From CellBiology

Lab Attendance

Lab 11

--Z3331469 (talk) 15:21, 6 June 2013 (EST)

Lab 10

--Z3331469 (talk) 15:00, 30 May 2013 (EST)

Lab 9

--Z3331469 (talk) 15:16, 23 May 2013 (EST)

Lab 8

--Z3331469 (talk) 16:36, 16 May 2013 (EST)

Lab 7

--Z3331469 (talk) 16:25, 9 May 2013 (EST)

Lab 6

--Z3331469 (talk) 15:07, 2 May 2013 (EST)

Lab 5

--Z3331469 (talk) 15:30, 18 April 2013 (EST)

Lab 3

--Z3331469 (talk) 15:13, 28 March 2013 (EST)

Lab 2

--Z3331469 (talk) 15:41, 21 March 2013 (EST)

Lab 1

--Z3331469 (talk) 15:53, 14 March 2013 (EST)

Lab 1

Inserting Links





Inserting an Image


Red White Blood cells 01.jpg

Red White Blood cells 01.jpg

Red White Blood cells 01.jpg
Red White Blood cells 01.jpg
Red White Blood cells 01.jpg

Red White Blood cells 01.jpg

Bullet Points

  • ANAT3231

Individual Assessments

Lab 1

Flourescent labelling of B. thuringiensis.jpg

Flourescent labelling of B. thuringiensis

PMID 23249212


© 2012 Yuan et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Lab 2

Flourescent labelling of B. thuringiensis[1]

In a recent study, confocal microscopy techniques were used in order to visualise in detail the binding of insulin-like growth factors (IGF-I and IGF-II) and insulin to insulin receptors (IR-A and IR-B). As this microscopy technique is based on flourescence, fluorescent proteins were used in order to trace the binding of IGF-II and insulin to the insulin receptors.[2]

PMID 23497114

--Mark Hill (talk) 11:58, 11 April 2013 (EST) This research paper does use confocal microscopy in analysis, your explanation is not very clear as to why this technique has advantages over other fluorescence microscopy techniques. You have used as explained in class the Pubmed referencing format correctly. (check your spelling, fluorescence)

Lab 3

Cytokinesis Failure

Mutations in twinstar, a Drosophila Gene Encoding a Cofilin/ADF Homologue, Result in Defects in Centrosome Migration and Cytokinesis PMID 8522587

Cofilin is a protein involved in the breaking down of actin filaments during cytokinesis. If these filaments are not dissassembled, cytokinesis failure will occur. This study showed that:

  • in mutant spermatocytes (the test subject for this experiment) defects were found in aster migration and separation during prophase and prometaphase.
  • twinstar mutations encode a Drosophila cofilin homologue
  • F-actin distribution within primary spermatocytes gradually disappears leading up to prometaphase in the wild-type; whereas in mutant primary spermatocytes, F-actin forms a large bundle in the cytoplasm of each cell.
  • Disassembly of actin filaments in mutant primary spermatocytes was delayed heavily during metaphase

APC mutations lead to cytokinetic failures in vitro and tetraploid genotypes in Min mice PMID 17893240

Adenomatous Polyposis Coli (APC) is involved in the formation of the mitotic spindle and the proper functioning of the spindle checkpoint, however, certain mutations of APC induced cytokinesis failure. This study will be helpful as it provides me with another failure of cytokinesis during stage I. The study found that:

  • in cells expressing APC1–1,450 (amino acids 1-1,450), the contact between the cell cortext and microtubules is severely affected
  • unanchored spindles contributed to the failure of cytokinesis in these cells.

