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- 1 Cora the explorer
- 2 Reference
- 3 Individual Assessments
- 3.1 Lab 1
- 3.2 Lab 2
- 3.3 Lab 3
- 3.3.1 Reference
- 3.3.2 Copyright
- 3.3.3 Clathrin- and Dynamin-Independent Endocytosis of FGFR3 – Implications for Signalling
- 3.3.4 ARF6-Dependent Regulation of P2Y Receptor Traffic and Function in Human Platelets
- 3.3.5 Endocytosis of hERG Is Clathrin-Independent and Involves Arf6
- 3.3.6 E3 ubiquitin ligase Pub1 is implicated in endocytosis of a GPI-anchored protein Ecm33 in fission yeast.
- 3.4 Lab 4
Cora the explorer
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Image of Phospholipid Bilayer
© 2007 Yaghmur et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
Image of interactions between inter-nuclear membrane
© 2004 Public Library of Science. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Reflective confocal microscopy of melanocytic skin lesions to improve diagnostic accuracy
Reflective confocal microscopy is used as a non-invasive imaging technique which has the ability to detect morphological characteristics of skin tumors at the cellular level. This capability allows for increased diagnosis accuracy as new histopathological characteristics can be defined. The skin cancer being studied was cutaneous melanoma. Its main dermascopic features include an atypical network, irregular globules and pseudopods.On reflective confocal microscopy, the atypical network showed the presence of elongated and spindle cells around and crossing the dermal papillae. Cytologic examination is a reliable method to distinguish between different types of globules. Reflective confocal microscopy in this study characterised the nevus in globules as dense clusters of cells not connected to the epidermis but surrounded by epithelium. The reflective confocal microscopy findings from this paper are incredibly valuable as they provide evidence of the vast distinguishing features amongst different types of melanomas. The article suggests further inquiry into other comparable microscopic areas. There is however a common goal; if we aim to increase diagnosis accuracy, we can better adjust treatment to melanomas.
Image showing effects of dynamin on FGF1 internalisation
© 2011 Haugsten et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
Clathrin- and Dynamin-Independent Endocytosis of FGFR3 – Implications for Signalling
This article confirmed that the best studied endocytic mechanism is characterised by the formation of clarithin (a protein) coated pits at the plasma membrane. Epidermal Growth Factor Receptors (EGFR’s) that were internalised via a clarithin-mediated pathway were found to recycle back to the cell surface whereas EGFR’s that were internalised via a clarithin-independant pathway were degraded. This concluded that different endocytic pathways dictate further signalling and intracellular trafficking of their cargo.
The article is relevant because it categorised the CLIC/GEEC pathway as a clarithin-independant endocytic pathway. The article raised my awareness of the lack of information on this specific pathway. Even though many derivatives of clarithin-inependant endocytosis have been established, they are yet to be given definitive features in order to be repeatedly categorised. Therefore, further research into the subtypes of clarithin-independant pathways may prove difficult.
ARF6-Dependent Regulation of P2Y Receptor Traffic and Function in Human Platelets
Arf-6 proteins were found to regulate intracellular trafficking by shuffling between an active GTP-bound form and an inactive GDP-bound form. A low level of Arf-6 GTP is essential for platelet aggregation and this was deduced to be regulated depending on platelet activation by collagen. when platelets are activated, the GTP-bound form of Arf-6 rapidly converts to its GDP-bound form. Arf-6 activity was also found to be stimulated by activation of P2Y purinoreceptors. These findings deduced that Arf-6 is a regulator of platelet function by demonstrating it has a function in internalisation of P2Y purinreceptors which in turn have an effect on platelet ADP receptor function.
This article shed some light on the Arf-6 dependant pathway of endocytosis. It is clear that Arf-6 is a type of kinase signal, controlling the level of endocytosis. Seeing as this endocytic pathway is common in human platelets, it may have close associations in haemolytic pathology and this may be an interesting avenue to investigate as part of the project.
Endocytosis of hERG Is Clathrin-Independent and Involves Arf6
hERG potassium channels are important for repolarisation of the cardiac action potential. Reduced levels of expression increases the risk of ventricular arrhytmias. The results of this study found that this channel undergoes rapid internalisation which is neither inhibited by dynamin (an inhibitor of dynasore) nor Rab5a. This suggests the endocytosis of hERG is a clarithin-independant mechanism. A GTPase deficient mutant, Arf6-Q67L was compared and contrasted on two types of cells, HeLa and H9c2. Both of these had hERG channels present on the characteristic vacuole, concluding that Arf-6 is required for endocytosis of hERG potassium channels.
This article is relevant to the subtype of Arf-6 dependant endocytosis because it explores the clinical significance when this subtype is potentially malfunctioning. It demonstrates how different cells use different signalling mechanisms for endocytosis and how this variation can effect organs at the multicellular level.
E3 ubiquitin ligase Pub1 is implicated in endocytosis of a GPI-anchored protein Ecm33 in fission yeast.
This study demonstrated that a GPI-anchored protein, Ecm33 is endocytosed in a Pub-1 dependant manner that is also required for the trafficking of non-GPI-anchored proteins in fission yeast. Ecm33 is important for cell wall integrity and function. Ubiquitylation was also studied but results were inconclusive in determining whether it is required for internalisation of GPI-anchored proteins. It was found however that when GPI-anchored proteins were endocytosed the main fraction of them were delivered to GEEC’s.
This article was of relevance because it defined GEEC as the acronym for GPI-anchored enriched endosomal compartment. This pathway seems to be specific for a type of protein on the cell membrane surface. Due to the similarities amongst yeast and mammalian cells, this study also provides a basis for further research into understanding the precise mechanism of endocytosis of GPI-anchored proteins in higher eukaryotes.
--Mark Hill (talk) 14:23, 1 May 2014 You need to have the following information on your page not just a link to the antibody data sheet. This demonstrates you know how to interpret the data sheet information correctly as well as locate a reference.
- Identify an antibody that can been used in your group's transport project.
- Identify the species deriving the antibody.
- Identify the working concentration for the antibody.
- Identify a paper that has used this antibody.