User:Z3374173

From CellBiology

Lab Attendance

Lab 1 --Z3374173 (talk) 15:56, 14 March 2013 (EST)

Macroscopic appearance of the gastric mucosa in rats..png

Info: The negative control group showed no injuries to the gastric mucosa (A). Severe injuries were observed in the gastric mucosa of the ethanol control group. Ethanol treatment produced extensive visible hemorrhagic lesion of the gastric mucosa (B). The reference control group, treated with omeprazole (20 mg/kg), showed milder injuries to the gastric mucosa compared to the injuries observed in the ethanol control group (C). Group 4 (1 mg/kg AMDCP) showed moderate injuries to the gastric mucosa (D). Group 5 (5 mg/kg AMDCP), mild injuries were observed in the gastric mucosa. AMDCP reduced the formation of gastric lesions induced by ethanol (E). Groups 6, 7, and 8 (10, 15, and 20 mg/kg AMDCP, respectively) showed no injuries to the gastric mucosa. Instead, flattening of the gastric mucosa was observed (F, G and H).

Lab 2 --Z3374173 (talk) 16:33, 21 March 2013 (EST)

Lab 3 --Z3374173 (talk) 15:11, 28 March 2013 (EST)

Lab 4 --Z3374173 (talk) 15:07, 11 April 2013 (EST)

Lab 5 --Z3374173 (talk) 15:09, 18 April 2013 (EST)

Lab 6-- Anzac Day

Lab 7 --Z3374173 (talk) 15:06, 2 May 2013 (EST)

Lab 8 --Z3374173 (talk) 15:12, 9 May 2013 (EST)

Lab 9 -- Away

Lab 10 --Z3374173 (talk) 15:13, 23 May 2013 (EST)

Lab 11 --Z3374173 (talk) 15:03, 30 May 2013 (EST)

Lab 12 --Z3374173 (talk) 15:16, 6 June 2013 (EST)

Individual Assessments

LAB 1 AND 2

Energetics of genome size in eukaryotes and prokaryotes.jpg

Energetics of genome size in eukaryotes and prokaryotes

Reference: Lane: Energetics and genetics across the prokaryote-eukaryote divide. Biology Direct 2011 6:35 doi:10.1186/1745-6150-6-35


Nick Lane Energetics and genetics across the prokaryote-eukaryote divide. Biol. Direct: 2011, 6;35 PubMed 21714941

[1]

Copyright: 2011 Lane; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

LAB 2 CONT.

Super-Resolution Microscopy Reveals Specific Recruitment of HIV-1 Envelope Proteins to Viral Assembly Sites Dependent on the Envelope C-Terminal Tail

Walter Muranyi, Sebastian Malkusch, Barbara Müller, Mike Heilemann, Hans-Georg Kräusslich

This study involves the use of super-resolution microscopy to visualize newly formed Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) particles at the plasma membrane of virus producing cells. Structural proteins Gag and Env travel to the membrane through different pathways. Trying different techniques they found that super-resolution microscopy was the best to visualize the distribution patterns of the cells. Authors found that confocal microscopy showed some evidence of spatial overlap of the two proteins at the membrane, but was not enough evidence, and that Fluorescence microscopy shows only a few patchy parts and that the resolution of light microscopy was not sufficient. Authors also found that staining and using an electron microscope did not show HIV-1 budding sites, though they did show evidence for specific recruitment of another virus.

"New super-resolution fluorescence microscopy techniques have bypassed this resolution limit, providing spatial resolution reaching a near-molecular level. These include single-molecule localization techniques such as photoactivated localization microscopy (PALM) and direct stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy (dSTORM)." [2]


--Mark Hill (talk) 13:36, 11 April 2013 (EST) This recent article uses Super-Resolution Microscopy and you have explained how the papers findings are dependent upon this specific technique. The referencing is a little messy, I have pasted your paragraph below with better formatting, you could remove all the other information.

This study[3] involves the use of super-resolution microscopy to visualize newly formed Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) particles at the plasma membrane of virus producing cells. Structural proteins Gag and Env travel to the membrane through different pathways. Trying different techniques they found that super-resolution microscopy was the best to visualize the distribution patterns of the cells. Authors found that confocal microscopy showed some evidence of spatial overlap of the two proteins at the membrane, but was not enough evidence, and that Fluorescence microscopy shows only a few patchy parts and that the resolution of light microscopy was not sufficient. Authors also found that staining and using an electron microscope did not show HIV-1 budding sites, though they did show evidence for specific recruitment of another virus.

