From CellBiology

Lab Attendance

--Sarah Jenkins 10:42, 10 March 2011 (EST)

--Sarah Jenkins 09:04, 17 March 2011 (EST)

--Sarah Jenkins 09:09, 24 March 2011 (EST)

--Sarah Jenkins 10:32, 31 March 2011 (EST)

--Sarah Jenkins 09:09, 7 April 2011 (EST)

--Sarah Jenkins 09:09, 14 April 2011 (EST)

--Sarah Jenkins 10:29, 21 April 2011 (EST)

--Sarah Jenkins 09:36, 5 May 2011 (EST)

--Sarah Jenkins 09:54, 12 May 2011 (EST)

--Sarah Jenkins 09:16, 19 May 2011 (EST)

--Sarah Jenkins 09:11, 26 May 2011 (EST)

--Sarah Jenkins 09:17, 2 June 2011 (EST)

Individual Assessments

Lab One

1.What are the key cell biology journals?

Journal of Cell Science


Nature Cell Biology

Journal of Cell Biology

Public Library of Science

2. Which Journals allow reuse of their published content?

BMC Cell Biology

Public Library of Science

Journal of Cell Biology

Lab Two

1. Which chromosomes contribute to the nucleolus?

Th nucleolus is the site within the nucleus where ribosomal RNA (rRNA) is transcribed, processed and the ribosome assembled. It does not contain any full chromosomes, but rather fragments of chromosomes that contain genes for ribosomal synthesis. During mitosis the nucleolus breaks down and is reformed after mitosis but the joining together of the tips of 10 chromosomes. These include chromosomes 13, 14, 15, 21 and 22.

2. Identify and add a link to your page of a cell biology article using confocal microscopy.

Images of using confocal microscopy, accessed via PubMed

Lab Three

1. Find the SDS information for Chloroform and identify the hazards associated with this chemical.

Chem Alert search for Chloroform

Hazards associated with the chemical:

  1. Harmful if swallowed
  2. Irritant to skin, lungs and eyes
  3. Limited evidence as a carcinogen
  4. danger of serious health problems with extended exposure
  5. Toxic on ingestion, causing nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, dizziness, fatigue and diarrhoea. Can lead to kidney damage and loss of consciousness

Theca cell follicles.jpg

--Mark Hill 12:53, 24 March 2011 (EST) You will need to now add a figure legend and the reference information to complete this exercise.

Theca Cell follicles [1]

Lab Four

1. Identify a commercial supplier of an antibody that relates to the group poject

Santa Cruz Biotechnology supplies numerous antibodies. Pinin siRNA (h): sc-76142 is related to desmosomes

Desmosome related antibody supply

2. In mitochondria, where is the gene located that encode Cytochrome C and what keeps this protein trapped within the mitochondria?

The gene that encodes cytochrome c is found in the nucleus of the cell. Cytochrome C is part of the electron transfer chain, and is also involved in inducing apoptosis. Cytochrome C itself is the only water soluble molecule found within the intermembrane space. The are trapped within the mitochondria by the outer membrane as a result of its properties, such as water solubility. The heme group on the cytochrome c is added once it is within the intermembrane space, where the heme ligand is found. Release of cytochrome c from the mitochondria is a crucial step in cellular apoptosis.

Lab Six

Group 2 chart.JPG

In the bar graph above, the percentage of the phenotypes is expressed as a percentage of the total number of cells. Cells that were in contact with one or more other cell were not included in the count.

What are the changes in phenotypes that you observe between group A and Group B as seen in the pictures.

Group A: In group A, there were higher cell numbers and were less likely to be in contact with each other. While they were still in contact, they were not as close to each other. In addition to this, the nuclei were a pinky purple colour and the lamella and neurites were more yellow in colour.

Group B: The cells were in closer contact and some appeared to be on top of each other. The lamella and neurites were red, with a blue nucleus. The cells were not as stingy as those in group A

What were the changes in phenotype between Group A and Group B as seen in the graph?

Group A: Prominent cell types include pronged, stumped and stringed

Group B: Prominent cell types include stringed, stumped and broken fan.

How does Tm4 mediate these changes

Tropomyosins are structural proteins that are associated with the actin filaments. They have the ability to alter the phenotype of cells, as can be seen in the differences in phenotype when comparing normal tropomyosin levels with the over-expression of tropomyosin. This is done primarily through the inhibition of lamellapodia formation. Tropomyosin is usually not present in the leading end of a cell that is migrating, rather it is present in the rear side of the cell. In altering cell migration through the changes in the cytoskeleton, cells look different when viewed using microscopy.

