai, Zheng W Chen Cold induces micro- and nano-scale reorganization of lipid raft markers at mounds of T-cell membrane fluctuations. PLoS ONE: 2009, 4(4);e5386 PubMed 19404395

Xiao-Hua Shi, Jacob C Larkin, Baosheng Chen, Yoel Sadovsky The expression and localization of N-myc downstream-regulated gene 1 in human trophoblasts. PLoS ONE: 2013, 8(9);e75473 PubMed 24066183


Copyright

Copyright: © 2013 Shi et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.


Cell Biology Lab One

1. Add your Signature for Lab Attendance:

--Z3375263 (talk) 15:45, 13 March 2014 (EST)

2. Add a Sub-Heading:

Sub-Heading

3. Add an External Link:

PubMed

4. Add an Internal Link:

Cell Biology Lab One

This is a Photo of 2 Cells.

Reference

Xuejie Li, Feng Yao, Wei Zhang, Cheng Cheng, Bing Chu, Yan Liu, Yanli Mei, Yang Wu, Xiangyang Zou, Lin Hou Identification, expression pattern, cellular location and potential role of the caveolin-1 gene from Artemia sinica. Gene: 2014, 540(2);161-70 PubMed 24583171


This is about Prokaryotes.[3]

Cristina Y Zamora, Nathaniel S Schocker, Michelle M Chang, Barbara Imperiali Chemoenzymatic Synthesis and Applications of Prokaryote-Specific UDP-Sugars. Meth. Enzymol.: 2017, 597;145-186 PubMed 28935101

Aharon Oren On names of genera of prokaryotes that are later homonyms of generic names with standing in the zoological or the botanical nomenclature. Proposal of Neomegalonema gen. nov. and Neomegalonema perideroedes comb. nov. as replacements for the prokaryotic generic name Meganema and the species name Meganema perideroedes. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol.: 2017; PubMed 28933323

Dekang Liu, Guido Keijzers, Lene Juel Rasmussen DNA mismatch repair and its many roles in eukaryotic cells. Mutat. Res.: 2017, 773;174-187 PubMed 28927527

Joseph W Briggs, Ling Ren, Kristi R Chakrabarti, Yien Che Tsai, Allan M Weissman, Ryan J Hansen, Daniel L Gustafson, Yousuf A Khan, Jonathan D Dinman, Chand Khanna Activation of the unfolded protein response in sarcoma cells treated with rapamycin or temsirolimus. PLoS ONE: 2017, 12(9);e0185089 PubMed 28926611

Reza Hosseini Ghatar, Tahereh Soltantoyeh, Motahareh Bahadori, Jalal Khoshnoodi, Forough Golsaz Shirazi, Mahmood Jeddi Tehrani, Mohammad Mehdi Amiri, Fazel Shokri Polyclonal Antibody against Different Extracellular Subdomains of HER2 Induces Tumor Growth Inhibition in vitro. Iran J Immunol: 2017, 14(3);200-214 PubMed 28919583


  1. Yuanzheng Gu, Chen Gu Dynamics of Kv1 channel transport in axons. PLoS ONE: 2010, 5(8);e11931 PubMed 20694152
  2. Xiao-Hua Shi, Jacob C Larkin, Baosheng Chen, Yoel Sadovsky The expression and localization of N-myc downstream-regulated gene 1 in human trophoblasts. PLoS ONE: 2013, 8(9);e75473 PubMed 24066183
  3. Xuejie Li, Feng Yao, Wei Zhang, Cheng Cheng, Bing Chu, Yan Liu, Yanli Mei, Yang Wu, Xiangyang Zou, Lin Hou Identification, expression pattern, cellular location and potential role of the caveolin-1 gene from Artemia sinica. Gene: 2014, 540(2);161-70 PubMed 24583171