User:Z3331321

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Lab attendance

--Z3331321 (talk) 15:54, 14 March 2013 (EST)

--Z3331321 (talk) 15:15, 21 March 2013 (EST)

--Z3331321 (talk) 15:10, 28 March 2013 (EST)

--Z3331321 (talk) 15:11, 11 April 2013 (EST) I spoke to you about the labs in week 3 and 4 regarding my attendance.

--Z3331321 (talk) 15:12, 18 April 2013 (EST)

--Z3331321 (talk) 15:09, 2 May 2013 (EST)

--Z3331321 (talk) 15:32, 16 May 2013 (EST)

--Z3331321 (talk) 15:13, 23 May 2013 (EST)

--Z3331321 (talk) 15:58, 30 May 2013 (EST)

--Z3331321 (talk) 15:12, 6 June 2013 (EST)

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Cells

Red White Blood cells 01.jpg

Red White Blood cells 01.jpg

Red White Blood cells 01.jpg
cell size

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  • RBC
  • WBC
  • Platelet

Individual Assessments

Lab 1

Tubular Structures in Cells.jpg

Tubular structures found in tissues and cultures. Naturally occurring and stress induced tubular structures from mammalian cells, a survival mechanism Yonnie Wu, Richard C Laughlin, David C Henry, Darryl E Krueger, JoAn S Hudson, Cheng-Yi Kuan, Jian He, Jason Reppert, Jeffrey P Tomkins BMC Cell Biology 2007, 8:36 (16 August 2007) © 2007 Wu et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Lab 2

[1] Hyejin Lee, Christopher M Overall, Christopher A McCulloch, Jaro Sodek A critical role for the membrane-type 1 matrix metalloproteinase in collagen phagocytosis. Mol. Biol. Cell: 2006, 17(11);4812-26 PubMed 16971509


The aim of the experiment in this research article was to demonstrate the fundamental role of the membrane-bound metalloproteinase MT1-MMP catalyst in preparing collagen fibrils for phagocytic degradation of collagen in adult tissues. Confocal laser microscopy has been utilized in this experiment to show that human fibroblasts do in fact initiate degradation of collagen through the collagenase activity of the membrane-bound metalloproteinase MT1-MMP. And examination of the collagen degradation under a confocal microscope revealed that cell surface MT1-MMP was in fact associated with degrading collagen fibrils therefore satisyfing the aim of the experiment.

--Mark Hill (talk) 11:52, 11 April 2013 (EST) This does show an application of confocal microscopy. Your explanation could have also included some more about why this technique has advantages over other methods of analysis.

Lab 3

Extracellular Regulation of Cell Division

[2] R A Freeman, J D Wilson A two-channel hypothesis for regulation of cell division and differentiation. J. Theor. Biol.: 1990, 146(3);303-15 PubMed 2259205

This article puts forward a model that hypothesizes that extracellular regulation of cell division and differentiation acts through only two communication channels. They consist of a “series of redundant components: extracellular messenger hormones; these hormones' receptors; cytoplasmic proteins activated by the hormone-receptor complex; and trans-activating nuclear regulatory proteins.” The channels in this model are labeled as such: "D" ("differentiate"), includes transforming growth factor-beta as one of its hormones; the other, labeled "G'" ("growth") includes epidermal growth factor. The article uses a cell type in an adult mammal capable of either division or differentiation, which in this case is a stem cell from an epithelium. The principal prediction of this hypothesis is that when appropriate experimental conditions are implemented the addition of various ratios of D- and G-class growth factors will lead to different consequences.