LAB 3

Mitochondrial fusion and membrane potential.png

David C Chan Mitochondrial fusion and fission in mammals. Annu. Rev. Cell Dev. Biol.: 2006, 22;79-99 PubMed 16704336

This paper explains and suggests important theories about the processes of mitochondrial fusion and fission, Which may control the shape but also the function of the organelle and how it functions with other mitochondria. It's a review article about the dynamics of the mitochondria and how they interact with each other, and it also identifies the main components of the parts involved during fusion and fission. [4]


H C Yang, A Palazzo, T C Swayne, L A Pon A retention mechanism for distribution of mitochondria during cell division in budding yeast. Curr. Biol.: 1999, 9(19);1111-4 PubMed 10531006

This paper suggests that that mother cell retains an amount of mitochondria by stopping a potion of the total amount of mitochondria in whats called the 'retention zone' of the mother cell when the cell is splitting. This process require an actin cytoskeleton. This study investigates how the mother cell retains the mitochondria. Their results show that equal amounts of mitochondria are split between the the two cells. This is done by two actions of the actin skeleton, The retention and the movement of mitochondria. [5]


Istvan R Boldogh, Liza A Pon Interactions of mitochondria with the actin cytoskeleton. Biochim. Biophys. Acta: 2006, 1763(5-6);450-62 PubMed 16624426

This study is about the movement of mitochondria within a cell and how it interacts with the actin cables. This could occur in cell partition or in normal cell function. This functions as a movement of mitochondria to places of higher ATP synthesis or keeping them stationed at one place for the same reason. [6]


Steven W Gorsich, Janet M Shaw Importance of mitochondrial dynamics during meiosis and sporulation. Mol. Biol. Cell: 2004, 15(10);4369-81 PubMed 15254264

Really good article on both meiosis and mitosis and how the mitochondria work and a good overview. It tells of how mitochondria fragment and rejoin during meiosis and how even though defects in some of the properties will cause the mitochondria to fall to one side of the cell and fail to fragment, some will still complete meiosis. [7]


C W Birky The inheritance of genes in mitochondria and chloroplasts: laws, mechanisms, and models. Annu. Rev. Genet.: 2001, 35;125-48 PubMed 11700280

Really great review on the overview of all possible process. This would be a great startig point. Just a review article, not really one of my main 4 but very good on information. [8]

Lab 4

Pan-Cadherin Antibody

Pan-Cadherin Antibody

This antibody is a mouse monoclonal antibody, at 0.1mg it costs $245.00. It is applicable in Western Blotting and Immunohisto Chemistry. It's able to be used in Human, Mouse, Rabbit, Rat and Chickens. Each vial contains 0.1mg IgE in 0.1ml of PBS at pH of 7.4. Cadherins are receptors that mediate the calcium dependent cell to cell adhesion, they contribute to the control of tissue structure and maintain the tissue integrity. In junctions of adherence, the cadherins are boudn to gamma and beta catenins which bind to a-catenin, which in turn binds to actin binding protein. [9]

Y Izutsu, S Tochinai, K Onoé Loss of reactivity to pan-cadherin antibody in epidermal cells as a marker for metamorphic alteration of Xenopus skin. Dev. Growth Differ.: 2000, 42(4);377-83 PubMed 10969737


Lab 7

Percentage of Phenotypes3374173.JPG

Undifferentiated

1. Do you see any change in phenotypes between group A and group B?

Yes

2. If Yes, speculate about the potential molecular mechanism that has led the the change.

They have all shifted towards the latter phenotypes over time.

Differentiated

1. Do you see any change in phenotypes between group A and group B?

Yes

2. If Yes, speculate about the potential molecular mechanism that has led the the change.

There is a shift towards stumped to pronged to stringed and as well as this, there is a change in fluorescence colour. This indicates there is a change in the tropomyosin.

Lab 8

Sheet

Lab 9

The key points relating to the topic that your group allocated are clearly described. The choice of content, headings and sub-headings, diagrams, tables, graphs show a good understanding of the topic area. Content is correctly cited and referenced. The wiki has an element of teaching at a peer level using the student's own innovative diagrams, tables or figures and/or using interesting examples or explanations. Evidence of significant research relating to basic and applied sciences that goes beyond the formal teaching activities. Relates the topic and content of the Wiki entry to learning aims of cell biology. The content of the wiki should demonstrate to the reader that your group has researched adequately on this topic and covered the key areas necessary to inform your peers in their learning. Develops and edits the wiki entries in accordance with the above guidelines.

Group 6 Introduction is well written, introduces the amount of time and what occurs, comparison against mitosis and meiosis is nice to have, i always like to see how they differ. History table is a nice colour, may need more text but that's up to the availability of the research. Nicely broken down into sections, and isn't text heavy. I like the pictures, especially the flow charts. All the proteins and cyclins are listed which is good to see and how they have an affect. There's a sentence just under the defects you might want to check out but that section is super well written as is the current research. Glossary done but i think you have an issue with the references in that section. But a really nice simple page thats easy to understand and not overloading.