Lab Nine

1. Identify from one of the cell line repositories: a neural cell line and a muscle cell line.

ATCC is a supplier of cell lines and culture media. An example of a neural cell line is a cortical neuron from the brain. Cortical Neuron

An example of a muscle cell line is myocardium (muscle cell from the heart) Myocardium

2. Identify the species and growth conditions for these cell lines.

Cortical Neuron : This cell line is human in origin (Homo Sapiens). The cells are grown in Dulbecco's Modified Eagle's medium. The cell's require temperatures of 37.0°C and a pH of 7.35

Myocardium: This cell line was derived from Rattus norvegicus (rat). The medium that the cells are in is Dulbecco's Modified Eagle's medium. The Growth medium is completed upon the addition of fetal bovine serum. Growth conditions for the cell lines include 95% air, 5% carbon dioxide and a temperature of 37.0°C.

The culture will begin to deplete if they begin to touch each other on culture plates.

Peer Review

Group 1- Synaptic Junctions

  • Some of the sentences are long, and make it difficult to understand. I find myself lost when trying to read it.
  • I personally have not looked into the history of research on synaptic junctions, but i find it interesting that you have nothing after 1981. I am sure that there has been significant research since this time and maybe some more should be added, just so we can get a feel of what recent research is like. I know that you have a research methods section later on but I’m not sure this is sufficient.
  • In the “What is a synaptic Junction” section, the list of components in the image is a different order from the list in the image itself. I know this is a small thing to pick at but it just helps in understanding, and creates flow between text and image.
  • There is alot of information about WHAT the synapses are, but I feel like there isnt much on how or why. I think it would be more beneficial to describe the processes (in dot points) so that we can understand what is is doing, rather than what it is.
  • When I click on “axo-axonic synpase” it goes to an editing page?
  • The hand drawn images are amazing.
  • The tables make the information very clear. I understand the content well and it is visually appealing.
  • It is very impressive that you have gone into so much detail about the diseases. As a student who studies such processes I did find this interesting. However, by the end of it I was a little bit tired. I feel as though there is a focus on the diseases and neurotransmitters rather
  • Grammar and spelling errors are found throughout. This is a minor issue and can be fixed easily.
  • Overall your project is interesting, and for the most part easy to understand. I did at some points find that there were sections missing, such as function, but when I read further, I found some bits spread throughout.
  • Good work, good luck with the rest of the work to be done.

Group 2- Gap Junctions

  • My First impression is that you have a good text/image ratio.
  • Your introduction is very clear and it is helpful for me that you have outlined what you will be doing in the rest of your project so that I know what to expect.
  • Dot points and bold text make it easy to see the important details
  • Comparing gap junctions with other junction types is an awesome idea and helps understand the unique features of your junction type
  • The only thing that I can comment on negatively is that the structure function section, which technically should be the largest part, is small compared to the rest of the project.

Group 3- Tight Junctions

  • When I look over your project, there is an even amount of text and images.
  • One of the titles of your sections has a spelling error.
  • Desmosomes and hemidesmosomes are part of the same junction type??
  • There are a few spelling and grammar errors but these are easily fixed when you read through, they are fairly easy to see.
  • There is a lot of content. By the end, I am a little tired of reading paragraphs. The tables are a good idea, just to break up the text.
  • Information is easy to access, and very helpful in my understanding.

Group 5- Adherens junctions

  • When I first look through your project I see lots of images, which seems to balance out the text nicely
  • There are a few grammatical errors that should be fixed. This will make it easier to read the text smoothly
  • With the history section, it may be helpful to look at some discoveries after 2000. I am sure they have happened.
  • Homophilic binding is defined twice within the text, make sure you go through and make sure there isn’t any overlap between sections.
  • The function section is written really well and is very interesting.
  • There is lots of capitalisation of words in places where it is not necessary, and also a few typos.
  • Overall your project is easily read and understood as well as being interesting. There are a few minor issues with prrofreading but other than that your project seems very close to complete.

Group 6- Neuromuscular junctions

  • The first thing that I notice is that the project is very long, and clearly very thorough. This is not a bad thing, given the number of tables and images which make it much more accessible.
  • Youtube videos offer a different way of accessing the information, great idea!
  • I have nothing negative to say about your project. It is well researched and organised. Your efforts have paid off.

Work Area

Group Project

[A review article addressing Bullous Impetigo, with images that demonstrate the effects of the condition]

Lab One

Here is some bold text.

Here is some italic text.

Lab One

Journal of Cell Biology Homepage

Lab Two


Lab Three


Reference List

  1. Stefania A Nottola, Sandra Cecconi, Serena Bianchi, Cecilia Motta, Gianna Rossi, Maria A Continenza, Guido Macchiarelli Ultrastructure of isolated mouse ovarian follicles cultured in vitro. Reprod. Biol. Endocrinol.: 2011, 9;3 PubMed 21232101
  2. Clifford P Brangwynne, Timothy J Mitchison, Anthony A Hyman Active liquid-like behavior of nucleoli determines their size and shape in Xenopus laevis oocytes. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.: 2011, 108(11);4334-9 PubMed 21368180