[3] K Misaki, H Mukai, C Yoshinaga, K Oishi, T Isagawa, M Takahashi, K Ohsumi, T Kishimoto, Y Ono PKN delays mitotic timing by inhibition of Cdc25C: possible involvement of PKN in the regulation of cell division. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.: 2001, 98(1);125-9 PubMed 11134534

Protein phosphorylation/dephosphorylation reaction is an important factor in the regulation of cell division. Entry into mitosis in dividing eukaryotic cells is controlled by the M phase-promoting factor. Cdc2 protein kinase and cyclin B are the main constituents of this factor and acts by phosphorylating substrates that are essential for the completion of mitotic processes. This article explores the effects of PKN in the control of mitotic timing by inhibition of Cdc25C on Xenopus egg extracts. The results of this experiment suggest that PKN does in fact efficiently phosphorylate Cdc25C in vitro, demonstrating that PKN directly inhibits Cdc25C activity by phosphorylation. The results also showed that microinjections of the active form of PKN inhibit cell division of the Xenopus Embryo, therefore having an effect on the regulation of cell division.


[4] K Savage, E Siebert, D Swann The effect of platelet-derived growth factor on cell division and glycosaminoglycan synthesis by human skin and scar fibroblasts. J. Invest. Dermatol.: 1987, 89(1);93-9 PubMed 3598205

An important factor that is necessary for an animal cell to proliferate is nutrients. However nutrients on its own is not enough, therefore cells receive stimulatory extracellular signals via mitogens from other cells. Mitogens act in a way to overcome intracellular braking mechanisms that block progression through the cell cycle. One of the first mitogens to be identified was platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF). The main relevance of this article to our project is their examination of the effect of PDGF on cell division in human skin and scar tissue fibroblasts. The results of this experiment showed that PDGF stimulated cell division more efficiently in normal human skin fibroblasts than in scar tissue fibroblasts.


[5] Benjamin B Parrott, Alicia Hudson, Regina Brady, Cordula Schulz Control of germline stem cell division frequency--a novel, developmentally regulated role for epidermal growth factor signaling. PLoS ONE: 2012, 7(5);e36460 PubMed 22586473

EGF is a mitogen that can activate any type of cell to divide, including epithelial and non-epithelial cells. This article focuses on the effect of Epithelial Growth Factor (EGF) on the division frequency of Germline Stem Cells (GSCs) in testes of Drosophila melanogaster. The results showed that EGF does in fact regulate the division frequency of GSCs and that regulation of division frequency is a specific role for EGF signaling. The results also portray that GSC division frequency is under genetic control of the highly conserved EGF signaling pathway


Microinjection of active PKN.jpg

Microinjection of the active form of PKN inhibits cell division of the Xenopus embryo. (A) Effects of microinjection of the active form of PKN on cell division of Xenopus embryos. Control buffer, 0.75 ng per embryo of GST/PKN () or 4 ng per embryo of GST/PKN ()-K644E, was injected into one blastomere at the two-cell stage. Embryos were photographed 5 h after fertilization. Arrows indicate the position of injection. GST/PKN () and GST/PKN ()-K644E are indicated as PKN and PKN(KN), respectively. (B) Dose dependency of the active form of PKN for cleavage arrest of Xenopus embryos. The indicated amounts of GST/PKN () were microinjected as in A. A typical result of three independent experiments is shown.

Reference

[6] K Misaki, H Mukai, C Yoshinaga, K Oishi, T Isagawa, M Takahashi, K Ohsumi, T Kishimoto, Y Ono PKN delays mitotic timing by inhibition of Cdc25C: possible involvement of PKN in the regulation of cell division. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.: 2001, 98(1);125-9 PubMed 11134534


Copyright

Copyright © 2001, The National Academy of Sciences


Lab 4

Anti-α-E-Catenin Rabbit Polyclonal

http://www.sigmaaldrich.com/etc/medialib/docs/Sigma/Datasheet/3/c8114dat.Par.0001.File.tmp/c8114dat.pdf

Raised in: Rabbit

Clone: Polyclonal

Species Reactivity: Human, canine, rat

2 subtypes of α-catenin:

- α-E-catenin (predominant form): experessed and present at low levels in the nervous system

- α-N-catenin (102 kDa)

Used in:

- Immunoblotting

- Immunocytochemistry


This antibody is being developed in rabbits using as immunogen a synthetic peptide corresponding to a region near the C terminus of human α-E-catenin(amino acids 873-887), conjugated to KLH. This sequence is identical in mouse and Xenopus. Catenins/cadherin complexes play a fundamental role in mediating cell adhesion,transduction of cell-cell contact positional signals to the cell interior, and possibly play a crucial role in cell differentiation.