Group 5 Lots of text! Well written though, Introduction is well written and thought out, explains a bit about whats to come, Time line is nice and simple, i like simple. Structure is broken down into easy to read sections and well written at a students level. The body is seperated into nice sections on when the cell division is occuring and what is happening to the membrane and what parts are affected. Really really well written but please! more pictures! I feel that the open closed part is super text heavy. There are huge paragraphs, and it really isn't nice to even attempt to read it. I feel you could put more in about diseases rather than list them. Glossary needs to be updated as does the references because some are disappearing. This page was almost an information overload, alot of effort has gone in, but possibly simplify it.

Group 4 Nice picture at the beginning of the page, I think the introduction should be about the spindle itself rather than cell division because we all know the phases this far along in our studies. History table is well written, I think you could put the pictures outside the table to make it a bit nicer, and there are some rows that don't have any text. Structure is really well written and laid out, genes and proteins listed which is good. Function is well explained and broken down into sections. Formation is well written as is the rest of the project. Diseases are nicely broken down too so it makes it simple to read and understand.

Group 3 Golgi Apparatus is a really well set out page, great introduction and overall layout, function clearly explained and table of histories well researched and easy to read. Progression through the stages and how the golgi apparatus is during those stages is very well done. Lovely pictures and a really well structured page. Everything is logically spelt out and pictures break up the text. Only thing to improve on would be the glossary and the referencing

Group 2 Introduction is nice an bold, jumps right in and explains cytokinesis, might want to explain what is going on in your page to give us a heads up to what is to come. History table has strange colours and minimal content but that might be because of the studies done at times? Really well thought out mechanisms. I especially like the link to the glossary. Broken down into easy to read segments. To make it flow better you could put CPC before the others so that it is inline with the statement that introduces them. You've explained it really well and using the plant vs animal model was very clever. A really well done page with well thought out ideas and an amazing structure. Research at the end was very well thought out by including summaries. Pictures are relevant and I can see heaps of effort has gone into this page. Might need a picture in the mechanisms section, quite text heavy but a fantastic page otherwise.

Group 1 Introduction was good, informative and alluding to what is going to be presented. History table uncompleted. Would be good if you went through the cell cycles from beginning to end and if the most important cyclins and CDKs were listed and when they were most important in the cycle. It's quite a sporadic page and not following a format that can really be followed. Not everything that was said in the intro was addressed. The Mitogens section was really well written and very logical. Great examples used to describe it and was actually really interesting. Need more diseases and your research is all everywhere. Possibly get some more references for the other parts except Mitogens. Some of the pictures weren't properly referenced. If you followed the intro you would have a stunning page. I think it needs to be more researched.

References

  1. Nick Lane Energetics and genetics across the prokaryote-eukaryote divide. Biol. Direct: 2011, 6;35 PubMed 21714941
  2. Walter Muranyi, Sebastian Malkusch, Barbara Müller, Mike Heilemann, Hans-Georg Kräusslich Super-resolution microscopy reveals specific recruitment of HIV-1 envelope proteins to viral assembly sites dependent on the envelope C-terminal tail. PLoS Pathog.: 2013, 9(2);e1003198 PubMed 23468635
  3. Walter Muranyi, Sebastian Malkusch, Barbara Müller, Mike Heilemann, Hans-Georg Kräusslich Super-resolution microscopy reveals specific recruitment of HIV-1 envelope proteins to viral assembly sites dependent on the envelope C-terminal tail. PLoS Pathog.: 2013, 9(2);e1003198 PubMed 23468635
  4. David C Chan Mitochondrial fusion and fission in mammals. Annu. Rev. Cell Dev. Biol.: 2006, 22;79-99 PubMed 16704336
  5. H C Yang, A Palazzo, T C Swayne, L A Pon A retention mechanism for distribution of mitochondria during cell division in budding yeast. Curr. Biol.: 1999, 9(19);1111-4 PubMed 10531006
  6. Istvan R Boldogh, Liza A Pon Interactions of mitochondria with the actin cytoskeleton. Biochim. Biophys. Acta: 2006, 1763(5-6);450-62 PubMed 16624426
  7. Steven W Gorsich, Janet M Shaw Importance of mitochondrial dynamics during meiosis and sporulation. Mol. Biol. Cell: 2004, 15(10);4369-81 PubMed 15254264
  8. C W Birky The inheritance of genes in mitochondria and chloroplasts: laws, mechanisms, and models. Annu. Rev. Genet.: 2001, 35;125-48 PubMed 11700280
  9. http://www.abbiotec.com/antibodies/pan-cadherin-antibody