Citron kinase controls abscission through RhoA and anillin PMID 21849473

Citron kinase (CIT-K), anillin and RhoA interact during the late stages of cytokinesis, especially in stabilising the midbody. If CIT-K is removed, it is reported in this paper that there is a dramatic loss of anillin and RhoA from the midbody, strongly delaying abscission. This article is helpful as it identifies CIT-K as an essential protein during the later stages of cytokinesis, describing the implications of its removal from test cells in great detail and in relation to RhoA and anillin. This study found that:

  • by removing CIT-K and analysing the localisation of central spindle proteins (RACGAP1, ECT2, Aurora B) and of cleavage furrow proteins (actin, myosin IIB, anillin, and RhoA), there was a disparity in the localization of anillin and RhoA in comparison to the control cells.
  • there is a complete loss of anillin during the late midbody stage at the cytoplasmic bridge in more than two-thirds of the mutated cells.
  • RhoA in the CIT-K depleted cells also showed similar results in terms of delocalisation.
  • by deactivating RhoA in late cytokinesis by means of treating the HeLa cells with a toxin (Clostridium botulinum C3-toxin), the localisation of anillin was greatly affected, but CIT-K remained the same, meaning that RhoA plays a part in the localisation of anillin at this late point in cytokinesis, but not for CIT-K.

Cyk-4 A Rho Family Gtpase Activating Protein (Gap) Required for Central Spindle Formation and Cytokinesis PMID 10871280

CYK-4, an important Gtpase Activating Protein, along with ZEN-4/CeMKLP1 work together in forming the central spindle as well as in regulating RhoA GTPase during cytokinesis. Incorrect formation of the central spindle is a cause for cytokinesis failure. This study identifies a specific protein in relation to that failure. This study found that:

  • cyk-4 mutants (constructed in isolation) do not fully complete cytokinesis. This is shown through the formation of the first cleavage furrow where it forms correctly, ingresses, but regresses soon after.
  • By localising actin and tubilin in both mutant and wild type cyk-4 embryos it was shown that spindles formed during metaphase in the cyk-4 mutant embryos were normal, but during anaphase, significant differences were observed in comparison to the wild type cyk-4 embryos. Microtubule bundles were reduced in size and appeared highly disorganised. Cyk-4 therefore, is required during anaphase for proper formation of the central spindle.
  • It is possible that for this reason, cyk-4 mutant embryos fail to undergo cytokinesis as a result of the failure of the central spindle to be formed.

CIT-K Interaction at the Midbody

Lab 4

Anti-E Cadherin antibody (ab53033)[1]

  • Antibody type: polyclonal
  • Species raised in: rabbit
  • Cross reactivity: human & pig
  • Application uses: immunochemistry/immunofluorescence, immunohistochemistry & western blot

Lab 6

Analysis of Morphological phenotypes in Tropomyosin 4 over-expressing B35 neuro-epithelial cells


Do you see any change in the phenotypes between group A and B?

There is a noticeable change between the phenotypes of the control group and the Tm4 over-expressing B35 group. The majority of the control group were grouped into either the stumped phenotype or the broken fan phenotype. The Tm4 over-expressing B35 group belonged to the pronged and stringed phenotypes due to the presence of single lamellae and longer neurites.

If you see a difference, speculate about a potential molecular mechanism that has led to the change.

The overexpression of Tm4, as with other enhanced tropomyosin isoforms, drive and direct the formation of specific cellular structures. Tm4, as we have observed, promoted the growth of longer neurites and single lamellae, pertaining to the pronged and stringed phenotypes. Tm4 may act on specific proteins or even on the cytoskeleton directly – in order to achieve this.


Peer Assessments

Group 7

Introduction Nice intro, briefly outlining function and providing an overview. “But more on that later when we discuss the function of mitochondria.” No need to include this sentence, let’s keep the page formal. The intro just needs a proofread

Structure and Function – Great info included here, although the image included in structure does not help me understand the info as it has no labels... thought about combining these sections? Also, keep it in the third person. Do not speak in first person “i will briefly”.

History – can the history section come before structure and function. An image here of one of the key scientists would be great.

Mitochondrial Fission and Fusion great info here, shows you’ve researched the topic thoroughly, the image included needs a caption describing it briefly.

Physiological Significance of Mitochondrial Division Great section, well researched and well referenced. Just needs a proofread. “Huntington's disease, an autosomal dominant and fatal neurological disease has also been associated WITH mitochondrial dysfunction.”