Lab 5

Phenotypes in Tm4 compared to Control.JPG


Lab 9

Peer assessments

Group 2 The key points relating to the topic that your group allocated are described and laid out really well! It looks like you have a low of great and insightful information but it’s a bit overwhelming when you first look at it. Your headings and subheadings etc. show a good understanding of your chosen topic. Maybe a bit less written content and more images might help with your wiki page. But the content you have seems to be accurate and very informative. Maybe try and simplify it a little bit. Awesome work so far guys! Good referencing =]

Group 3 I really like your layout. Maybe try and keep it a bit more consistent in terms of headings and subheadings. You have clearly described the topics and shows a good understanding of your chosen topic. Well written and presented and good referencing. The images are insightful and informative. I really like what you guys have done so far!

Group 4 Well done! You guys seem to have a really good understanding of your topic. Your images are slightly too big in some places such as the intro section but that's something very minor. In terms of content, your history table has a lot going on and is a bit overwhelming when you first look at it. It might be beneficial if you simplified the info a little bit. It might be worthwhile cutting some of it out, especially info about cells in general and then focus more on your topic. I like the section at the end about complications. Overall, good job guys

Group 5 Really well done guys! You have an appropriate amount of information and isn't overwhelming at first glance. I like your use of subheadings, they show a good understanding of your topic and breaks down the info really well. You could use a few more images throughout the page. I really like your history table, it's concise and gets to the point. You could maybe simplify a couple of the sections (breakdown of nuclear envelope) but apart from that I really enjoyed your page!

Group 6 I really like how you've broken down your page. The use of dot points is really effective and makes it so much easier to read and understand. Your history table is short and concise and I really like your current research section. The breakdown into each year makes it a lot easier and enjoyable to read. Perhaps a little more detail overall would be good but I assume you guys will do all that before the assignment is due. More references will also be helpful. Good work so far guys!

Group 7

Really nice! I really enjoyed going through your page. The formatting is great and it is all written quite well. I like your use of subheadings, they break down the info effectively. All your sections are really good and your use of images is also very well done. Good referencing! All your sections are simple and concise which I really like. Overall, really good job!
  1. Hyejin Lee, Christopher M Overall, Christopher A McCulloch, Jaro Sodek A critical role for the membrane-type 1 matrix metalloproteinase in collagen phagocytosis. Mol. Biol. Cell: 2006, 17(11);4812-26 PubMed 16971509
  2. R A Freeman, J D Wilson A two-channel hypothesis for regulation of cell division and differentiation. J. Theor. Biol.: 1990, 146(3);303-15 PubMed 2259205
  3. K Misaki, H Mukai, C Yoshinaga, K Oishi, T Isagawa, M Takahashi, K Ohsumi, T Kishimoto, Y Ono PKN delays mitotic timing by inhibition of Cdc25C: possible involvement of PKN in the regulation of cell division. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.: 2001, 98(1);125-9 PubMed 11134534
  4. K Savage, E Siebert, D Swann The effect of platelet-derived growth factor on cell division and glycosaminoglycan synthesis by human skin and scar fibroblasts. J. Invest. Dermatol.: 1987, 89(1);93-9 PubMed 3598205
  5. Benjamin B Parrott, Alicia Hudson, Regina Brady, Cordula Schulz Control of germline stem cell division frequency--a novel, developmentally regulated role for epidermal growth factor signaling. PLoS ONE: 2012, 7(5);e36460 PubMed 22586473
  6. K Misaki, H Mukai, C Yoshinaga, K Oishi, T Isagawa, M Takahashi, K Ohsumi, T Kishimoto, Y Ono PKN delays mitotic timing by inhibition of Cdc25C: possible involvement of PKN in the regulation of cell division. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.: 2001, 98(1);125-9 PubMed 11134534