Overall a nice looking page with some great information. Once finished it will look boss.

Group 6

Hello group 6

Introduction A very quick introduction, I think you jump into mentioning specifics too soon, save this for later on in the page. Also some spelling errors “ANALHASE promoting complex” laughed way too long at that. Nice image used but it needs to be referenced properly, with a brief description, copyright notice and with the student image template included.

Meiosis vs mitosis a short section, perhaps you can elaborate on it after the dot points. An image here would be great.

History of Anaphase Think about putting this section straight after the introduction. A better expression for “figure out” in the first timeline description. An image of one of the prominent scientists could work here. The references included here are external links, let’s get those in the reference list down the bottom (Y)

Process of Sister Chromatid Separation Sister chromatid separation during anaphase is considered one of the main process of cell division. Just grammar – Separation of sister chromatids during anaphase is considered to be one of the main processes of cell division Some references lacking in this first paragraph also. The image used here is a bit small but it’s student drawn, so I like it A LOT!

Defects resulting from anaphase malformation - There’s a lot of text here, just needs a proofread.

Some more links to current papers would be good in the current research section.

Group 5

The most impressive looking page so far.

Great introduction, concise, well structured, outlining structure and function briefly. I don’t think you need to mention Hetzer’s review article again ie. “Hetzer’s has pointed out in his review article (2010)” as you’ve mentioned it in your opening paragraph. A simple line such as Hetzer states, or leaving it out completely and referencing it at the end of the sentence will do.

Also “This page aims to explore the process of the breakdown and reassembly” could be reworded as: This page aims to explore the breakdown and reassembly processes of the nuclear envelope, and its role in cell division. For better flow.

‘Dat timeline, I could stare at those colours all day. Maybe an image of G.L Kite can be included here to break up the text a little bit?

Structure of the Nuclear Envelope – Well researched and referenced section, apart from outer nuclear membrane, still time though ;-) formatting of “Figure 1. Schematic view of model adopted for the NPC/NE system” as a thumb I think?

Breakdown of the Nuclear Envelope – Image included here is helpful, referenced properly. A lot of text in comparison to the previous sections in terms of text/image ratio. A lot of the terms used here, proteins and whatnot can be included in your glossary

Abnormalities - A bit more information on each of the diseases mentioned would be great. Could be room for another awe-inspiring table? o.O Room for accompanying images here also of some diseases. (Y)

Current and Future Research This is a nice section. Some links to the current papers would just finish it off.

In all, awesome work. A lot of research has gone into this page and it shows. It will look great once finished.

Group 4

Hi group 4. Let’s do this.

The image to start your page off is nice to look at, mesmerising some would call it. In my opinion it’s pretty huge and it could be better used to accompany some text later on, on your project page.

Introduction While mentioning the spindle apparatus in the second paragraph, I feel you can go a little more into its importance and relevance with regard to cell division, because at the moment it’s a little bit more cell division heavy rather than spindle apparatus heavy. Even though you may know this information yourself, you still need to reference it.

Historical Research Brief Timeline of Some Key Discoveries regarding Cells, Cell Division, and Subsequent Historical Research On Spindle Apparatus

Maybe think of a different heading, Historical Timeline: ......

Some references are missing in the timeline.

Structure - Images used here are great, but they cause a great deal of disruption to the text. Well researched section and well written also.

Function - A text-heavy section, but I’m comparing it to the other sections of your page which contain a lot of images.

Mechanism of Formation – “The spindle itself is defined by microtubule nucleation occurring mainly at the two centrosomes. The microtubules aid in organising the spindle as well as its function in segregating chromosomes into two daughter cells”

  • No need to repeat this, you can go straight into introducing the mechanisms.

Complications – Instead of block paragraphs, this would be better organised in a table, making it easier to read. Nice picture to accompany the text.

Overall a nice looking page, just a few little formatting things to work around. Great work!

Group 3

At first glance, this page looks awesome.

Introduction Well rounded, explains clearly what we can expect from the page. The accompanying image is missing the student image template. It’s also a bit small. I’m satisfied with it, but if you’re running low on images of the golgi to use later on in your page, you might want to use an image of Camillo Golgi himself, frothing moe and all.

Structure and Function – Maybe combine these two sections. Once you mention cisternae in structure, go on to describe its function. With your references, the full stops/periods used should come before the reference, in some instances it is, in some it isn’t. Student drawn image.... NICE!

History Possibly place history straight after the introduction. This will provide a better flow to the page in my opinion.

Models of Division - You can use the “#” numbering system of the wiki page to format the two models mentioned

  1. The Stochastic Strategy, determined by the law of probabilities is adopted by organelles which are dispersed and numerous. This accuracy of this method of separation relies of the equal dispersion of organelles throughout the cytoplasm.[25]
  2. An alternate strategy for cell division is the Ordered Partitioning Strategy. Unlike the former this method is highly regulated and organised. It is structured around the theory of mitotic spindles. This method ensures a high degree of accuracy particularly for low number organelles. In general, most membrane bound organelles use both methods through the process of cell division, however some organelles depend on one method more heavily.

They are now indented and stand out in the body of the text. Should read “THE accuracy of this method of separation relies ON the equal dispersion of organelles throughout the cytoplasm.”

Researchers have proposing various models for cell division.? =/

Morphology and Molecular Mechannisms – you can easily fix “MECHANISMS” up in the heading. Image used needs to be referenced correctly with the student image template included, but its inclusion alongside the text is great, very complementary.

Current Model for Behaviour during Mitosis - Image used here is great, but needs to be referenced correctly. You have a small amount of text underneath the image, think about page formatting and the size of the image in a way that will account for the amount of text that you have here.

Disappearance via the golgi-er transport model – just some proofreading: David T. Shima et al developed “A” strategy. This paper should be referenced here, I know it is referenced later on, but an additional reference here would be good.

Areas of Future Research – a few links to some research papers would be good here, with a quick summary of their aims and findings.

Overall a nice project page. A good balance of text and pictures, easy on the eyes. Just a bit of proofreading to be done and some cleaning up to do. Great job guys.

Group 1

Hey guys, cool project page.

The introduction is succinct and to the point, highlighting the two regulatory checkpoints that are described later.

  • To draw readers in maybe you could include an image of one of the key scientists that you mention in your history timeline beside your introduction.

The timeline is looking good, unfinished but don’t worry, plenty of time left.

Is the ‘Reider and Palazzo’ image supposed to be formatted next to the timeline? The image needs some work with referencing (both in the thumbnail and actual image reference description, it’s also missing the student image template, all of the copyright information and the student description of the image.

Entry into M-phase maybe to add a bit of body to this short introduction you can quickly go over the end of G2 phase/entry into M-phase (cell growth, protein synthesis) and this is where you can then introduce MPF’s (B1/CDK1?) etc.

CDK’s – I think this should be written in full – Cyclin-dependent kinases (CDK’s), as it is a sub-heading. There are no references in this section, still time though ;-) The info included here is good, although a little more detail would be nice explaining the role of Cyclin B /CDK1.

Need to fix up reference for “Expression of cyclins in cell cycle” image, can’t just include the hyperlink.

Anaphase promoting complex gap between the first sentence and the following sentence is HUGE, amiright. “Activator subunits, cdc20 and cdh 1, drives the APC.” This is a very abrupt way to end the section, probably not the best way.

No need to define what mitogens are in the body of the text, you can include this in the glossary. Edit – I see now you don’t have a glossary. Best to include one of those. Other acronyms used in this section also need to be included in the glossary (FOS, MYS genes)

Disease – along with the description, could probably include a few images with each disease mentioned?

Current and future research – links and a brief description of each article would be good here.

In all nice work, keep going, the page will look good once finished. A read through is required once you have finished to fix up some grammatical errors.




  1. <pubmed>23249212</pubmed>
  2. <pubmed>23497114</pubmed>